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When we compare what people say about their drug use in surveys with the results of drug tests, what do we find?
Drug tests figures are higher than what people say about their drug use – i.e. people lie.
The sample for ADAM includes persons who have been arrested for what types of crimes?
Violent crimes, prop. Crimes, drug crimes, DWI, and domestic violence.
The ADAM sample is drawn in what?
10 counties in which some of the nations largest cities are located – Atlanta, Charlotte, Chicago, Denver, Indianapolis, Minneapolis, New York, Portland, Sacramento, DC
The 2008 sample was made up of about 4,000 booked arrestees who agreed to _supply a urine sample__ and about __85__ percent of those who were approached.
What is so useful about ADAM?
It accesses populations that would be inaccessible by the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse or MTF – because many don’t live in conventional households, nor can they be located in conventional institutions, such as school/work.
In 2008, what was the median percentage testing positive for any of 10 drugs across the cities in the ADAM sample?
What does the text say regarding the likelihood of criminal offenders using psychoactive drugs in comparison to nonoffenders?
What are the two premier drugs that arrestees have taken recently?
Marijuana and cocaine
The ADAM II team estimated that respondents admitted to having used a specific drug how frequently?
The same percentage (44%) indicated they they had taken the drug in the past 30 days as had tested positive for the drug.
DAWN collects information on what two crucial drug abuse events (ME=Medical Examiner)?
Emergency department (ED) & Medical Examiner (ME)
As age rises, the risk of dying of drug-related causes does what?
as age increases, risk of dying increases.
What are the three drugs that appear consistently in both ED and ME figures?
Cocaine, narcotics, & alcohol.
The MTF survey is conducted where, and how is it administered?
The MTF survey asks about what four levels of use?
1. Life-time prevalence – whether they’ve used the drug in question.
2. Annual prevalence – used during prior year
3. 30 day prevalence – use in the prior month
4. Daily use – or use on 20 or more or the prior 30 days.
What else are respondents asked about in this survey?
Perceived risk, their disapproval of the drug use, and perceived availability of specific drugs.
What are two obvious limitations to the MTF survey?
Student who are absent or have dropped out.
Why do twelfth graders form a less-representative segment of the appropriate age category than is true of tenth and, especially, eighth graders?
More deviant kids have already dropped out by 12th grade.
The NSDUH is a survey of Americans of what ages?
Randomized sample of Americans
In the month prior to the NSDUH survey, only for _cocaine__ does the proportion of the population who used any illicit drug other than marijuana approach even 1 percent?
In 2008, what was the lifetime prevalence for American adults for marijuana/hashish, cocaine, and Ecstasy?
In 2008, what was the lifetime prevalence for cigarettes and alcohol?
What is the prevalence rate?
Alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana
a. Alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana
For at least three decades the pattern of drug use and age has been what?
Relatively low among youths (12-17), extremely high among young adults (18-25), even lower for those in the older adult years (26-34), and lower still for those older than 35.
Unlike illicit drug use, alcohol consumption changes how?
Alcohol consumption is almost flat between its peak and later middle age, significantly (though modestly) declining only in the elderly years.
During colonial times, what can be said of drinking?
“Constituted a central fact of life” – most people drank often & abundantly // extremely common.
With what did the Continental Army supply its troops?
Supplied them with daily ration of 4 ounces of rum or whiskey
When was the high point in the nation’s alcohol consumption and what caused the decline?
1830 – cause of decline: temperance movement, doctor said alcohol could “destroy a person’s health & even cause death”
Even before national alcohol prohibition went into effect, roughly _2/3_ of the American population lived in “dry” states.
What do epidemiologists regard as a very reliable measure of the percentage of heavy drinkers in the population?
When did alcohol consumption reach a post-Prohibition peak?
In 1967 the ever used statistic for cocaine and hallucinogens was what?
1% previously then in 1967 figures had risen to 2% for coke & 3% for hallucinogens.
What decade initiated the modern era of drug use?
In what decade was the recreational use of illicit drugs most widespread?
When was the high point in recreational drug use in the US?
1979 (or 1980 or 1980 depending on what drug was measured)
During the course of the 1970s, attitudes toward illicit drug use as measured by what three items became increasingly tolerant?
Perception of harmfulness, degree of disapproval, and support for legalization.
For all drugs, for all age categories, and for all categories of use, the consumption of illicit drugs declined between _the late 1970s_ and _the early 1990s_.
The biggest increases in drug use after the early 1990s took place among what group?
Very young – segments of the population whose use was recorded for the first time that year.
In the brief span of just five years (1991-1996) recent or current illicit drug use more than __doubled__ among children in what grades?
When did the drug use, especially marijuana that began to skyrocket during the early to mid-1990s fizzle out?
Early 21st century.
What drugs are in the category of chemically and pharmacologically miscellaneous substances whose use boomed late in the 20th century but declined early in the 21st?
MDMA & Rohypnol
What are two absolutely necessary preconditions for drug use?
Predisposition & availability
Coke: 30 times as much as goldHeroin: 10 times as expensive as coke
According to Abt estimates Americans spent how much on cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana, and all other illicit drugs in 2000?
a. 35 Billion on Coke
b. 10 Billion on Heroin
c. 50.4 Billion on Meth
d. 10.5 Billion on Weed
e. 2.4 Billion on other illicit drugs.
f. Just under 65 billion total.
