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Soc Final Part 2
Soc Final Part 2
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Deviant Behavior (9th Edition)
Positivistic Perspective on Drug Use
The issue that needs explaining is WHY some people use illegal substances
ALL positivistic explanations seek to reveal the causes of drug use
Constructionist perspective on Drug Use
The issue is why is the use of certain substances regarded as deviant?
Drug use comes close to being a universal, both worldwide and throughout history
September 1989, 64% of respondents in a Times/CBS poll said drugs constituted the most important issue facing the country at that time
Observers of deviant behavior are interested in 5 broad types of drugs:
2. Narcotics (opiates & opioids)
3. General depressants
4. Disassociative anesthetics
And 2 oddballs...
Ecstasy (MDMA) and Marijuana
Enable user to feel more alert and awake
Cocaine, amphetamine, Ritalin
Diminish the brain's perception of pain
Opiates (opium, morphine, heroin, codeine) & Opioids (OxyContin)
Mental clouding and euphoria are felt
Induce relaxation, inhibit anxiety, can eventually result in sleep
Most well known general depressant is alcohol
Others include barbiturates, GHB, roofies, Xanax, Valium
Induce profound sensory alterations
LSD, peyote, mescaline, and shrooms
Do not necessarily induce hallucinations but extreme psychoactivity, a loosening of the imagination and an intensification of emotional states
Does not produce sensory alterations
Capable of inducing empathy, or an emotional identification with others
Most observers nowadays feel it belongs in a category by itself
Alcohol is by far the society's most popular recreational drug
Roughly 1/3 of the American population has used 1 or more illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime
The most frequently used illegal drug in America is Marijuana
User loyalty vs. Sticking with it
Certain drugs users are loyal to or stick with and others they use infrequently and are likely to give up after a certain time
Alcohol = Highest user loyalty
Marijuana = Stuck with longest
While the casual, recreational use of cocaine in the general population has declined recently, it is possible that the heavy, chronic abuse of the drug has actually increased
An impure crystalline precipitate that results from heating cocaine with baking soda
Contains only 30% or so of cocaine
Ready-to-smoke free base cocaine
Occurs in early stages of a moral panic
"The reinterpretation of neutral or ambiguous stimuli as potentially or actually deviant"
Ex. Crack babies
Of well-known drugs or drug types, heroin ranks lowest in popularity
Heroin use, and especially addiction, has been the most deviant form of drug use in the public mind
In the US, on a dose-by-dose basis, heroin rans at the top with respect to its potential for damage
Methamphetamine remains extremely regionalized
Drugs use both and objective and a subjective side
Sociologists discuss sexual violations as deviance because...
Such behavior tends to be more discrediting and stigmatizing than most other forms of deviance
Rape is regarded by most observers as more an act of violence than a type of sexual behavior
Therefore is not discussed in sexual deviance
Exposing one's sex organs to an unwilling, coerced audience
Public sex in its extreme form can turn into this
Would say that certain variations are a perversion of our "true" or legitimate sexual expression
Would say that sexual repression is a perversion of our true or legitimate sexual expression
Sexuality does not shape our social conduce so much as social meanings give shape to our sexuality
As American society becomes increasingly educated, its condemnation of homosexuality will decrease
What is the most important variable determining whether and to what extent the public condemns homosexuality?
The degree to which the respondent held a general traditional belief system
Passages in the Bible that have been used to denounce homosexuality
What declined in the aftermath of the Supreme Court's decision repealing the sodomy laws nationwide?
Public support favoring civil unions or marriage-like arrangements for homosexual couples
Call girls, women who work in brothels, masseuses, telephone sex workers, porn stars, topless dancers
What is the "social worker" approach?
Part of the moralistic perspective that says: "Sex work is evil, but sex workers have been corrupted and need to be saved or salvaged"
Refers to an approach that looks at behavior or a society from the outside, from a perspective that, in a sense, is imposed on the phenomenon
Approach is one from the inside, a "subjective" perspective
Women make a choice to enter into sex-for-pay relationships
Radical Feminist position v. Sociological perspective
Radical feminist argues prostitution is an essentialistic condition, true and valid for all times and places
Sociological perspective sees prostitution as a negotiable, socially constructed category whose meaning varies according to time and place
The condemnation of what activity is even more widespread than that for teenage sex and same-gender sex?
With regard to sexual behavior, a gender disparity looms between men and women
Male sexual behavior "is less subject to social structures than female sexual activity"
According to Clark and Hatfield who is more likely to take up sexual offers from strangers?
What may be the most important and significant difference between men and women?
Men are more likely to accept invitations to engage in adventurous, risky sex than women
Essentialist sees sex as...
A drive that exists to some degree independent of and prior to social context or definition
Constructionist position on sex
Sex is constructed by the society and social contact through imputation of meaning
The sex drive itself is, in large part, a product of human contact
Who is more likely to be distressed by their partner's emotional faithlessness?
