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-a "status" group is a group whoe members share a characteristic or lifestyle that is honored or dishonored in society
-if economic circumstances are stable, status will drive social realities
A “status group” is a group whose members share a characteristic or lifestyle that is honored or dishonored in society. May or may not be related to class. lIf economic circumstances are stable, status will drive social realities.
science shows how the world works but not why;cannot invest too much in the individual either because that would be anarchy and chaos (as witnessed with the French Revolution)
differentiation of social sciences in the University
and a belief that the institutional and collective perspective must be considered (Counter-Enlightenment). Sociology drew from history, economics, psychology, and anthropology.
Key ideas of Martineau Comte
1. theological → ppl believed world was controlled by metaphorical figures
2. metaphysical → ppl believed that the world was controlled by metaphysical forces
3. scientific/positive --> believed that the world was controlled by science
developed principles and methods of empirical social research
race, gender, economic issues, (some say she was first sociologist)
Fashion- "Dress and its Victims"
Examined class, religion, suicide, national character, domestic relations, women's status, criminology, and interrelations between institutions and individuals
“The modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development…”
Tribal → communal →feudal … one economic era gives birth to the next.
- Capitalism (current) arose naturally from feudalism.
- Communism will naturally arise from Capitalism.
Marx foresees economic globalization: the movement of capitalism throughout the world.
Marx believes that ALL social institutions (“super structure”) arise from – and for the sake of – the material/economic base. That includes religion, education, etc.
The proletariat will rise up to seize control of production.
Is this economic determinism: the idea that the future will happen in a particular, predictable way?
- Upper middle class German
- success academic career
Upper middle class German
Seems to have internalized the conflict between his parents and was unhappy at home as a young adult
Had a very successful academic career
He married Marianne, who wrote brilliantly (Cousins)
They lived well and spent LOTS of money
Max was affected by bouts of depression throughout his life
Class, Status, and Party
Marx: We should be scientific and empirical in examining society: look at REAL things. Study them objectively. (Enlightenment thinking.)
Weber: We can’t examine society as if people were chemicals. We need the “subjectivity” of understanding how the people we are studying experience their situation. “Verstehen.”
Marx sees capitalism moving us to communism. Weber: Capitalism causes us to focus on trying to attain the highest level of efficiency in everything.
High class, low status: drug dealer, dictator (not well thought of at all but has lots of money and power)
High status/low class: religious leader, teacher
What holds societies together?
Functionalism- structures of society give society cohesion. Each group plays a role to assist the big picture. stratification: Distribution of members in society The highest positions= (a) have the greatest importance for society, and (b) require the most skill.
Suicide: It is actually influenced by “social facts” such as religious belief, nationalism, and family structure
Who was affiliated w/ UM?
Park got his undergraduate degree from U of Mà taught at Chic
Cooley: here whole time
Mead: taught here then left to Chic
1. It is teleological: the outcomes of social phenomena are given as their causes.
2. Because it describes and explains things “as they are” it isn’t competent in:
Dealing with historical issues
Dealing with conflict
3. For the same reason, it is uncritical (too accepting) of the status quo.
The enlightenment (1700's) - science, progress, individual
The counter enlightenment (end of 1700's) - too much individual = anarchy! keep institutions to keep people in order
Differentiation of social sciences within the university ( history, economics, pshychology, and athropology)
Expansion of commerce and markets
indutrialization - people were moving to cities to get factory jobs
urbanization (from local communities to cities)
decline of local communities
rise of bureaucratic nation states
decline in the power of the church - shape idea, define what true, and to add power to political acts
evolution of world views and societies - theological, metaphysical, scientific/positive
coined the term "sociology": queen of the sciences
the touchstone for all subsequent sociological work
Frustrated academic career
Expelled from multiple cities: settled in London
From middle class to poverty
Later experienced success as author and leader of international worker’s movement
Had resentment of how his family viewed religion
change is driven by conflicts related to "production" (economic or material conflict)
class - situation life based on economic position
status - respect that groups get
party- group that tries to influence a social issue or action
-those with the same possessions of goods or opportunirty that make money
-those who hold patents/copyrights
-a self-selected group that seeks to influence a particular social issue or action
- the party will have a specific program aimed at causing a particular action
Marx: Issues with capitalist authority/ bureaucracy
Weber: Forms of legitimate authority
traditional - Pope
Legal- Authority the person holds because of some legal structure (police)
charismatic - having power because of personality (MLK or Oprah)
society is held together by its values (laws, religions, social norms)
-crime deviance: offers society the opportunity to reinforce its norms by punishing the deviant
-or change its norms and not punish the deviant
-In traditional societies, integration or cohesion is called mechanical (homogeneity of social groups and their values)
In modern societies integration or cohesion is called organic. (hetergeneous and contribute to solidarity by playing a specialized role)
3 Objections to Functionalism
It Is teleological: the outcomes of social phenomena are given as their causes.
