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Social group: a collection of people who interact with one another and have a certain feeing on unity. Family, church, peers, friends, team,
1.in group: the group to which an individual has close ties as a member (sorority/fraternity) create boundaries between themselves and everybody else
2- out group: in which the individual is not a member (NOT a sorority/fraternity)
1. use symbols (slogans, letters, styles of dress, uniforms, badges)
2. view themselves in terms of positive stereotypes, while viewing the out-group in terms of negative stereotypes. (clicks, teams, gangs, politics)
3. inclined to compete with the out-group
- in-groups can become reference groups, used as the frame of reference for evaluating someone’s own behavior. (LA crips gang initiation)
a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with one another. Lecture class, movie, ect.
Group leadership: three types of leaders
- Irving Janis, 1982, called the phenomenon “Group Think” = the tendency for members in a cohesive group to maintain a consensus even to the extent of ignoring the truth.
- Pressure causes members to go along with the majority even if they disagree.
Georg Simmel, is smallest group that you can have. These types of groups can easily become the most cohesive. Members are more personal and have intense interactions. Most unstable of social groups, likely to break-up. One person leaves, there is no more group
Georg Simmel, is a three-person group, able for two to gang up on one. Peacemaker. Less intimacy that dyads have. More people that join, the less personal it becomes, weakening interpersonal relationships, but enhances durability of group. More people = more relationships and sub groups. Common goal means more power in coming together.
More diversity means more solutions for problems. Diverse groups have more access to jobs, more resources, happier, and healthier.
groups whose activities are rationally designed to achieve specific goals. (Business, hospitals, colleges, non-profits, ect.)- Some secondary groups develop into formal organizations. Ones that do NOT tend to be small and transitory.
- Almost every org has higher and lower participants. Higher participants have power over lower to exercise power.
-Coercive- use physical force on lower participants to achieve goal. (Nazis, bullies, prison guards
-Remunerative- material rewards for cooperation. (Chores, candy, recess, dog training, bonuses, getting paid, medals/trophies)
- Normative- use of moral persuasion, offering social acceptance to lower participants. (Greek life, religion,
-alienative- do not support organizations goals. (slaves, inmates)
-calculative- moderately supports orgs goals, tend to be receiving something in return. (paycheck)
-moral- strongly support the orgs goals. (deeply religious, dedicated to job, volunteer groups.)
Prisons, concentration camps, custodial psychiatric hospitals, forces are used to keep inmates or patients under control. Control is achieved by threatening solitary confinement, loss of recreation, other privileges. Lower participants have an alienative involvement.
churches or political orgs, power is based on persuasion, using social pressure and public recognition. Members want to do what the org asks because they’re committed to the goals.
Military, use different types of power, coercive(boot camp)/normative(pay or sign up bonus)
- Easier to increase productivity because it benefits everyone.
- Organizations are important to society because they create stability.
Income, status, and other rewards are used. Due to inequality we cannot expect workers to give their all in fulfilling max productivity. Conflict theorists are deal primarily in capitalistic societies.
Symbolic integrationists theory
Look at how people define their situation and how this shapes the organization.
Symbolic integrationists look at Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy- portrays bur as the embodiment of the western definition of rationality and as the proper way to run an org. Burs are very characteristic of western orgs.
Based on rationality and achieving the orgs goals efficiently.
1. What is considered deviant in one culture is not necessarily the case in another. Homos, prostitutes, tattoos/piercing, style of dress, ect.
2. Within the same culture, what is considered deviant changes over time. Sex/living together before marriage, woman smoking, alcohol/drug use, ect.
3. Within the same culture, different subgroups have behaviors/norms that might be considered deviant. KKK/gangs, ect.
it only becomes deviant when members of the group define it as going against the social norms of the society. There are a wide variety of responses to deviances. Arrest, looks, gossip, kicked out, treatment, shaming, execution, ect.
Yemen, Pakistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. U.S dropped out in 03.
Anti-interracial marriage laws
The fact that our notions of deviance are so fluid simply reflects the reality that our norms are similarly fluid. Norms are changing therefore deviance changes. Deviance violates the norms.
any attribute the discredits a person or disqualifies him or her from full social acceptance. (looks at the power of labels and stigma of negative labels can spoil a person’s identity.)
