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trees - 7 wide
grass - 4' wide
minimum: 7.5' x 18'
typ: 9' wide x 20'
space: 8' wide
access aisle next to space: 8' side
access alley: 5' wide
typ: 1/25 spaces
1/8 accessible spaces must be van accessible
hospital outpatient buildings: 10% paces
physical therapy buildings: 20%
15'-7" projection, 43'2" bay width
5 cars/100 linear feet
17'-6" projection, 47'0" bay width
8 cars/100 linear feet
18'2" projection, 48'4" bay width
Allow for new additions/alterations, must be complimentary in massing, size, scale, architectural features
Criteria essential in Federal Tax Credits
Takes precedence over local regulations
If you discover historical significance, must be archeologically surveyed
Use property according to original use, if not, maximize rendition of distinctive materials, features, spaces
Historical character of property retained, do not replace thigns that can be resotred
Property can change from found state to original state
Distinctive features must be maintained or reproduced.
Chemicals must be gentle
A multi-use district or zone. Permits higher uses (residential) to exist on land zoned for lower uses (industrial) but the other way around is not allowed.
Residential in Commercial
Commercial in Industrial
Usually specified a minimum # for residents and visitors.
Parking spaces per unit: 1 (small), 2 (large)
Parking spaces per office: 1 space/specified amount of usable floor area
Local boards allow exceptions to/deviations from city ordinances.
Conditional Use: allows a certain use not permitted under zoning.
Variance: Allows owner to not comply with a certain zoning stipulation because it would cause undue hardship
First articulated by Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot
Goal: Manage natural resources
Adjacency to public transport
Avoidance of floodplains
Avoid sites that are prone to fire, erosion, mudslides
Avoid sites with steep slope, agriculturaal use
Conscious of solar orientation, wind patterns
On site filtration - natural swales ets
Reduce impervious surfaces
Encourage groundwater recharge
promote in-fill development
Promote development that protects resources
Natural areas <--> buffer areas <--> very developed areas
Goals: create complete and integrated communities that have all uses. Easy walking distance, connected to public transportation, diverse housing types with multiple incomes.
Conscious of: Native vegetation, water and energy use.
Assign numerical values to required relationships.
1 = adjacent
2 = no relationship
3 = separate
water content at which the soil will just begin to flow when jarred slighty; water content at which the soil can be rolled into wire-like threads without breaking
to obtain compressibility and compaction values for cohesive soils
-freezing and thawing of soil in cold climates may cause ground to heave.
-this places stress on a building's foundation
-footings must be placed at least ONE FOOT BELOW THE FROST LINE, which is the depth below which the soil does not freeze.
-frost line levels vary = 0ft in San Diego, 6ft in Fargo.
1. increase bearing area of foundation, deepen footing. 2. reduce compressability, add non-compressable materials, mix together 3. reduce void volume, add compacted layer of cinders/ash 4. improve subsurface drainage 5. lots of short piles, compress upper layer 6. sheepsfoot rollers.
8% Maximum, 2% minimum suggested
12% absolute max with pedestrians, 15% absolute maximum without pedestrians.
connect urban centers/regional attractions
all intersections handled by grade seperation
-serve as transition between arterial streets and local access streets of neighborhoods.
-provide access to adjacent residential properties.
-usually discontinuous; prevent thru-traffic
-curbside parking usually allowed; specific times of day parking may be limited or prohibited.
-intersections controlled by traffic signals or stop signs
-pedestrians have sidewalks or crosswalks.
Existing contour lines dashed, new ones solid.
Don't modify within drop lines of trees
New Grades must meet existing grades at property lines
Fraction of water not absorbed, between 0 and 1
Stores runoff temporally until it can flow at a controlled rate. It is also the initial part of a Storm Sewer system collects sediment and allows water to flow. They must be cleaned out periodically.
AKA Retention Pond / Holding Pond
Used to support loadbearing walls. Connect pile caps to transmit the wall loads to the piles. Also used with caisson foundations.
Best foundation for poor soils subject to heaving.
An infiltration basin is a vegetated depression, which is normally dry except after storm events. Infiltration basins are built to store water temporarily until water is absorbed into the ground.
used to describe spatial requirements of humans. Effects of population density on behavior, communication, social interaction.
Concepts of territoriality, spacing, and positioning between people, organization of environment.
elevated artificial channel that carries fast moving water and is used to transport things like logs and fish
Embankment, levee, dam
Northern climates: heat transmission through walls
Southern climates: heat transmission through roof
portion of an exit access that occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available
A. Exit Access
C. Exit Discharge
Straw bale dams/earth dikes
placement prior to grading will minimize loss of soil
Proctor Compaction Test
Geotechnical tests to determine the maximum, practically
achievable, density of soils and aggregates
occupies all of the edges of a lot with a private interior courtyard. this building type is good where security or privacy is needed for the outdoor space
perimeter yard building
located in middle of yard with open space around it, utilized in semi-urban or suburban locations for residential uses
side yard type
side of building on side property line, open space at other side, creates semi-private yard, orients building for solar access.
frontage road, a local road that runs parallel to a freeway or expressway and provides access to property bordering it.
probable maximum flood
most severe flood that may reasonably be possible for a particular location. most critical meteorological and hydrological conditions in a drainage basin. higher than in a standard projected flood.
days and nights same length, sun rises and sets over equator.
sun in northernmost position
sun in southernmost position
standard projected flood
a flood that may be expected from the most severe combination of meteorological and hydrological conditions in a particular location, excluding extremely rare combinations as with a pmf
national flood insurance program
local governments adopt minimum floorplain management plans. requirements for zoning, subdivision of buildings, and special purpose floodplain ordinances. must be met for federal flood insurance to be available.
sloping or recessing of successive courses of stone or masonry to help resist soil thrust and overturning.
Hydrostatic water problems
Water at foundation is under pressure. Architect should use geotextiles, gravel fill below the floor slab (air space keeping water away from building), positive slope away from the building, and sump pumps.
Fast track schedule
CDs issued in phases, construction being started as design finished. Coordination between architects and contractors, may end up having multiple contractors. Reduces time by 10-30%.
Not legally binding, use mediator to reach agreement
Legal technique, resolves disputes outside of court – equivalent to litigation
3 foot flared sides 1:10 max
-incline of a curb ramp should not exceed 1:12 (8 1/3%)
-curb cutouts req abrasive anti-slip finishes
- areas of cutouts and curb edging should be yellow
5' long landing every 30' max and at the top and bottom of all ramps.
Width: 3' 1 way, 6' 2 way. Minimimum 1.5" distance wall to handrail grip. Slopes not to exceed 1: 12. Cross slope not to exceed 2%. Maximum rise 30". Must have edge protection.
Air Rights- Is a development right in real estate, referring to the empty space above a property.Owning or renting land or a building gives one the right to use and develop the air rights.this legal concept Is different in Parts of the US. Air right's have it's limits.The US Courts have decided that for legal transport limited to that height which can be reasonably used or occupied.(Air space)
Example: constructed high-rise building extends over the 4-story buildings in Manhattan.
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