International Relations September 24 FAUX REALISM redux (Legro and Moravcsik) Faux realism because it reduces to unit level variables(not systematic-looks inside states, inds.) Also considers variables outside relative material power. What is the biggest problem with these new threats: Afghan, Iran, Iraq, Cuba. N.Korea, Libya, Sudan, Venezuala. CRITICAL THEORY Keys to critical theory Mostly critical of realism and liberalism ?rationalism? Not interested in cause and effect-therefore ?critical? and not ?rational? theory Mostly seek to refute theory, not create theory. Challenge to positivism, parsimony, and clear causal relationships. Who are the critical theorists: Postmodernists- deconstruct IR theory Feminists-gender must be included EARLY constructivists-ideas cloud any possibility of a clear and consistent IR theory All share critique of rational IR theories Does not offer any replacement to liberalism or realism or any rational IR theories, only says you cannot have those paradigms. CONSTRUCTIVISM as a paradigm in IR THEORY Alexander Wendt: Anarchy is what state?s make of it(read) Seeks to make constructivism a SCIENTIFIC, POSITIVISTIC theory-not a CRITICAL theory WENDT?S Constructivism is a THEORY -Logic of the theory: IDEAS are independent variables, and NOT material measures of power or material constructs like institutions or democracy - All of these variables are ?what states make of them? - In other words, CONSTRUCTIVISTS SEE THE WORLD IN DEIFFERENT TERMS- not MATERIAL, but IDEATIONAL. Ideas about material structures material structures outcomes This difference in worldview is called an ONTOLOGICAL difference. Constructivism is based on an IDEATIONAL ONTOLOGY, rather than a MATERIAL ONTOLOGY. Thus Constructivism is posed against BOTH realism and liberalism. It becomes the third paradigm: IDEAS MATTER Ideas cause states to act differently about the same structures. This difference cannot be explained materially. Ideas come from SOCIAL structures: norms, identity, socialization, etc. Idea->Material->Action Each actor holds different ideas based on identity and norms. Interest is a calculation of IDENTITY. Who you are=different ideas and different INTEREST, in spite of similar MATERIAL context.
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