The author's experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the author with a profound sense of
A) ethnocentrism B) culture shock C) cultural relativity D) stereotyping
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe
A) culture B) tradition C) science D) experience
Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples
A) high culture B) nonmaterial culture C) material culture D) low culture
Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, "The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." What does this imply about culture?
A) Culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it. B) There is only one acceptable method of doing any particular job. C) Every culture establishes firm standards by which it functions. D) Water is symbolic and has nothing to do with the statement.
In 1906, sociologist William Sumner made the comment, "One's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with the concept of ________.
A) cultural relativism B) ethnocentrism C) the relativist fallacy D) the cultural universal
When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply best qualifies as an example of ________.
A) ethnocentrism B) cultural diffusion C) the self-fulfilling prophecy D) the relativist fallacy
While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina was playing with the day before. At this point Kristina became ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia. Which statement most applies to Kristina's experience?
A) Kristina was practicing cultural relativism. B) Kristina experienced culture shock. C) Kristina was introduced to new folkways. D) Kristina experienced a facet of globalization.
The refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is a form of ________, while the sincere effort to understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is a form of ________.
A) public sociology; culture shock B) value contradiction; value cluster C) ethnocentrism; cultural relativism D) culture shock; cultural diffusion
In his book, Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgerton proposed that cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life" and not just automatically accepted. This is contrary to which of the following sociological concepts?
A) symbolic culture B) cultural relativism C) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis D) culture shock
All of the following statements are accurate in describing gestures, EXCEPT for which one?
A) Gestures rely on the use of one's body to communicate with others. B) People in every part of the world use gestures. C) A gesture's meaning may change completely from one culture to another. D) Social scientists have identified many common gestures and agree that gestures are universal.
The author added three values to the original list of ten core values that Robin Williams identified as the most common in American society. Which of the following is NOT one of the three values added?
A) education B) religiosity C) equality D) romantic love
All of the following statements are accurate regarding language, EXCEPT for which one?
A) Language is the primary method people use to communicate with one another. B) Language is based on a series of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways. C) Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds. D) Language allows culture to exist.
Without language, human culture would ________.
A) live in the past and have no concept of the future B) focus more on plans and actions instead of talk C) be little more advanced than lower primates D) have to become totally dependent upon memory
In America, why is Spanish, rather than English, continuously spoken from generation to generation, with greater commitment than any other non-English speaking language?
A) Spanish is spoken worldwide much more commonly than English. B) English is one of the most difficult languages to learn. C) For many Spanish speakers, learning English violates the allegiance to their native countries. D) There is a constant influx of new Hispanic immigrants into the U.S.
The two anthropologists who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world were ________.
A) Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf B) Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin C) Karl Marx and Frederick Engels D) Frank Parker and Craig Donovan
Harry is in the campus dining hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather than a veggie burger. Harvey, a fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Horace considers earning an "A" in a course far superior than a "C" or even a "B." What do Harry, Harvey, and Horace have in common?
A) They are all practicing ethnocentrism in their daily decision making. B) They are all employing the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. C) They are expressing their own values in the choices they make. D) They are all experiencing culture shock.
Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In view of this, which statement best describes Lamont?
A) Lamont holds a value cluster of achievement and success, equality, and freedom. B) Lamont is suffering from value strain. C) Lamont is a victim of role conflict due to his multiple statuses. D) Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.
Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and efficiency as desired qualities. Where one of these qualities is found, the other two also apply. This is an example of
A) emergent values B) a value cluster C) cultural leveling D) a normative cluster
Several years ago, the gay community applied for a permit to march in the St. Patrick Day's Parade in Boston. When denied, the gay community filed suit and won. Rather than permitting the gay community to march in the parade, the parade trustees cancelled the event. Sociologists would suggest this conflict in values between the trustees of the parade and the gay community would eventually lead to ________.
A) consensus that gays are evil because they caused a traditional event to be cancelled B) social change that brings attention to gay rights and eventual acceptance C) social integration of the gay and straight communities resulting in a bisexual society D) armed conflict, or "cultural war, " between the gay and straight communities
Sociologists have identified an emerging set of five interrelated values in American society. What are these emerging values?
A) self-destiny, spirituality, environmental concern, technological awareness, and physical fitness B) leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern C) freedom, equality, romantic love, youthfulness, and physical fitness D) romantic love, individualism, mental health, self-fulfillment, and equality
Of the five interrelated core values emerging in American society, the one that is reflected in the "human potential" movement that focuses on "self help, relating, and personal development" is ________.
A) leisure B) romantic love C) physical fitness D) self-fulfillment
Many fundamentalist Christians lobby for laws making same-sex marriage illegal. Gays and lesbians consider same-sex relationships and same-sex marriage as basic human rights. Which concept best describes the relationship between these fundamentalist Christians and the gay/lesbian community?
