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Why did formal systems of education develop in modern societies?
In what way is the cycle of social reproduction created within the school?
The hierarchical authority relationships within schools parallel those of the ________, according to Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis.
Which of the following is part of the hidden curriculum in schools?
teaching students to respect authority
Maria’s high school requires students to take Latin or Greek, classical art and music appreciation, English literature, and public speaking. The school believes that these courses instill particular values and tastes that students need for a successful future. This is an example of:
Which group benefits from the tracking of students according to abilities?
high-achieving students, because teachers do not have to spend time working with slow learners
In the book The Bell Curve, the authors present their findings regarding the relationship between IQ and other social factors. Why were their conclusions so controversial?
The authors proclaimed that black Americans had an inferior intelligence because of genetic differences between black and white Americans.
In a counterargument to the claims made in The Bell Curve, a team of University of California, Berkeley, sociologists asserted that ________ is more important than intelligence in determining how well people do in life.
one’s parents’ socioeconomic status
George, who is African American, gets nervous when taking tests in his college class because he assumes that his professors will think he cheats on his tests because he is African American. This is an example of:
What is an unintended consequence of school busing?
White families fled from the city into suburban areas, leaving the center cities to decay.
A major legacy of colonialism in the developing world is the high level of:
In traditional cultures, most knowledge was what the anthropologist Clifford Geertz called:
Which of the following is an example of hyperreality?
Disney World in Orlando, Florida
Which of the following best exemplifies the social paradox of the Internet?
You can rekindle old relationships, and you can avoid spending time with your family.
Given the social structure in which computer technology is developing, which of the following will likely reinforce material deprivation that already exists in some areas?
The first day of college, you may have felt a little uncertain about how to behave. Durkheim and other sociologists would describe your feelings as:
According to Merton’s strain theory, the majority of people in society are:
Branches of the FLDS sect (found in Texas, Utah, Arizona, and British Columbia) practice polygamy; are self-sustaining communities having limited contact with outside society; and are not allowed to watch television, listen to the radio, or read any text not approved by the “Prophet.” Members of this sect could be classified as ________, according to Merton’s strain theory.
According to differential association theory, who is more likely to be a delinquent?
a middle-class person whose friends frequently commit crime
Luke, a well-mannered high school student who attends a private college-preparatory school, smashes a store window while out with friends. He is made to apologize and pay for the window but is not formally reprimanded by local authorities. According to labeling theory, this action is more than likely to be perceived as:
Sixteen-year-old Pat is arrested and held in juvenile detention for thirty days. When he is released and returns to school, Pat brags about being sent to juvy. Pat’s boasting is an example of:
With which of the following statements might a conflict theorist most closely agree?
Deviants are labeled as such by powerful groups who use the label to control the less powerful.
Which of the following explanations for NOT cheating on this exam is supported by control theory?
You sit in the front of the class and are afraid of getting caught.
Eunhye’s neighborhood is quiet, but the local newspaper noted an increase in criminal activity there. The next morning, Eunhye found her garage and yard vandalized. The garage was covered in paint and eggs, and the yard was covered in litter and garbage. Eunhye did not have time to clean up the mess right away. Later that week, Eunhye’s neighbor found her car windshield shattered. The following day, Eunhye’s bike was stolen from her porch. Eunhye’s neighbors offered to help clean up her yard and garage in the hope the crime might stop. Who would be the most likely to agree with the idea that a vandalized garage and yard could lead to more crime?
a broken windows theorist
According to William Chambliss, why were the Roughnecks in more trouble with the law than the Saints?
Their crimes were more visible.
The National Crime Victimization Survey has found that crime rates are:
actually higher than those reported by official agencies
Most rapes are committed by:
someone the victim knows
______ women in the United States have been victims of a completed or attempted rape.
1 in 6
Which of the following is an example of corporate crime?
Why has illegal drug use in the United States continued to escalate even though billions of dollars have been spent to curb its use?
The profits from drugs are so high and the ease of moving the drugs and money across global areas is so great that more drugs are being sold.
A collective attempt to further a common interest or secure a common goal through action outside the sphere of established institutions is a:
According to James Davies, a sense of ________ in times of improving living conditions and ________ leads to protest and revolution.
relative deprivation; rising expectations
According to Charles Tilly, which factor is most likely to cause violence at a social protest?
actions of the authorities
Theda Skocpol believes that revolutions are ________ of the more limited aims of different groups.
Which of the following might be labeled a new social movement rather than a conventional social movement?
gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender movement
A socially acknowledged and approved sexual union between two adult individuals is called:
Reyna and her husband are starting a family and decide to move closer to their own family. Reyna’s family lives on the West Coast, but her husband’s family lives on the East Coast. If Reyna and her husband decide to move to the West Coast, their decision would be considered a(n) ________ move.
According to functionalists, the husband in the “conventional family” is the breadwinner and plays the ________ role; the wife cares for the home and children and plays the ________ role.