1. Abominations of body (physical reformatories)
born without body parts, organs, scarification.
2. Blemishes of character
Weak-willed, dishonest, homosexual, alcoholic, mental disorder.
3. Tribal Stigma
Associated with race, religion, or nation.
shard values, beliefs, goals, norms, are common to average society. (competition, honesty, patriotism, hard work)
-in complex, modern, industrialized, large societies, the collective conscience breaks down.
-traditions that hold people together fail
-classes change and people are unaware of the norms resulting in a disagreement of who those norms and values belong to
people not well integrated, not tied to their social groups, which leads to deviance and less social bonds that reinforce our behavior. Less to live for.
is result of rapid social change. Do not experience the strain of norms because there are no norms OR the norms are not enforced/clearly defined, which leads to deviance. Collective conscience is not strong enough to deter deviant behavior.
-Agreed with Durkheim’s theory or deviance and structural strain BUT he argued that we get deviance when goals of the society cannot be achieved by legitimate means. (During great depression, losing jobs and resources)
Conformist: accept accept
Innovator: accept reject
Ritualist: reject accept
Retreatist: reject reject
Rebel: reject old and substitute new
Conformists do not experience structural strain, able to achieve money in a legitimate or legal way. People who go to college, work their way up, connections to jobs through parents, ect. (Bill Gates, college grads, ect.)
reject legitimate ways of getting money. Are really successful drug deals, pursue wealth through fraud.
not interested in goals or success but accept the means. Person who does just enough work to not get fired.
reject the goals and reject means, not interested in money or participating in society. Two types
Negative: drug addicts, homeless,
Positive: nuns, monks,
reject goals and means and substitute new ones, creating a whole new social environment, extreme political leaders. (Castro)
Argues that most of us have to learn how to be deviant, we need teachers. 3 steps in learning deviance. (Becoming a marijuana user)
1. Need to be taught the technique (bongs, roll joints, lighters, ect)
2. Need to learn to understand the effects (munchies, perception distorted, happy, stupid)
3. Need to learn to enjoy the effects.
- primary is initial act of deviance, participation in deviant behavior. Only you the individual know about. Freaky stuff you do in the woods that no one knows about. Reduces the impact of the behavior on your life, not being labeled.
- secondary, when people catch you in deviance and are aware of what you’ve done, resulting in labeling and stigmatized. Freaky stuff in the woods that people DO see.
Degradation ceremonies, used to show right from wrong (legal and illegal). Occur in courtrooms and prisons.
4 justifications of why we have degradation or deviance punishments
punishment must outweigh pleasure of crime. Used as an example for the rest of society so they conform.
eye for an eye explanation for punishment, you kill someone, we kill you. Vengeance is an acceptable way to punish, little to reform offenders.
punish offenders and reform offenders in order to prevent further offenses. Prison resulting in better individuals, special needs given to to better reform. Ohio is the only state has rehabilitaion.
- (revolving door) more and more people in prison therefore its not working.
- 2/3 of violent crime offenders are rearrested and half are back in prison.
-Durkheim says it gives the righteous or non-deviant something in common, creating social bonds.
--Erikson, it clarifies the boundaries of what is right and wrong.
-Also, often results in social change. D changes over time and based on location, laws, policies, social control, ect.
allows convicted offender to remain out in society under conditions set by the court. First time offenders, misdemeanors, fines back to victim, must find employment, and maybe drug/alcohol counseling community service. If they do not behavior by terms that can go to prison.
convicted offender goes to prison and sometime bootcamp for a short period of time and the rest of their sentence is suspended and they go on probation.
when inmates are released to serve the remainder of their sentence in their community under the supervision of a parole officer. Parole board hearings, victim can make a statement on release, person gives a statement on why they should be released, and is then approve/denied. Halfway houses monitored by parole officers, curfews, must find job, ect.
The arrangement of various activities of a society into a hierarchy in which the activities are ranked highly awarded and activities ranked low are poorly awarded.
Economic- social class
Social- social status or prestige
Political- social power
When measuring the 3 dimensions, it depends on which side of argument you’re on.
1. Those who own the means pro production: bourgeoisie
2. Who work for the owners: proletariat
Order theorists believe soc stratification benefits society but conflict theorists believe it is a system where one side benefits from the other.
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