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August Comte- father of sociology; first to coin the term sociology; also known for positivism= looking at sociology as a sign.
Emeil Durkheim- studied suicide in France in 1939; concluded that there were 5 characteristics as to why people commit suicide: white male, single, wealthy, Protestant, and dentist.
C. Wright Meels- responsible for debunking: looking beyond the obvious and seeking a deeper explanation; talked about personal issues and social troubles.
W.E.B. Dubois- talked about significance of the black family; also founder of NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
1838; In France, Germany, and England
It deals with people, whose behavior is not always easily measured and predicted. It is similar in that it works with groups.
It concluded that there were 5 characteristics as to why people commit suicide: white male, single, wealthy, Protestant, and dentist.
Manifest function is obvious and recognizable while latent function is hidden. Example of manifest function- cars are used for transportation. Example of latent function- many people find their spouses in college.
Socialization- process by which we learn culture. All forms of socialization that never stop; desocialization- remove a person from society; resocialization- to alter a person’s way of life; anticipatory socialization- to prepare or rehearse one for future roles.
Adulthood: early- 20-40; middle: 40-60; later 60+
Denial, anger, bargaining/negotiation, resignation, acceptance
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; sensorimotor- 0-2 yrs. Child begins climbing on things; pre operational stage- 2-7 yrs. Child begins to recognize shapes and alphabets; concrete operational- 7-11 yrs. Child begins to understand why things happen; formal operational- 11-19 yrs. Children begin to understand more abstract ideas.
Folkway- rules taught within home; mores- has moral significance; laws- codified rules and regulations which are enforced by govt. officials.
Control= nothing or placebo. Experimental= receiving independent variable (you control) and will give you your dependent variable (outcome, not controlled by you)
Uncover question in need of an answer; 2) review the relevant literature; 3) develop hypotheses about how phenomena relate to one another. 4) identify a method for answering the research question (quantitative or qualitative); 5) collect data; 6) analyze data.
Absolute- is more important to global perspective. Life threatening.
Ethnocentrism- practice of judging someone else’s culture by your own standards. You are making fun of a culture.
Cultural relativism- practice of judging someone else’s culture by its own standards
Assimilation: The process of conforming to the culture of the dominant group (learning the language, intermarrying)
Pluralism: minority groups exist separately but enjoy access to resources across all institutions. Also called multiculturalism.
Scapegoat- An individual or a group that innocently bears the blame of others; genocide- The deliberate killing of a large group of people, esp. those of a particular ethnic group or nation; prejudice- experiencing negative feelings toward a group as a whole; discrimination- unfair treatment of people on some social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or sex
About 50,000 in India; tend to work and live together in communal households like one large family; engage in religious rituals and perform at various rites of passage; represent a third gender (they are neither men nor women); most cannot reproduce; few are born with both male and female sex organs (intersexed); most are born males though; they are stigmatized
McDonaldization- process by which rational principles of fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of society and more societies throughout world.
Efficiency- quickest and least costly means; calculability- quantity over quality; predictability- identical; control- automation and standardization done through technology.
Language- ways of communicating. Ex. English; symbols- anything that carries a particular meaning. Ex. Stop sign; sanctions- rewards/punishments. Ex. Jail; beliefs- true and personal. Ex. Religion; values- rules and regulations in which society considers good or bad. Ex. Followed by most of society, education; norms- rules that help guide people in everyday life
Theory- tells how and why specific facts are related; hypothesis- educated guess.
Liberal: lack of equality & rights, discrimination; socialist: control & exploitation of women's labor; radical: control & exploitation of women's fertility/sexuality
Authority- any particular domination (people rule over certain people)
Rational legal authority- it is legitimate on basis of legally and active rules (police has authority over you because of badge); 2) traditional authority- based on illegally long running traditions
Natural sciences- biology, chemistry, geology, and anatomy.
Social sciences- sociology, psychology, anthropology, and history
It was a concept when it first came about because we did not fully understand it.
Independent var- influences dependent variable. Ex. Type of soil used; dependent var- is influenced by independent variable. Ex. number of cavities
Concept- abstract idea; correlation- measure of relationship between two variables; cause and effect- one thing caused another simply because they're regularly associated
Subculture- small segment of pop. that is set apart from dominant culture. Ex. Chinatown in Houston; counter culture- rejects norms of society. Opposite of sub culture; culture lag- when nonmaterial culture is not as advanced as material culture; culture shock- when a person feels confused or disoriented when in an unfamiliar environment; culture universal- traits found in every culture; cultural transmission- traits passed from one generation to the next. Ex. Jewelry, recipes, etc.
Family, religion, peers, workplace, mass media, and school all help you identify as either male or female.
He talked about the significance of the black family and was also founder of NAACP
Quantitative involves numbers and qualitative is non numerical, so it involves recoding observational data.
Inquisitor principle- guilty no matter what; advisory principle- innocent until proven guilty
conformity-left upper box. follows rules of society; innovator-right upper box. goes about means of success wrong way; ritualism-left lower box. wants to feel important. sticks to the rule; retreatism-right lower box. in essence drops out of society. drug user/abuser; rebellion- lower right detached box. wants to benefit from society, but refuses to follow rules.
secondary aging- goes on throughout your life. processes result from disease and poor health practices (e.g. no exercise, smoking, excess fat and other forms of self-damage).
