Lecture 10/27 Group think continued characteristics (Irving, Janis) illusion of invulnerability rationalizing negative feedback ignoring ethical implications pressure of those who try to deviate fear of express an opposing idea illusion of agreement Member Roles A. group task roles: initiating-contributing initiates ideas, steps forward is creative information seeking/information giving offering examples, facts, statistics probing for more information opinion seeking/opinion giving offer opinions or ask for opinions ?What do you all think?? elaborating builds on what is said energizing encourage the group to be productive what do we need, who do we need to talk to... keep the group on task keeps the group organized assisting on procedure scheduler, coordinator calls group members to coordinate recording someone serves as a secretary takes notes, jots things down B. group building roles: encouraging offers praise, ?Great idea,? ?nice work,? thank you for taking those notes? very positive person within the group harmonizing resolves disputes within the group tries to resolve conflict and create a sense of harmony compromising gatekeeping controls the flow of information asks other people to talk more setting standards makes sure that the group achieves high standards observing tend to be followers following just go along with everything else C. individual roles blocking stubborn person, a mean person aggression like to pick fights within groups and set people off recognition seeking like to hear themselves talk and use the group as an opportunity to talk about how well they have done opportunity to brag self-confessing very distracting because they talk about their personal problems purpose of the group is not for personal problems but this person talks about problems that have nothing to do with the group's person jokester/distracter likes to be the center of attention, entertaining but it is hard to accomplish their goals not accomplishing what you set out to accomplish dominating loud person that controls the conversation other members can't be heard because of this person help-seeking tries to get help with personal problem special interest pleading distracting, begging about personal life/personal agenda you are trying to promote within the group (like selling daughter's girl scout cookies to the group) Phases phase 1: forming initial encounters ice breaking and small talk use small talk to establish common ground so that we become more comfortable each other setting norms on best behavior phase 2: storming more comfortability with group, so more arguing confront other members' ideas confusion over goals more fighting than accomplishing phase 3: norming agree upon rules, tasks, ways to behave sense of being a ?team? with a common goal a sense of where the group is going so we have more a ?team? mentality excitement about working together group think may occur here phase 4: performing getting the job done little fighting or conflict ?consensus and maximum productivity? (p. 402) most or all members participating and pulling weight these phases occur at different lengths of time in different groups; sometimes groups go through the phases faster than other groups do Forms of Leadership A. Trait Theory of Leadership leaders are ?born? attributes/traits make someone a leader someone that is a good talker/confident/eloquent Leadership traits intelligence confidence social skills energy enthusiasm good verbal skills examples: Kennedy, Obama, Bush, class president in high school B. Functional Theory of leadership ?leaders are defined by what they DO? essential leadership behaviors or functions need to be performed to have a successful group worked so hard that they achieved great things and had huge successes examples you need a group agenda you must record what the group does run errands initiate or propose new ideas evaluate ideas energize the group people: Michael Jordan, military leaders, Oprah, the Obamas Situational Theory of Leadership adapting leadership style to situational factors leader gauges how to lead based on such factors as quality of the relationship among group membership power of the leader nature of the task maturity of the group for example: law enforcement, pilot of that crashing plane, Princess Diana Transformational theory of leadership new visions to transform the groupthink develop trust by having good re-ships with group membership then shape vision of groupthink transformational leader creates a shared vision challenges existing ways of thinking examples: Gandhi, MLK
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