Relationship of people to one another -Directs behavior and sets limits on behavior -behavior depends on place in social structure -Set of relatively stable rules
Position a person occupies in a social structure -Achieved (College student, teacher) -Ascribed (sex/gender, race)
Sum of total expectations about the behavior of people who occupy a specific social status
Expectations of behavior clash ( within 1 status or within 2 statuses) -Babysitter and a lover
Expression one gives
What you say, using verbal symbols
Expression one gives off
Act opposite to expressions you give, non verbal
Defining the situation
Others voluntarily do what we want them to do Ex: Dim lights and put on Barry White makes situation romantic
People follow imaginary scripts -For every action, people expect people to act in a certain way. (people go off -scripts all the time) -Front Stage, Back Stage
Wedding ring=married, Badge=Police Each status is accompanied by expectations
Expected expectations about how someone will play their role -Female Soldier, Male nurse
With one or more other individuals with whom we share some sense of identity or common goal and with whom we interact within a specific structure
Some collectivity of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time -Ex: Football game
Face to face, intimate (competition could take place) Family, friends GEMEINSHAFT
Bigger group, means to an end relationship (individual needs) Status is important, not character GESELLSCHAFT
Groups of people band together to achieve a specific goal and formalize their relationships with each other -Generally operate under charter that specifies statuses ( pres., vp)
Ideal type of Bureaucracy
What is left when you strip away all parts of an org that are not necessary to it being a Bureaucracy -Fully rationalized org (structure calculated to meet goals efficiently)
People so trapped in bureauc. that they loose sight of reason they are doing this
Process becomes more important than the outcome Ex: Exam success more important than learning the material
A performance involves
Activity of a participant that serves to influence others in some way -If one's presentation of self has been discredited, one is apt to feel shame or embarassment
Social Harmony is most likely to occur when...
Interactions is ungaurded and candid ( people are free to express feelings honestly)
True or False: Zimbardo's experiment demonstrated fact that sociologist ought to place more stress on understanding differences in individual psychology and and less on situational conditions
Harvey Molotch Rest Room article
Structure affects behaviors as well as opportunities -Public toilets are equal for diff social groups (men and women) -Equality no matter of arithmetic division, but of social accounting - Rule that bathrooms are same size is unfair to the individual women
Agree: Equal treatment yields unequal results, gender blindness (racial blindness) may yield unequal results, Equality must be assessed in terms of cultural as well as physical traits, Policy makers ought to listen to Soiciologists Disagree: Women need to use the space allotted to them more efficiently
General Solution to societal problems - religion
Specific social group, example of the institution. -Still have some or all institutionalized norms, values statuses, and roles -Ex: Congregation Brit Shalom
Phenomena that account for much of the fact that social structures tend to be enduring and repetitive -Accepted and persistent, slowly changing, constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms
Nature of Institutions
Inherently Conservative (they change, but slowly)
Particular society's institutions are interdependent, change in one area brings change in another
Statuses, roles, values, and norms associated w the institution in one society are diff than those of others
Totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space -Institutions started with society -2 components: Self Sufficient and Within a geographic location -Self Sufficiency: defining characteristic of society
Continuing supply of new members Socialize new members Deal with health issues Create Knowledge Control its members Defend against enemies Produce and exchange goods and services Promote social unity
Like a stereotype without negative connotations (let us know how much real life versions diff from ideal) -Ideal Family: Married with kids -Ideal Bureaucracy: Series of levels
Any action that is repeated frequently becomes cast into a pattern
As a society grows in size and complexity, its institutions tend to become more?
Messages communicated to students about things other than writing, and math -Teaches students unspoken lessins about race, class, and gender Ex: Calling on boys more than girls
"Tuck in the Shirt"
Represents connections among dress, behavior, and discipline that composed a primary, but unofficial emphasis at school -Easy way for teachers to assert their authority
Schools tend to reproduce and exaggerate inequalities of race, class and gender -Schools not concerned w dress and manners of all students in the same way (disciplinary actions differed according to perceptions of race and class)
3 forms of disciplinary focus
1. Concerned w lady like behavior ( ecspec with Black girls) 2. Concerned with threatening and oppositional behavior and dress ( Black and Latino Boys) 3. School officials assumed some students (Whites and Asians) required little guidence
Dress code at Mathews was linked to...
-Behavior Issues -Teaching students to be upwardly mobile -Ensuring safe learning environment
-Black girls lady like behavior -Threating dress of black and latino boys -Lack of discipline for asians and whites -Disciplinary patterns evoked resistance from students
Matthews is ex of ____ and uniform is an ex of____
Social structure, institutionalized norm
Institutionalized value at Mathews would be....
"Act like a young lady"
Occupational socialization of Funeral direction involves____________ towards matters about which lay public feels anything but neutral
Fundamental Problem of Secondary Socialization
it always presupposes a preceding process of primary socialization
-Attended classes -Informal Convos w students -Formal student interviews *Didn't witness embalming
Fear of Death (Is/Is Not?) an institutionalized value
What statuses are Funeral Directors + Mortuary Science Student?
"Get used to the bad smells from corpses" is...
Grief is a ____ held by relatives, while ____"detached concern is the____ of the mortician