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those who feel they are one sex even though they have the biological traits of another.
Sex between relatives. In Navajo, incest rule only applies to mother’s side of family. -In ancient Peru and Egypt incest between siblings was used for nobility. -Incest taboos exist because it simplifies relationships and also reduces the odds of producing offspring with physical or mental problems.
being attracted to someone of the same sex. Not every person in homo or hetero.
-ancient Egypt was highest form of relationship that a man could have, especially upper class, because women were considered intellectually inferior. Women were only used for reproduction and real men had homo relationships.
the meaning people attach to behaviors and how we label orientation and these labels or definition vary in time or place.
-100 years ago classify individuals based on their sexuality.
-same sex encounters but not be classified as homo. (Girls gone wild, threesomes, experimenting, drunk, ect.)
-Holding hands depends on area and concept of situation. (Bush holding hands, "on-the-down-low" and African American men not really gay.)
Simon Levay, studied the brains of hetero and homo sexual men and found that the hypothalamus (regulates hormones) varied in size between these two groups. Based on his findings, he argued sexual orientation was a product of biology. Further genetic research has led scientists to look further into X chromosome.
massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, D.C.
U.S. has highest among high-income nations, 1 million each year. Low income, weak family bonds increase the chance of pregnancy and sex. Due to media, failed sex edu, ect. 3-5
sexual implicit material intended to cause sexual arousal. In the U.S. the porno industry is a 10 billion a year industry. Majority of consumers are men. Critics of porno argue it leads to a breakdown of morals and violence against women but ultimately depends on how it’s interoperated.
selling of sexual services, worlds oldest profession. 1 and 7 men report to have paying for sex at least once. Stigma for being paid for sex is much stronger than paying for sex.
Rape is not motivated by a desire for sex but about power and control. Involves humiliation. 95,000 a year report being raped. 1 and 6 woman and 1 and 33 men will be sexually assaulted during their lifetime.
College women are 4 times more likely to be sexually assaulted.
73% of victims know their rapist. Only 6% will spend time in jail.
reproduction is part of society. Culture and soc institutions regulate with whom and when. Prostitution serves a latent function (allows ppl to have sex who cant. Kingsley Davis. Struct functs ignore gender and how definitions about sexuality/sex vary from time to time and place to place.
Society determines what sexual behaviors are acceptable and unacceptable. (Pedophilia, adultery, incest, ect.
In 20th century sex was no longer about reproduction but pleasure and recreation.
were interested in how sexuality changes over time. Changing of definitions has change. Looks how we construct or give sexuality meaning and how it affects our attitudes, practives, and perceptions.
Virginity used to be important because there was no BC and it guaranteed women weren’t preg. Shielded children from sex, used to be on wedding night. Now, we prefer is educated about sex.
looks at how sexuality reflects inequality in our society. In terms of prostitutions, more whores arrested than johns. Marx socialist theory: Would women choose prost if they had more economic opportunities. Feminists say sexuality is the cause of inequality bc women are sexual objects.
challenges heterosexual bias in society. Looks at how anyone NOT heterosexual we label as queer and how society victimizes gay, lesbians, bis, trans, as, ect. Looks at how we acknowledge how racism and sexism is wrong but we tolerate heterosexism.
Interconnected inequalities result in different groups of men holding baring degrees of power and varying groups of women experiencing different categories of inequality. (white, upper-class, straight, males at top of power structure)
*Is the ranking of sexes in such a way that women are unequal in resources, power, and opportunities.
biology, history, and societal needs, combine with one another to separate men and women into distinct gender roles.
gender helps to integrate society and in turn, society creates gender into complementary roles. With this creation of complementary roles, it puts men and women into family units and gives them sex specific responsibilities.
According to Parsons theory boys are socialized into instrumental orientation = We teach boys to be rational, self-assured, and competitive because it prepares them for labor force. (boy toys)
Girls are socialized girls into expressive orientation = We prepare girls to eventually one day raise children, be emotionally responsive, and to be sensitive to others. (Dolls, play houses, baby them)
Soc encourages by fear and soc rejection, promotes stable institutions.
looks at factors that are external to the individual (social structures, institutions how they’re created and function, and interaction that rewards men and women differently.)
gender in our everyday lives, looks at how we define gender, what their roles are, how these labels have meaning and how they affect our interaction. 3 areas.
Personal (girls sitting vs guys) how we talk, bathroom etiquette (men in urinals),
Space- men are allowed to take up more space than women (the way we sit, women try to shrink back to make space, advertisements, more dominating of space, men are supposed to be tall or muscular where women are small and petite.)
Language- material possessions are referred to as “he or she” Boats and cars after females. Girls called bitch, skank, hoe, whore cunt, where as men are called pussy,
Looks at interplace of race, class, and gender and how this results in multiple dimensions of disadvantage.
U.S. has the highest level gender inequality in the workplace compared to other industrialized nation. Women still represent the largest share of technical, sales, and administrative support occupations. Women who work full time year round make $.78 for every dollar a man makes with the same level of education and occupation. Pay difference becomes greater when race is involved.
Who benefits from sexism?
Gender segregation employs certain opportunities for men and women.
Established the system of inequality by dominating less powerful groups. -Racial inequalities produce opportunities for some while oppressing others. -This distribution is based on race, size in not necessarily important. Minority groups are determined by history, politics, and judgment. We have also used gender, age, sexual orientation, and religion to define minority groups.
Michael Omi and Howard Winant, reshaping of our racial landscape in the U.S. Looks are the fact that we are constantly creating and transforming racial categories. Ethnic groups offer a broader range of affiliation and are distinctive of their origin, language, religion, and culture.
Influence patterns of interaction
biased beliefs about individuals based on membership in a racial or ethnic group. (stereotyping, rational or unequal treatment, greedy, jump higher, ect)
acting out of prejudice or acting out biased beliefs, provides rationale for unjust unjust treatment. That one racial group is superior over another.
how privilege is conferred to white; Peggy McIntosh. Often unrecognized and unearned privilege. Racial profiling, sentencing in court, treatment by neighbors, audited, ect.
maintains that group inferiority is the result of flawed genetic and hereditary traits: Arthur Jensen, Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray “The Bell Curve” Hernn and Murr are the authors in 72. Published in 94. Claimed that African Americans are genetically inferior to whites, which explains the differences in success between the two groups. There is absolutely no definitive evidence that supports this theory.
-U.S. is land of opportunity.
-Assuming that all racial and ethnic groups will eventually assimilate and blend into the countries melting pot. Accents inclusion and promotes orderly integration.
-Racism will correct itself as groups assimilate. Minority groups can change their social position with the right motivation in changing their behaviors.
-Roots of inequality in the U.S. economy
-Social institutions keep minorities at the bottom
-Social conditions deny full participation of minorities in society.
-Racial and ethnic groups were never meant to assimilate.
-Different racial and ethnic categories exist because it benefits society.
Symbolic interaction theories of race and ethnic stratification:
-Dailey interactions are interpretations of social reality. Effect who we are, what we become, and what we will pass down.
-Beliefs and behaviors are learned
-Blaming the victim
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