A) culture shock on both sides B) differences in norms and folkways C) different symbols and languages D) culture war due to conflicting values
Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.
A) material culture; symbolic culture B) ideal culture; real culture C) real culture; symbolic culture D) unrealistic culture; realistic culture
The anthropologist who gathered data on hundreds of groups around the world to compare their customs, and then concluded that specific customs differed from one group to another, was ________.
A) Benjamin Whorf B) Edward Wilson C) Edward Sapir D) George Murdock
The concept of natural selection, which proposed that genes of a species are not distributed evenly among the offspring, thus enabling certain members of the species to survive while others die out, was developed by ________.
A) Charles Darwin B) Herbert Spencer C) William Ogburn D) Edmund Wilson
The sociologist who studied feral children, including the abused child Isabelle who was discovered in 1938 living in an attic with her deaf-mute mother, was
A) Michael Burawoy B) Kingsley Davis C) Wilbert Moore D) Herbert Gans
In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to ________.
A) heredity B) the social environment C) instinct D) genetic composition
Which of the following traits is least likely to be linked to "nature" (heredity) and most likely linked to "nurture" (the social environment)?
A) vocational choice B) temperament C) ability at sports D) aptitude for mathematics
What term is used to describe children who are assumed to have been raised by animals in the wilderness and isolated from other children, such as the "wild boy of Aveyron"?
A) mentally challenged B) developmentally disabled C) deprived D) feral
The case study of Jack and Oskar provides support for which of the following explanations of behavior?
A) Identical twins will always exhibit similar behavior because their gene complement is identical. B) Environment has a significant influence on behavior, regardless of gene complement. C) Behavior is the result of genetic influences. D) The father's genetic influence is greater than the mother's as a determinant of behavior.
Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is the key variable in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted?
A) biological makeup B) basic intelligence C) intimate early social interaction D) strict discipline
What discovery did Skeels and Dye make when they administered intelligence tests to a sample of orphans cared for by trained professionals in a "good" orphanage and to a second sample of orphans raised by residents of an institution for mentally retarded women?
A) The orphans raised by the mentally impaired scored an average of 25 points lower than those raised by trained professionals. B) The orphans raised by the mentally impaired scored an average of 58 points higher than those raised by trained professionals. C) There was no difference in the scores of the orphans raised by the mentally impaired compared to those raised by trained professionals. D) The orphans raised by the mentally impaired scored an average of 47 points lower than those raised by trained professionals.
The research in the early 1960s using rhesus monkeys to demonstrate the importance of intimate physical contact in the rearing of animals was conducted by ________.
A) Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck B) William and Helen Thomas C) Harry and Margaret Harlow D) William and Virginia Masters
What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?
A) peer socialization B) feeding and grooming C) intimate social contact D) intellectual development
What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that "society makes us human"?
A) stratification B) psychoanalysis C) cultural tradition D) socialization
According to Mead's theory of development, individuals who have a profound influence on the lives of another person, such as parents or siblings, are referred to as ________.
A) significant others B) the person’s reference group C) the person’s in-group D) generalized others
Tory is 5 years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage
A) imitation B) game C) play D) generalized
What term would Mead use to refer to the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of the public?
A) primary group B) generalized others C) secondary group D) significant others
Of the following traits and abilities, which one would George Herbert Mead consider most essential for an individual to be a full-fledged member of society?
A) the ability to take the role of another B) an average or above-average IQ C) a well-developed id D) the influence of positive peers
George Herbert Mead theorized that learning to take the role of the other entails three stages – the ________ stage, ________stage, and ________ stage.
A) primary; secondary; tertiary B) id; ego; superego C) sensorimotor; preoperational; operational D) imitation; play; team games
Mead describes the active, creative, and spontaneous part of the self as the ________.
A) I B) me C) id D) ego
In developing his theory on moral development, when did Kohlberg claim most people reach the postconventional stage?
A) Most people reach this stage shortly after birth. B) Most people reach this stage after passing through puberty. C) Most people reach this stage during the "midlife crisis." D) Most people do not reach this stage.
The social scientist who criticized the theory of Lawrence Kohlberg and developed an alternative theory on the development of morality based on personal relationships was ________.
A) Jane Addams B) Margaret Sanger C) Carol Gilligan D) Margaret Mead
What is the proposed source of the six specific emotions that Paul Ekman identified as being present in all cultures?
A) They are based on the social environment. B) They are a product of our genes. C) They are based on common cultural values held worldwide. D) They are based on intellectual capability.
What conclusion did psychologists Susan Goldberg and Michael Lewis make after observing the interactions of mothers and their children?
A) Mothers socialized their sons to be passive and dependent. B) Mothers tended to treat their children the same, regardless of sex. C) Mothers unconsciously rewarded their daughters for being dependent. D) Mothers felt their sons needed greater supervision when they played.
