1. words change their meaning over time, but evolve. it's ingenuous to say that it has no meaning when it is connected w/ dominant meaning - Gender, Race, Sexuality - is dishonest.
- concrete Effects
focus so far has been on heterosexuality; homosexuality the problem to be dealt with.
Richard Dire - "gay people were struggling with society for visibility, for a place in the field of representation"
The AIDS Crisis
Death of Rock Hudson
1 of 4 diagnosed w/ AIDS were latinos & af. am.
deaht of a high profile individual
game men as villains & victims
invisibility of gay community
lesbians became even more invisible.
Advertisers discovered the "gay Market" for consumer goods.
Gay characters began to appear as subsidiary characters on TV series
LGBT Representations #2
taking gay characters & making them too good to be true.
respectable, all American
couldn't be too gay (sexuality)
initially there was a taboo on touching
the "kiss" built ratings and controversy
lesbians were underrepresented.
more acceptable to show women kissing rather than men.
LGBT on TV shows.
Ellen Degeneres show in '94
came out on the show.
what was mild in ellen's show is adult content
rather, sexual activity on heterosexual shows is not.
will and Grace - was normal
performing acceptance rather than breaking taboos
"gays are like you and i"
female gay kiss: fashion, aesthetic, profitable male gay kiss: comedy, taboo. Kissing is a metaphor for sex. when same sex characters kiss - builds controversy & ratings.
Gayness in Reality TV
1. News and Documentaries
Disease, moral or immoral
2. daytime tabloid talk shows
as screwed up as everyone else
3. youth oriented and reality TV
real world (MTV)
transgender: introduced as villains or sympathetic victims. the role of victim seems to be the entry into being considered normal or human. " social pressures to conform to one gender or another"
- are marginal to gay consumer market
Major Transformation in the LGBT representation
1. political struggle - resistance to gay e. military, boy scouts 2. Economic Dimension - gay money vs. Straight money
what is pornography? sexually explicit material that is primarily designed to produce sexual arousal in viewers straight, gay, bisexual audiences.
Argument AGAINST porn
- systematic discourse built upon the submission of women's sexuality to men. - does serious harm to women "pornography is the theory; rape is the practice" - Robin Morgan
Argument FOR porn
1. liberal position ( weakest position ) --free speech right of people to express themselves however they want --it has no effect and does no harm 2. pro-sex feminist: --sexual freedom/ pleasure and women's sexual expression is a key component to women's freedom - esp. to minority groups such as lesbians.
The Ciruit of Culture
Production ---> Texts ( become a part of society ) ---> readers ---> Lived Cultures
pornography has become normalized. Production: examine the industrial production of pornography - as an industry --10-14 Billion $$ a year >more than hollywood tix sold. >thinking about porn is all about female bodies
Glamorization and Idealization of the Porn Star
ignores the realities of the vast majority of workers in the industry >global labor conditions in pornography
males make up more than 70% of the market its the messages to them that dominate the field of representation.
What are those messages?
Joe Gallant - "the future of america is Violence" >the representations are pushed to be harder and harder - Upping the Ante. the main purpose of pornography is to aid masturbation > the stories of pornography then work not just in the head but also in the body.
Impact of fantasy on people's sense of Reality
the vision btwn fantasy and reality does not exist. "the issues that are not able to be solved in reality are solved in fantasy"
pornography is a capitalist industry >Rick Wolff --
tapping into a real need in people
-> channeled through an industrial lens
-->opportunity to make money
can never take the discussion of pornography away from the fact that its capitalist.
society is not over-sexed, its over-commercialized.
why do men use pornography?
- shows what they would like to do in real life. -a rite of passage into manhood - validates one's maleness - education about what women want - relieving boredom - allows men to enjoy the fantasy of endless variety --it reflects the ideal world for some men. -easier than real relationships ---rejection makes them feel powerless and unwanted ---porn gives them that control, the need to matter and makes them feel better about themselves.
Women's relationship to pornography?
consumers: encouraged by the culture to go along w/ it -small number of women like the hardcore stuff - many women prefer "erotica" a lot of women are turned off by it.
expresses a conventional sexuality that takes us into our own lives and bedrooms, changin nature of the industry - market creates new needs. not looking at divience but normality. not representing people having sex - suddenly became an ideology and story about sexuality.
Flirting with Danger
women are caught in the discouurse of being naughty and nice.
sex is essentially dangerous for women. sex is like pandora's box. for boys, sex was natural and expected. culture teaches women that they need men.
What is a Good Woman - discourse
a. the pleasing women discourse - pure chaste, pleasing to men.
b. the together woman discourse - fully satisfied in her career, independent
What is normal male sexuality - discourse
a. male sexual drive --men posess a powerful sexual drive --must be satisfied
b. normal/danger dichotomy --nothing bad about male aggression --good/bad guys, up to girls to know the difference.
what counts as vicitimization - discourse
a. hetero sex as female victimization discourse --soon as girls step into sex w/ men all dangers are coming
b. the true victim --the real victim has done ALL they could to avoid dangerous situation.
what women can expect form hetero sexual encounters - discourse
a. love hurts --put up with it and stand by your man --you will get hurt, he's a jerk b. love conquers all --you can bring out the best in him he only needs the right woman.
female pleasure w/o penalty!!
Flirting with Danger 2
"damned if i do, damned if i dont" - discourses are confusing. strategies for managing contradictions: 1. just letting it happen 2. because women are stoned or drunk -or pretend to be 3. doing everything but intercourse 4. choosing to be a bad girl 5. perceiving themselves as in control - playing with fire 6. like the thrill of extreme sports
controlling Damage when things go badly:
1. stroking a man's ego. 2. trying to like it.
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