Which group of theorists is likely to agree with the statement “Couples are seeking to be more symmetrical, but in reality men do not perform their share of the housework.”
Feminist sociologists and feminist approaches to the sociology of the family have made important contributions to our understanding of the family. Which of the following issues are embedded within a feminist analysis of the family?
Arlie Hochschild found that ________ is creating pressure on American workers to work longer hours than they used to.
What accounts for the trend toward later marriages in recent decades?
Annette Lareau found significant variation in childrearing practices rooted in:
In the age group of twenty-five to forty-seven, far fewer African American than white women are married and living with a husband. Which of the following factors contribute to this situation?
Which of the following factors increases the likelihood that a person will get a divorce at some point in his or her life?
Although their studies may not be representative of the population as a whole, Judith Wallerstein and her colleagues found that for children of divorced parents:
Which of the following accurately describes the pattern(s) of remarriage among divorced people?
What trend is apparent with respect to cohabitation?
Who is more likely to get a divorce at some point in the life cycle?
people who cohabit more than once before marriage
Which statement concerning single-parent households is NOT true?
The majority of single-parent households are headed by men.
What proportion of the world’s population live on less than $2 a day?
Your textbook authors talk about some of the wealthiest people in the world. What do these people have in common?
They are all men.
Over the past forty years the overall standard of living in the world has risen, but overall the gap between ________ and ________ has widened.
Which of the following is one explanation for the persistence of global economic inequality?
As the technology gap between countries widens, it is more difficult to eliminate poverty.
Poverty is growing in:
Which of the following best describes the health conditions in high- and low-income countries?
Infant mortality is more than ten times higher in low-income countries.
There is significant evidence that the high rates of HIV/AIDS infections in African countries reflect the:
already weakened health these people experience due to malnourishment, poor water, and other infectious diseases
As world hunger has grown, global food production:
has actually continued to increase more rapidly than population growth
Which of the following has contributed to world hunger and famine?
Which type of theorist would argue that a low-income society can develop if people give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and values?
Neoliberalism argues that global free trade will enable all countries to prosper and therefore it is necessary to:
eliminate all governmental regulation and disavow a minimum wage and other labor laws
According to dependency theory, low-income countries:
are exploited by wealthy countries
Natural resources flow from the ________ to the ________, according to world-systems theory.
Which approach points out that successful NIEs, such as Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan, have grown largely because of repressive labor laws, government ownership in key industries, and government provision of social welfare services?
What is meant by a geography of “centrality and marginality” in global cities?
Enormous affluence and acute poverty reside side by side with minimal interaction.
Which of the following jobs most closely illustrates the informal economy?
housekeepers in suburban communities
Why is Mexico City one of the most polluted cities in the world?
Nearly 95 percent of the land has buildings on it.
Reducing population growth around the world will be difficult because:
When the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere acts like the glass on a greenhouse and causes the average temperature of the earth to rise, the process is called:
The solution to the environmental crises will require:
Who among the following would most likely lament the movement toward globalization?
the head of a small-town historical society
Which of the following best characterizes your textbook authors’ view of globalization?
The global order is being transformed, but many of the old patterns remain.
Capitalism stimulates social change in an unprecedented way because it:
Many industrial workers have been left unemployed and without the skills required in a knowledge-based economy. This is due to:
global trade and new forms of technology
The belief that society is no longer controlled by history and progress is termed:
Which of the following characterizes the shift to a global, rather than a national, outlook?
a man with a decidedly Italian accent telling a reporter he is from Europe
Carla and Agula are friends in the international banking industry. They both travel frequently, but they keep in contact through phone calls, e-mail, instant messaging, and even faxing. Agula and Carla are able to talk to each other even when one is in London and the other is in Australia. In this way technology has the capacity to:
compress time and space
According to the transformationalists, globalization is a dynamic and open process that is subject to influence and change. Which attributes are associated with this view?
In terms of people’s working lives, globalization makes it more likely that individuals will experience:
a self-made career path, with several changes over their lifetime
Sociologists who see an agenda in the spread of Western-made films and television programs that promote the political, social, and economic interests of the West call this process:
As a result of globalization, humans now face risks created by the effects of our own knowledge and technology on the natural world, or:
Why should farmers, cattle ranchers, and animal feed manufacturers accept responsibility for mad cow disease?
They are feeding cows grains mixed with animal parts.
Which of the following is a manufactured risk?
the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear disaster in Pennsylvania
How would you best describe the gap in economic growth between the poorest and the richest countries?
The gap between the world’s richest and poorest countries has widened from about 10 to 1 a hundred years ago to more than 173 to 1 today.
Which of the following is an example of the WTO ruling in favor of profits and against human rights?
The WTO insisted that European countries import beef from the United States even though U.S. beef is treated with potentially carcinogenic hormones.
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