September 8, 2009 Tuesday England and Europe II The Viking Invasion- England is subject to invasions- ex. Romans, angles and Saxons The Traditional image of the Viking is not true and is impractical. Viking Age (793- 1066) 793- the first invasion/ sighting of the Vikings, 1st recorded instance by the British chroniclers. They start recording invasions at this point, call the invaders scandivans (northern Europeans) Norway/Sweden) 1066- the Norman Conquest Vikings pillage Christian churches- but the Christians do the same the pagan churches- so cannot feel that bad. The Vikings pilled Lindsfarne- Christian monastery. The Vikings do not recognize Christianity as a true religion or the places as religious sites. Monks are the ones who record the invasions so they portray the Vikings as bloodthirsty and mean. Vikings do not deface Christian churches, like the Christian do to the pagans, they just take all the wealth out of the churches. Vikings establish trade routes throughout England and Europe. Settle in an area called Dane law- colonized and brought wives and children, trade and established towns. English that was there was a purely agricultural society. Establishment of trade routes- kings connected England to Europe and Russia- one can find material evidence all over Europe from the kings. In the 2nd phase of the invasion- the Vikings need something besides pillaging to live, so they start establishing trading colonies. Vikings were colonizers in the 2nd stage. They came to stay in England. Dane law consisted of North Umbria, East Anglia. Viking settlements: York (Jorik) East Anglia. Its still known as East Anglia and the Vikings called it that. Danelaw- 850-1100- after the Norman Conquest, but Danelaw still flourished. Area was colonized by Danish invaders and followed the Danish law and was loyal to the king of Denmark. This consisted of the areas known as Northumbria, East Anglia, and Yorkshire. York doesn?t swear allegiance to the king of Denmark but still follows customs, traditions and laws that are found in Denmark. England is not unified at this point, Wessex and Merica, are under Anglo-Saxon law. Legacy of Danelaw- Place names (especially ending in by and Thorpe such as Grimsby. Viking language is still present today many of the place names are still used to day. Genetic- many people today bear Danish genetic make up. Don?t move really, English tend to stay in England. Area of England often known for political and social independence from London and the southland. Take eastern half and allow the south to become more prominent. England is untied from the south up. Alfred the Great- 840- 899- king of the southern kingdom of Wessex Kept Vikings from taking over all of England. Not English but Germanic English royal house before the Norman Conquest would come from Alfred?s descendants. English national hero famous for resisting the Viking conquest. He holds the line of the Vikings and he defended his kingdom. Unifies all of England under Wessex. Sources for Viking invasions Bede (venerable bede) 672- 735) Monastic Chronicler Never made it as a saint, but he was a great writer whose famous work was historia ecclesia (history of the English church) Hostile to Vikings because some Vikings were pagans and despoiled Christian churches. Sees the Vikings as enemies and how the church survived through even though the Vikings pillaged. Beowulf- dates from 11th century- MSS but describes events from the 5th century. Fictional account that gives us insight into what people believed. Describes social custom, laws and aspirations of Viking/ Anglo- Saxon Germanic culture. Anglo/Saxon/ Viking poetry in old English. When Christianity and pagan culture are co-existing. Norse Saga- written in old Norse (ON) ? a north Germanic language spoken by Vikings, scandivians, and Icelanders, culture of the people Cooperate was the Viking settlement in York Sutton Hoo- Anglo-Saxon find- in Suffolk Ship burial Summation= Vikings not just pirates but they were traders and colonizers but they are mostly pirates.
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