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by parents.
A) resocialization B) role diffusion C) ego identity D) gender socialization
A young woman is contemplating a particular behavior, in this case, dropping out of college. She is also considering an awareness of the self in relationship to others to avoid feelings of shame and embarrassment. This is referred to as her ________.
A) socialized self as subject B) self-actualized stage C) social mirror D) reality principle
Individuals who are approximately the same age and are linked by common interests, including friends, classmates, and the "kids in the neighborhood," are most appropriately referred to as ________.
A) significant others B) generalized others C) peers D) confederates
How does the mass media influence gender roles in contemporary American society?
A) It encourages a sexless society. B) It encourages women to assume male roles to be successful. C) It reinforces gender roles considered appropriate for one's sex. D) It encourages cross-gender behavior.
Traditionally, statuses occupied by men (father, husband) are given greater prestige than those occupied by women (mother, wife). This awarding of privilege and prestige to one group while denying it to the other is called ________.
A) social imperative B) social inequality C) social solidarity D) social integration
Which of these would you refer to as a secondary group?
A. a family reunion B. best friends meeting for dinner C a PTA meeting D. a luncheon of mothers and daughters
Groupthink is defined as:
A. the pattern of group dynamics whereby one member talks excessively and "thinks out loud." B. the tendency of group members agree with each other by adopting a narrow view of some issue. C. the pattern of group communication where males dominate and often interrupt females who are trying to speak. D. the tendency of group members to refuse to cooperate with each other.
What is a reference group?
A. a group of two or more members who share a common interest B. a group of people employed in a library who can help you find reference information. C. a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions. D. none of these
A social group commanding a member's esteem and loyalty is a(n:
a. outgroup. b. ingroup. c. reference group. d. triad.
Which of the following typically characterizes networks?
A. primary relationships B.. intimate relationship C. ties that can be weak but also important D. a strong sense of membership
A leader who emphasizes on goal achievement rather than empathy is
A. an instrumental leader B. an expressive leader C. an authoritarian leader D. a dictator
A social group with two members is called a:
a. pair. b. dyad. c. triad. D. couple.
A leader who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group is called
A. Instrumental leader B. Expressive leader C. Authoritarian leader D. democratic leader
The definition of oligarchy is:
A. the rule of the many by the few. B the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves. C. a social group which emphasizes conformity rather than individuality. D. a type of organization in which collective well-being is emphasized.
Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create:
A. role strain. B. role conflict. C. role exit. D. status displacement
Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?
A. role strain B. role conflict C. role ambiguity D. role exit
Which of the following is an ascribed status?
A. a major league baseball player B. a corporation president C. a South African D. all of the above
An individual can acquire an achieved status by:
A. attending school. B. establishing a friendship. C. inventing a new product. D. all of the above
Which of the following is most likely to be a primary group?
A. all of the players in the National Hockey League B. the American Civil Liberties Union C. the members of a neighborhood softball team D. all of the above
The distinction between “in-groups” and “out-groups” was first made by:
A. Erving Goffman. B. Philip Zimbardo. C. William Graham Sumner. D. Charles Horton Cooley.
A social network is:
A. a social structure that derives its existence from the social interactions through which people define and redefine its character. B. an attempt to reach agreement with others concerning some objective. C. a series of social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people. D. the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships
You have a network that looks like this: What is it called? A------B------C------D
a. Rim connected b. Completely connected c. Chain connected d. Radially connected
Pleased by her son ‘s straight A’s in school, A mom cooks a special dinner for him. This is an example of
A. Formal positive sanctioning B. Informal Positive sanctioning C. Formal negative sanctioning D. Informal negative sanctioning
What is the term for humans who have some combinatioins of female and male genitals?
A. Asexual People B. Bisexual People C. Transsexual people D. Intersexual people
What is the term meaning “sexual attraction to people of both sexes”?
A. Heterosexuality B. Homosexuality C. Bisexuality D. Asexuality
The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, are referred to as ________.
A) social solidarity B) social imperative C) social institutions D) social structure
What are the three primary variables in determining one's social class?
A) race, sex, residence B) income, education, occupational prestige C) race, sex, income D) income, education, sex
Which of the following represents an achieved status?
A) being a high school drop-out B) acting like your mother when she was your age C) having a prescribed sex (male or female) D) knowing your particular ethnic descent
Bumper stickers such as "Proud Parent of an Honor Student" and "Warning: This Driver Convicted of DUI" are best described as being ________.
A) status symbols B) master statuses C) negative sanctions D) positive sanctions
Signs that identify a position in society that someone occupies are referred to as ________.
A) achieved master status B) ascribed master status C) inherited status D) status symbols
Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinschaft as ________ solidarity is to Gesellschaft.
A) organic B) tribal C) folk D) natural
Based on Durkheim's classification of society, the Old Order Amish would fall into which category?
