PSYC 101 03.17.09 Social Psychology (continued) Over-Obedience (Milgram) There is one ?teacher? and one ?learner? and the experimenter. However, the only one not in on the actual experiment was the ?teacher.? This experiment was designed to see how much people follow instructions. The learner would be attached to an electric shock device either in or out of the room of the teacher. The teacher is told that this is a study about language and he is to read a list of words to the learner. The learner is to answer of what he thinks are the right answers (what the teacher doesn?t know is that the learner is part of the experiment and purposely gives many wrong answers). With every wrong answer, the teacher must flip to switch to shock the learner as punishment, and then tell him the right answer. Also, with each wrong answer, the voltage of the shock increases. On average, the teacher would start the experiment, ?shocking? the learner. He can hear the learner scream in pain but continues to go on. When the voltage increases and the teacher hears the learner scream to let him out and to stop, the experimenter would tell him to in fact continue for the shocks are painful but not dangerous and that the experimenter is responsible for whatever happens. If the teacher continues, thus following the order of the experimenter, the shocks would increase and the learner would stop to respond, making the teacher think that he is either dead or unconscious. Many times, the teacher would keep questioning the experiment, but still continue to shock the learner because he doesn?t answer. Some teachers go to the max of 450 volts. At the end of the experiment, Milgram comes in to question the teacher about his feelings. When asked why he continued to go with the experiment, the teacher would reply ?Because the doctor [experimenter] told me to.? After that, Milgram tells the teacher that the learner was not actually being shocked at all and it was an experiment to see how authority works. Milgram?s conclusions: As long as there is a figure that looks/seems like authority, the civilian are likely follow the commands. Can be compared to how Hitler took over Nazis. Multiple conditions-learner in other room or in room, experimenter in room or out of the room / when experimenter present with teacher, higher obedience / when learner in same room with teacher, less likely to continue on experiment Power and Pathology of Imprisonment (Zimbardo) Zimbardo got volunteers to be part of a study and place them at the basement of Stanford University. However, the participants think that this is a real prison. At random, half of the participants were chosen to be ?correction officers? and half were to be ?prisoners.? Prisoners were not given much freedom. Soon, guards would take their role further and mistreated many prisoners when they rebelled, punishing them with pushups or cleaning waste buckets by hand. Some of the guards got so engrossed with their power that it caused much emotional and psychological trauma for the prisoners. As a result, some prisoners had to be taken out of the study early. Only six days after the experiment started, the maltreatment of these ?prisoners? by the ?correctional officers? was so bad that the whole study had to be terminated early. Situational Factors and Behavior Behavior depends on situation like who?s involved, what?s happening, where, when, etc. Research Ethics and ERBs? Two above experiments did rouse up many ethical questions. Psychologists changed the rules about experiments and say they must be ethical and moral. When Will People Help? (Darey & Latane) Bystander apathy If more people are present in the situation, less likely the victim will be helped. If less people are present, at least one of them will more likely to intervene. Process of whether or not a person should help in a situation Step 1: notice the situation Step 2: See if it?s an emergency Step 3: See if it should pertain to oneself. If ?No? to any of these, then the person would not intervene. Facts and Feelings (Erman, Jeard, Friesen)
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