Who is more likely to become upset about their partner's sexual infidelity?
Manifestation or outward appearance of an inner deficiency, one that either has been or may be noticed, which results or would result in infamy and dishonor
The one negative trait usually becomes...
A master status or master trait
To be _____ is to possess a contaminated or discredited identity.
Goffman refers to physical stigma as "___________"
"Abominations of the body -- the various physical deformities"
Goffman refers to behavior and belief as "__________"
"Blemishes of individual character"
Ex. Mental disorder, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, etc.
Goffman's 3rd type of stigma (rarely discussed as a form of deviance)
Tribal stigma of race, nation, and religion
Polsky v. Goffman (pg. 303)
Polsky argues Goffman missed the fact of people who are not morally stigmatized: Ex. people who are unusually ugly
Argument against Polsky (pg. 303)
Many negative definitions of statuses are entirely unearned
People who posses traits or characteristics that are "not their fault" are stigmatized and are treated differently by persons who are not similarly blemished
Seeing a connection between "deliberate" behavior and possessing a physical trait is...
A cultural and constructed phenomenon, not a simple factual matter
Just World Hypothesis
Casts doubt on the widely held belief that the world is a just place where the innocent do not suffer
Justice does not triumph, extreme misfortune may befall the virtuous and innocent
Normals are reminded of this nearly every time they come face-to-face with someone who possesses a disability or a disfigurement
If misfortune can befall someone else simply as a result of happenstance, it could also happen to us
Coming face-to-face with the handicapped reminds us of our own vulnerability, and many of us find that experience painful
Deviance is not merely a statistical variation or difference from the average, the mode, or the statistical norm. Rather is is...
That which "violates institutional expectations"
A phantom acceptance is thus allowed to provide the base for...
A phantom normalcy
Aesthetic standards from one society to another
Variation is much less substantial than was believed in the past
The consensus is probably a great deal more significant than the variation
_____ is a major factor in determining the physical attractiveness of human faces and bodies
_____ is probably the most widely practiced form of voluntary body alteration
Obesity partakes in both of Goffman's forms of stigma:
Abomination of the body
Blemish of individual character
Stigma of obesity entails 3 elements or aspects
1. The obese attract public scorn
2. They are told that this scorn is deserved
3. They come to accept this negative treatment as just
____ is the most stigmatized group in the United States
The notion of socially disvalued people standing up, fighting for their rights, and demanding equality with normals
Referred to as "Odd Man In" or "societies of deviants"
In the United States, those who get tattoos are _______________
Defying appearance norms and risk being seen as inferior
Tattoos are like ______________
Potato chips, you can't have just one
D. Angus Vail study
Tattooing is deviant because of ________
Its relation to symbolic value
Unlike other forms of deviance, people who get tattoos get them because ________________
Of tattoos' association with deviance
Difference between a tattoo collector and someone who just has tattoos:
Being a tattoo collector, you learn how to interpret tattoos from those who solely just wear them
Becoming a tattoo collector is a learning process:
It's also a transformative experience
It's about changing the way light reflects off of your skin, the way others view your skin, and the person inside it
3 Steps in becoming a tattoo collector
Agnes and Intersexuality
Born as a male, stole hormone pills, went through gender reassignment surgery
Represents how sexual status can be accomplished and gender status is a learning process
When infants are born with ambiguous genitals, 9/10 times they will be rendered __________
Female (because of surgical convenience)
According to Goffman, those who possess stigma are blemished and do not receive ______________
Full social acceptance
Disability is __________
"Freeway Ricky Ross"
American drug dealer, had a drug empire over all of LA
Referred to as the "Walmart of Cocaine"
Provided Blacks to have big business, "All American Opportunist"
In 1971 __________ declared the War on Drugs
"Toughest Sheriff in America" (Arizona)
Spent 32 years fighting drugs
Makes inmates wear pink boxers
War on Marijuana has resulted in ______ in cost and _________ in potency.
Decrease in cost
Increase in potency
______ ranks in lowest popularity of all well known drugs
6 Stages of Heroin Addiction (Waldorf)
3. Maintaining or "Taking Care of Business)
4. Dysfunction or "Going Through Changes"
5. Recovery or "Getting Out of the Life"
Most swingers are _____________
Suburban, white, middle class, and 25-45
_______ are seen as social constructs for drug use
4 Contexts defining drug use
2. Medical Utility
3. Legal Status
4. Public Opinion
4 Categories of drug use
1. Medical use (prescription or over the counter)
2. Legal recreational use (tobacco, alcohol, caffeine)
3. Illegal instrumental use (Adderall)
4. Illegal recreational use (Weed)
To the public _________ is more deviant than infidelity
____ % of married couples have participated in cheating, ____ % of couples participate in swinging
20%, and 1-2%
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