autocrine - a cell stimulates its own receptors juxtacrine - a cell signals to its neighbors paracrine - cells from far away signal to other cells endocrine - a general term for all types of transduction
What are RTKs?
receptor tyrosine kinases. They dimerize and then phosphorylate
What are the proteins in the RTK cascade and what order do they go in?
the SH2 domain of Grb-2 binds to RTK after it bind to ECG on the outside of the cell. Then SOS (son of sevenless) binds to Grb-2 with its SH3 domain. SOS is a GEF that activates Ras. Ras then binds to Raf and causes it to change conformation.
After Raf activation, what happens in the RTK cascade?
Raf activates Mek and Mek activates ERK. ERK phosphorylates c-Jun, which is a transcription factor, that changes the expression of the gene in the nucleus.
What are the two methods of cellular activation? How do they work?
allostery - the molecule undergoes a specific conformational change that activates it
proximity - the molecule is always active, it's regulated by keeping it away from where it needs to be to do its job
What type of signaling is notch signalling?
Juxtacrine - the delta and the notch are both transmembrane proteins
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