Participant observation- when a researcher gets involved in his study; Hawthorne effect- when subjects know that they are being studies, they either change or modify their behavior; material culture- artifacts and tangible items (can touch and feel); nonmaterial culture- intangible items (cannot touch and feel) ex. beliefs
Race- (physical features) skin color, hair, facial features, body type; ethnicity- (cultural heritage) religion, language, ancestry
Heterosexuality- sexual desire toward opposite sex; homosexuality- sexual desire toward same sex; hermaphrodite- person born with both genitals; sex-biological distinction between males and females based on differences in their reproductive functions; gender- state of being male or female. What you think you are; sexual orientation- person's sexual identity in relation to the gender to which they are attracted.
Social group-collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity; primary group- social group that consists of 2+ people who interact on a daily basis. Personable; secondary group- consists of 2+ people who interact and seek to accomplish a goal; dyad- consists of 2 members in a group. Smallest possible group; triad- consists of 3 members in a group; groupthink- practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility; formal org- social system organized around specific goals and usually consisting of several interrelated groups or subsystems
triad- consists of 3 members in a group; groupthink- practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility; formal org- social system organized around specific goals and usually consisting of several interrelated groups or subsystems
Normative- voluntary. Ex. Firefighter, church; coercive- against one’s will. Ex. Military (draft) prison; utilitarian- in pursuit of income. Ex. Any job, sales clerk
Social stratification- a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy; Wealth- a person’s total assets; prestige- respect and admiration given to a person; power- ability to have someone do something against their will; income- amount of money earned through investment or work
Caste system- is an ascribed status. Born into. Spend your entire life in that system; class system- achieved status. Worked into. You can marry in and out of social class; classless system- no social ranking (homeless choose to be); estate system- based on how much land a person has. Also an ascribed status.
Upper upper class- 1 – 3% of population. Referred to as the rich. immense influence in the nation's political and economic institutions as well as public opinion; middle class- mostly get involved w/ political events. Make 100,000 per year. Tend to live in fairly nice neighborhoods and children tend to go to universities. including professional and business workers and their families; working class- make 35-50,000 a year. people who are employed for wages, especially in manual or industrial work; lower class- make under 35,000. Have the lowest status.
Status- socially defined positionAscribed- you are born into. You have no control over it; achieved- you work for it; master- w/ exceptional importance and it stands out
Ingroup- esteemed social group; outgroup- scorned social group; primary- consists of 2+ people who interact on a daily basis. Personable.; secondary- 2+ people who interact and seek to accomplish a goal.
Phase 1- tension building. Threatening, yelling
Phase 2- battering. Hitting, kicking
Phase 3- honeymoon. Says they are sorry, blames alcohol
False consciousness- lack of understanding of a social class; class consciousness- when a person understands capitalism.
Communism. Talked about 2 classes of people. 1) Bourgeoisie- people who have money and own land; 2) Proletariat- sell their labor in exchange for cash
Anomy- commit suicide for a higher god. Individual suicide; mechanical solidarity- when people have a same type of occupation. Group suicide; organic solidarity- they have something in common, but have different occupations. Group suicide.
Symbolic interactionist- paradigm and how their meanings or symbols are shared or understood; conflict- focuses on its negative aspect.
Ethnocentrism- judging someone else’s culture by your own standards. You are making fun of a culture; cultural relativism- judging someone else’s culture by its own standards.
Face-to-face, questionnaire, and open-ended.
Structured Interviews- uses a list of predetermined questions. All applicants are asked the same set questions. There are two types of structured interviews
Situational interview, in which the interviewer asks questions about what the applicant would do in a hypothetical situation
Behavioral Interview in which the questions focus on the applicant’s behavior in past situations
Unstructured Interviews-open-ended questions are used such as “Tell me about yourself”.
Moral development- developed by Lawrence Kohlberg; 1st stage preconvention- selfish stage one goes through; 2nd stage conventional- others are considered; 3rd stage- post conventional- life, freedom, and liberty.
Descriptive- gather accurate info about those in a group; explanatory- used to uncover potential causes for some observation
Time, place, act, actor, and situation constitute deviance.
Retribution- eye for an eye. Oldest justification of punishment; rehabilitation- to preclude the offender from committing the same or similar offenses; deterrence- use people as examples to discourage criminality; societal protection- criminal justice system protects citizens from criminals through total institution (jail) or execution.
Material- artifacts and tangible items; nonmaterial- intangible items
Ideal- how people think they should live; real- how people are actually living; popular- appealing to the general population; subculture- small segment of population that is set apart from dominant culture; counter culture- rejects norms of society. Opposite of sub culture.
Talked about significance of the black family, and also founder of NAACP.
Endogamy- when a person marries in same social class or race; exogamy- when person marries outside social class or race; monogamy having one spouse at a time; polygamy- having multiple spouses at a time; kinship- related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Intergenerational mobility- changes in social status between different generations within the same family; intra generational mobility- changes in someone's social mobility throughout the course of his or her lifetime; feminization of poverty- phenomenon in which women experience poverty at rates that are disproportionately high in comparison to men.
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