A: This facial bone is commonly referred to as the "cheek bone."
E: What is the most posterior bone of the cranium?
F: What is the dividing line between the brain and spinal cord?
H: This butterfly-shaped bone is the keystone bone of the cranium because it touches all other bones of the crainium.
sphenoid bone. from Greek sphenoeides, "wedgelike"
The sphenoid bone (from Greek sphenoeides, "wedgelike")
is an unpaired bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.
Carotid (kə-rŏt'ĭd) canal. It is located on the interior surface of the temporal bone, behind the rough surface of the apex. It is proximal to the jugular foramen. Sympathetics to the head also pass through the carotid canal. They have several motor functions: raise the eyelid (superior tarsal muscle), dilate pupil, innervate sweat glands of face and scalp and constricts blood vessels in head.
M: This large opening allows passage of several nerves and blood vessels.
An opening in the cranium formed by the jugular notches of the occipital and temporal bones for passage of an internal jugular vein, the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves, and the inferior petrosal sinus.
Is a large aperture in the base of the skull. It is located behind the carotid canal and is formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal, and behind by the occipital. It is generally larger on the right than on the left side.
the carotid canal is proximal to the jugular foramen
O: Nerves and blood vessels pass through this opening - note the shape
hard palet ( look book p. 748 anatomy)
is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth. It spans the arch formed by the upper teeth.
It is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone.
It forms a partition between the nasal passages and the mouth. This partition is continued deeper into the mouth by a fleshy extension called the soft palate.
The hard palate.....Function
It is important for feeding and speech. Mammals with a defective hard palate may die shortly after birth due to inability to suckle (see Cleft below). It is also involved in mastication in many species. The interaction between the tongue and the hard palate is essential in the formation of certain speech sounds, notably /t/, /d/, /j/, and /ɟ/.
The soft palate (also known as velum or muscular palate) is the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone.
When the soft palate rises, as in swallowing, it separates the nasal cavity and nasopharynx from the posterior part of the oral cavity and oral portion of the pharynx.
In sucking the soft palate and posterior superior surface of the tongue occlude the oral cavity from the orapharynx, creating a posterior seal.
The soft palate prevents the escape of fluid and food up through the nose and with the tongue allows fluid and food to collect in the mouth until swallowed.
A cavity, chamber, or channel that leads to or is an entrance to another cavity: the vestibule to the ear. the vestibule of the nose. The anterior region of the nasal cavity, near the nostrils.
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