Social Psychology Exam II Study Guide Chapter 6 1. What is conformity? Conformity is maintaining or changing one?s behavior to match the behavior (verbal or nonverbal) or expectation of others. Most likely to occur in ambiguous situations 3 types: compliance, obedience, and acceptance 2. Be able to explain the Solomon Asch Study. Task: Which of the lines on the left most closely matches Line A on the right? Question: What would you say if you were in a group of six others, and all agreed the answer was three when it was actually two? Results: When alone, 95% of participants answered every trial correctly. But 75% went against their own eyes at least once if the group gave a wrong answer. 14/50 conformed 10 or more times out of 18 trials! Number of confederates had an impact. An ally made disagreeing easier. Conclusion: People faced with strong group consensus sometimes go along even though they think the others may be wrong. 3. What is compliance? Compliance involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing. 4. Be able to explain the techniques involved in compliance (we discussed four). Foot-in-the-door technique: start with small requests then progressively larger requests. Works because the person feels obligated after agreeing to the first thing so they agree to the second Example: ?clean air? pin ( ?clean air? billboard Door-in-the-face technique: First, large request (typically rejected), then second, smaller request (typically accepted). Works because feel obligated to go with smaller request after rejecting larger request Ex: opposite of foot-in-the-door example That?s-not-all technique: offered something initially, then something more added for same price. Example: Snuggie commercial Low-ball technique: First make a reasonable request, then reveal the hidden costs Works because commitment and anticipation Example: Buying a car 5. What is obedience? Obedience is acting in accord with a direct order or command. 6. Be able to explain the Stanley Milgram study. Study: the effects of punishment on memory; deliver painful shocks to a participant when they make a mistake recalling word pairs. Prodding from the experimenter (authority figure). Results: All 40 participants proceeded to the shock level 20-300 volts 25/40 go all the way Conclusion: In the face of authority, most of us will follow orders, even harmful and lethal ones. 7. Why do people conform (normative and informational influences)? Normative influence: our desire to be liked Informational influence: our desire to be right 8. Be able to explain the Stanford Prison study.
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