In which of the following years was the total expenditure on illicit drugs the greatest (in 2000 dollars) 1988, 1992, 1996, or 2000?
Did the average retail price for heroin and cocaine increase or decrease from 1981 to 2000?
Price dropped, purity went up.
What is the number one reason that the drug trade flourishes?
Wiping out the drug trade worldwide would do what?
How does the cocaine trade in Colombia compare to the coffee business, and how does the marijuana crop in the United States compare to the corn crop?
a. Coke business as profitable as coffee
b. In US weed crop is more profitable than the corn crop.
Why is no legal agricultural product viable in many regions of the world where drugs are grown?
No legal agriculture is even viable because of local conditions or because more are perishable, they cannot reach a market in time to make the enterprise profitable.
Today heroin consumed in the United States comes mainly from where?
Mexico (39%) and South America (58%)
What groups largely move Colombian heroin from the wholesale to the retail levels on the East Coast and in the western United States respectively?
Mexico & through individual couriers
What country probably contributes as much as 90 percent of the cocaine that is consumed in the United States?
Between 2006 and 2009, the price per pure gram of cocaine _increased from $95 to $174__, and its purity _fell from 68% to 46%_.
How much of the marijuana that is consumed in the United States is grown domestically?
Domestic or crosses only one border that is brought from Mexico into the US
Prior to 2005, what countries were the principal sources for MDMA?
Mainly Belgium & the Netherlands was a major source of MDMA
According to a 2010 report, Ecstasy is _no longer_ viewed exclusively as a “rave” or “club” drug, and members of which “nontraditional” user groups are now purchasing it?
Where are most LSD labs located?
If legal how much would the drugs that are currently illicit cost?
Incredibly cheap, costing no more than aspirin or Rolaids
What is perhaps the most significant by-product of drug prohibition?
Increased the price of illicit substances
How much of the wholesale price of heroin and cocaine goes to the grower?
Very small fractions of 1% of the wholesale price of heroin and cocaine goes to the grower.
Since the breakup of the French Connection, the international drug trade has exploded into a global enterprise with profits that are greater than _three-quartiles__ of the national economies of the world, estimated at between _$180 and $300 billion__ annually.
Why are the police more likely to apprehend low-level street dealers and couriers than higher-level dealers?
They are so much more numerous and in part because their illicit activities are more visible.
a. Middle class almost always sell to steady customers (known to dealers) in private settings
b. Inner city dealers lack access to private settings for the sales and typically sell in public & to buyers they do not know.
None of these “points of contact” factors address what fact?
a.The very real & for blacks, palpable fact that, in the inner city, they are subject to intense and unequal police scrutiny and all too often interrogation
b.The offence “walking down the street while black”
From 1980 to 2008 the total number of adult drug arrests _tripled__.
Over this same time period the percentage of all prisoners in federal penitentiaries who were convicted of drug offenses increased from _20_% to _25_%, and the percentage of prisoners incarcerated in state penal institutions went from _6_ to _20_%.
What three factors account for the increases in the prison population in the face of a declining crime rate?
a. parole is being denied more often than in the past
b. Parole is more often revoked
c.Not only are drug arrests more likely to result in incarceration than was true in decades past, the increased is greater than it has been for property & violent offences.
The hard or strict punitive argument says that a given activity can be _significantly reduced or eliminated_ by law enforcement.
The soft or moderate punitive position says, in effect, that _____.
Law enforcement is incapable of bringing about a defeat of or even drastic reduction in drug use or abuse.
What defines the legal status of prescription drugs?
Only in the context of medical and psychiatric therapy.
In states that have partially decriminalized the possession of small quantities of marijuana, what acts remain on the books as crimes?
The possession of more than the stipulated amount, and the public use of marijuana
Public opinion polls find that roughly what percent of all Americans believe that the possession and sale of hard drugs and marijuana should be illegal, respectively?
a.90% believe the sale of hard drugs should remain illegal
b.75% support same policy for marijuana
According to the RAND report, the huge difference between the cost of a drug at its point of origin and the ultimate cost to the customer is what?
Most observers agree that full legalization, or decriminalization, or depenalization is almost certain to do what things?
Is alcohol or cigarettes less sensitive to price?
The conclusions of the studies of drug courts suggest that well-run drug court programs are what?
Well run drug courts are cost effective in reducing recidivism, criminal behavior, and costs to the community.
Drug court programs usually work only if what four things are associated with them?
a.Frequent urine tests
b.Routine appearances before the judge
c. Active enrollee treatment participation
d. Threat of sanctions
One estimate is that drug court costs _3,500_ per defendant per year, while it costs up to _44,000_ to incarcerate a convict for a year.
What proportion of all enrollees in treatment programs were referred by the criminal justice system?
What are the four principal types of drug treatment programs?
How do the withdrawal symptoms from methadone compare with those of heroin?
What type of drug treatment program was not included in TOPS?
What did TOPS find for all three programs with regard to the total volume of illegal drug use?
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