Because it describes and explains things “as they are” it isn’t competent in: dealing with historical issues or dealing with conflict
For the same reason, it is uncritical (too accepting) of the status quo.
George Herbert Mead
mind self and society
- influenced by cooley and dewey
- taught at UM then Chicago
The social developement of self-self arises and a child's social experience using language and symbols (Imitation, role play, games, "generalized other")
the self as object- reflexive, look at myself as an object the way others view me
the "I" and the "ME"-balance. I is creative and impulsive changing the world, me is judgmental, controlling, imprinted by the world
Even thinking is social-learned symbols and words
I think before I act - beyond behaviorism and structuralism
individuals react to stimuli
(mead - before acting, individuals consider the socially defined meaning of both the stimulus and their potential responses)
Early federal attempts to enforce racial equality in the south are abandoned
15th amendment overturned; 14th reinterpreted
"Jim Crow" discriminatory laws emerge through the region
the north is better, but still steeped in white supremecy
founder of united negro immprovement association & african communities league
"back to africa" movement
wanted those of african ancestry to redeem africa and for eauropean colonial powers to leave it
a popular african american spokesperson
labeled an accomodator for cooperating with white people
helped raise funds for black education institutions
his autobiography, up from slavery 1901
born in maryland and sheltered from racism
first encountered harsh racism in college (U of Berlin, Fisk U., Harvard)
first AA PhD
taught at Penn:
the philadelphia Negro (first AA sociological work)
strong empirical work to demonstrate that the problem of black did not stem from their own actions or inabilities, but from the difficulties they faced as former slaves in a world of white supremacy.
socially constructed black/white division that is collective/individual, hisotrical/existential, consious/irrational
-saw black american culture as an American phenomenon (not african)
-moral and cultural advance essential for sacial uplift
-more attention to impact of social conditions on the black psyche
-more use of standard sociological technique and empiricism
-more detached observation
-Robert Park believed in melting pot-prior patterns will gradually be abandoned in favor of white culture
Asserting the importance of the African lens for AA experiences
Understanding colonialism as international racism
“Afrocentrism” - Asante
Understanding colonialism as international racism
groups and individuals are arranged in a social hierarchy according to ascribed and acquire characteristics
race is seen as advantaging or disadvantaging individuals
Witness oppression; appeal to public consience
a voice form the south
the colored women's office - the (redemptive) power of AA women
Feminism; mental health
the "yellow" wallpaper
chicago women's school of sociology
worked against race discrimination in railroads
southern horrors; Lynch Law in all its phases
uses marriage and women's work to explain the patriarchal distortion of social life
On the Valuation of Housework
Marx agrees with Hegel that conflict is the basis of social change, BUT …
Hegel thought it was a conflict of ideas,Marx thinks it is a conflict over the material and production
Class, Status, and Party
Marx: Scientific and empirical view
I call that “Rationality” or “Rationalization.”
Leads to disenchantment-lack of finding beauty in the world
1. Our consciousness is social, our language is social – even “I” and “mine” are social.
2. Therefore, “I” is not all of self.
It is like a nucleus in the larger cell of self.
The other part of self is social.
3. Sometimes we equate “I” with our body.
Even then there is a social dimension to “I.”
“The Looking Glass Self”- 1.Idea of other’s perception 2.Idea of other’s judgment 3.Self feeling
“Primary Groups”-Family, Playground, Neighborhood
Goffman offers us a more flexible, agent-centered option: dramaturgy.