A) mechanical solidarity B) organic solidarity C) Gemeinschaft D) Gesellschaft
Believing that all football players are academically challenged, that all African Americans are great athletes, and that all women can cook well are examples of ________.
A) culture shock B) the relativist fallacy C) stereotyping D) cultural relativism
Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs. Hilda is trying to extend her ________ so others do not invade it.
A) intimate space B) personal space C) social space D) public space
An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is ________.
A) traditional orientation B) rationality C) utilitarianism D) empiricism
Which of the following communities would be most aligned with the rational approach to life?
A) a twentieth-century tribal village in the Amazon River Basin B) a sixteenth-century community of peasants in Sherwood Forest C) a nineteenth-century steel mill town in Pennsylvania D) a fourteenth-century feudal village in France
In which two societies would someone find relationships based on history that are diffuse and long-term?
A) agricultural and industrial societies B) horticultural and agricultural societies C) horticultural and postindustrial societies D) industrial and postindustrial societies
Hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results. Frank lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. Which society is more likely to be industrialized?
A) The society based on customs and relationships will be industrialized. B) Both societies will have the same degree of industrialization. C) The society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results will be industrialized. D) Neither society will be industrialized.
In which two societies are people evaluated based on "the bottom line"?
A) the horticultural and pastoral societies B) the pastoral and agricultural societies C) the industrial and postindustrial societies D) the agricultural and industrial societies
What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?
A) The past is the best guide for what should be done in the present. B) Decisions should be made based on what is the most efficient solution. C) The means justify the ends. D) Work relationships should be governed by contractual agreements.
What is the widespread acceptance of using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs and the building of social organizations around this concept?
A) the Peter Principle B) urbanization C) the rationalization of society D) Northcote's Law
One of the first theorists to argue that the adoption of capitalism is responsible for the decline of traditional orientations to social life was ________.
A) Max Weber B) Karl Marx C) Emile Durkheim D) Georg Simmel
The early theorist who proposed that religious beliefs are the key to whether or not a society embraces capitalism was ________.
A) Karl Marx B) Herbert Spencer C) Max Weber D) Emile Durkheim
What was the specific Protestant theology that influenced Max Weber's theories of social change and the development of The Spirit of Capitalism?
A) Jehovah’s Witness B) The Book of Mormon C) 7th Day Adventist D) Calvinism
Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station, he has taped pictures of his wife and granddaughter and of last year's Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by Tom to ________.
A) resist alienation B) bond with his supervisor, who is also a grandparent C) promote his "all-American" status to his colleagues D) simply decorate his office
Nick was a promising caseworker for an agency. After earning several lower-level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick's abilities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the ________.
A) Kanter syndrome B) Weber effect C) Peter principle D) Ouchi theorem
Sam, an aspiring and talented young attorney, has been promoted every year since he joined the law firm of Howard, Howard, and Fine. Unfortunately, Sam feels he cannot handle the responsibilities of his latest promotion. In an effort to keep his newly acquired job title, Sam has begun to take credit for the work done by the employees he supervises. Sam's behavior is an example of ________.
A) the iron law of oligarchy B) the Ouchi theorem C) bureaucratic ritualism D) the Peter principle
When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a "rapid response force" to fight terrorism. Sociologists would call this shift in focus an example of ________.
A) the Thomas theorem B) goal displacement C) the Peter principle D) bureaucratic ritualism
The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organizations, and many groups that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of ________.
A) voluntary associations B) bureaucratic alienation C) bureaucracies D) informal organizations
Facial expressions, posture, and gestures are all examples of ________.
A) body language B) personal images C) interpretations D) role performance
An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called ________.
A) ethnomethodology B) functional analysis C) dramaturgy D) phenomenological analysis
The presentation of self in everyday life, also called dramaturgy, was developed by ________.
A) Talcott Parsons B) Edwin Sutherland C) Erving Goffman D) Travis Hirschi
Officer Friel has just pulled over a motorist exceeding the speed limit by 40 miles per hour. When he approached the vehicle, he recognizes the driver as his best friend's daughter. Officer Friel is aware that the young lady has had some money problems and the last thing she can afford is a $200 speeding ticket that will also raise her insurance rates. At this point, which of the following terms best describes the position facing Officer Friel?
A) Officer Friel is experiencing role strain. B) Officer Friel is experiencing role conflict. C) Officer Friel is now engaged in role reversal. D) Officer Friel is faced with status inconsistency.
In Amsterdam, a 21-year-old prostitute is scantily clothed, exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?
A) This is an example of social interaction. B) A misdemeanor is being committed. C) The prostitute is guilty of indecent exposure. D) This a classic example of macrosociology.
What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?
A) symbolic interactionism and functionalism B) functionalism and the conflict perspective C) the conflict perspective and symbolic interactionism D) symbolic interactionism and feminism
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