We are all acting all the time anyway. We can show different faces and lines with different people and not be “out of face” – not be inappropriate to our identity.
-EX: Black students can study opera and go home and listen to rap without feeling hypocritical
Contemporary Feminist Theory
Patricia Madoo Lengermann & Jill Niebrugge
Ritzer: Comtemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots
1. What about the women? (Description)
2. Why is all this as it is? (Explanation)
How can we make the social world more just for women and all others? (Action)
women [or other oppressed groups] possess knowledge unavailable to the socially privileged, particularly knowledge of social relations.
Recent insights in feminism/gender studies:
grew up here
house 1st union (right where new union is)
taught 1st soc course at MI 1895
Marx and Durkheim both died 2 years after one of their kids died. Cooley=3 kids. Died 2 years after his daughter died.
`everything about us is social! We don't exist without society. Individual is part of the larger social reality if not an extension of it.
Language is something that we get from other people. Even I and mine are social. Our self includes all that we own and that we relate to.
1. idea of other's perception
2. idea of other's judgement
3. self feeling
Also, Cooley was very introverted, sick all the time, 7 years to finish undergrad
Where people become socialized and less selfish
living now, Cooley would probably add:
Media: digital world as a primary group
work: secondary group. all about yourself promotes selfishness because you are there to get something for yourself.
Influenced by (and reacted to) both Cooley and Dewey
Writers block: published little
SELF arises in the child’s social experience, using language & symbols
2. Role play
4. “Generalized Other”
The SELF is reflexive:
“I“ acts, “Me“ constrains.
-Stroud argued that increased partisan selectivity has been made possible by the new media. He talks about motivated reasoning, which is when we hold on to our previous viewpoints, and this causes selective exposure. his theory was that all reasoning is motivated, and that we strive for accuracy and partisan stability (it would be better to be wrong with the majority than right on our own)
involve highlighting different parts of an issue in order to change opinion. an example of this is the KKK rally, is it seen as free speech or threat to public safety?
-emphasis framing is more relevant in society
places a public issue in a general context and usually takes the form of an in-depth background report. an example would be a story about a war that addressed the historical context of the relations between the two sides and the factors that contributed to the current conflict
episodic framing depicts issues in terms of individual instances or specific events. this typically features dramatic visual footage and picture
(when talking about crime, this brings up the idea of racial stereotypes)
-Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA): bans “soft money” contributions, increased individual contribution limits from 2000 to 3000, “you can’t spend your money to talk to the american people about a campaign”. “I approve this message” has to go at the end of an advertisement.
-ban on electioneering communications was shut down because the BCRA violated 2 clauses in the 1st amendment
The Partisan Press
The Commercial Media
the penny press increased circulation, there were independent editors and writers, ordinary events become news, investigative news journalism, there was now a profit motive, journalists were working class young men
Yellow Journalism and the Muckrakers
The Rise of Objectivity and Lap Dog Journalism
journalists needed to protect and inform the public and include only facts, objectivity is difficult to achieve, there was a wall between the business side and the editorial side
-WWII / Supporting the Establishment: personal details of leaders were now out of bounds, no more political scandals, we didn’t even know our own president was disabled, lapdog journalists were more highly educated white men, this era was mainly due to the significant foreign threat
The Modern Era
personal lives are no longer off limits, rise of political pundits, credibility of the media plummets, media conglomerates and fragmentation, a declining trust in media
Federal Elections Campaign Act (FECA)
this implemented enforceable limits on size of individual contributions, amount of spending, and public financing, this made almost everything regulatable. This caused longer, more centralized campaigns, and altered campaign strategies. Hard money = the FEC regulated individual contributions. PACS= political action committees who could give their pooled funds. This also included the “magic words provision” which created a lot of rules in relation to what could be said in political ads.
-how does the role of negativity differ? in the first stage it might help them differentiate between the candidates, once people have selected their candidate, it might undermine their choice) “I was going to vote for this person, but now I am not going to, so I will just stay home"
-negativity can demobilize if two conditions are met:
1. exposure happens after selecting candidate
2. only negativity toward selected candidate
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