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was very interest in class relations in capitalist societies
-He believed that there were 2 main groups in capitalist societies
-Class was determined solely by one’s relations to the Means of Production
-Believed that class would grow increasingly divided
Gender is socially constructed, True or False
referes to the gender system in societies where men have a disproportionate amount of power
-Nearly all societies are patriarchal, through the degree caries greatly
is a group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves
· A process of increased interconnectedness, especially in terms of economics, politics, and culture
is a process of increased interconnectedness, especially in terms of economics, politics, and culture
-Massive Wealth for some
A social network that ties all of one's relationships together. Family, friends, coworkers, colleagues. Connects individuals to other people.
is the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people
-Example friend of a friend
Democratic- leader involves the group in decisions
Authoritarian- doesn't involve others in decision making; gives orders with little input.
Solomon Asch: group pressure and conformity
Stanley Milgram: obeying authority
Irving Janis: groupthink
are groups that associate for the purpose of achieving some goal or action
Many take on a highly rational form, with a clear chain of command and standard operation procedures (SOPs)
-Formality is often for the purposes of legality and legitimacy, increasingly important in modernity
Standard operating procedures. Many groups take on a rational view and follow SOPs.
Legitimacy and legal purposes.
Becoming increasingly important in modern society and politics. May be needed to prove no wrong doing.
Clear hierarchy of authority; chain of command
Written rules governing
Role of officials: job description, full time, salaried
Role of officials within the organization separate form their private lives.
rules make everyone follow same procedure
attempt at fairness
increased job security
1.Hard to get things done, because there is a hierarchy and chain of commands(have to go through all these people/organization)
2.Dehumanizing, workers are not considered as human but instead what they cancontribute to society
3. No creativity, because there are so many rules you have to go by therules and cannot be creative
4. Rules dominate Goals
-Occasional rules dominate goals
The McD Model goes beyond fast food
Emphasis on efficiency, predictability, quantification, and control of behavior.
is what we gain in knowledge, networks, and status through participation and membership in groups and organizations
-Social Capital contributes to feelings of well-being and belonging in addition to economic success
Culture is built out of norms.
These norms represent the values of the group.
When individuals and groups deviate from norms, society responds.
Deviance can range from chewing gum in the wrong place to capital murder and beyond.
· Deviant behavior- does not conform to a society of community
· Deviance is normal, it happens all the time!
· How can something be deviant if it happens all the time?
o When a group decides to treat something deviant.
Not all deviance is crime, and not all crime is deviant
Deviance is in the "eye of the beholder".
does not conform to a society or community
-Deviance is normal, it happens all the time.
-How can something be Deviant if it happens all the time? When a group decides to treat something as deviant.
-Not all deviance is a crime and not all of criminal behavior is deviant
-Deviance is in the “eye of the beholder”
-Corporations, governments, organizations, and social groups can all take part in deviance.
Corporations, governments, organizations, and social groups can all take part in deviance.
ex Corporations, governments, organizations, and social groups can all take part in deviance, ranging from the homeless to religious cults to punks
is the act of setting mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
is the act of abiding by society’s norms or simply following the rules of group life
Can be positive or negative
Sanctions can be enacted formally or informally
The degree of sanctions varies according to the importance and type of norm broken
Strain theory argues that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals. Robert Merton
Carried out by those in non-manual labor, higher-status jobs. Typically non-violent but can be damaging to society.
White collar crimes include embezzlement, fraud, illegal sales, etc.
Those who perpetrate these crimes are rarely prosecuted.
· murder, prostitution- Violent Crimes
· homes, cars, etc. Property offenses
· prostitution, drug use - Victimless crime
· ID theft, hacking- Cyber crimes
Men are more likely to be both perpertrators and victims of crime and to be incarcerated.
The "gender contract" may lead to differential treatment with authorities.
Ties to children and others may prevent women from engaging in deviant acts.
Only deals with deviance that is criminal
Made up of three parts:
Police- arrest, charge
Courts- witness, most powerful deciding factor
Local- city, campus
Can be state and county.
1. Separation of criminals from society
2. Punishment of criminal behavior
3. Deterrence of criminal behavior
4. Rehabilitation of criminals
The social location of a group is significant in terms of the life chances of members.
Consequences for individuals in all areas of life, including education, employment, and medical care.
social class. when the poor people were locked down at the bottom of the ship and the rich were on the life boats.
1st class- 60%
2nd class- 36%
Standards of Equality
Slavery- ownership of certain people
Caste- status for life (disappearing to a point)
Estate system- inherit your position and responsibilities
Class- positions based on economics
·While class systems do allow for social mobility, opportunities are not evenly distributed across social groups.
·Class has a significant impact on many aspects of life, including education, occupation, place of residence, marriage partner, and more.
·Often referred to as a socio-economic status (SES) by sociologists
· Karl Marx was very interested in class relations in capitalist societies.
· Believed that there were two main groups in capitalist societies.
· Class was determined solely by ones relation to the means of production.
· Believed that classes would grow increasingly divided.
o Wealthiest people in a class system
o Make up about 5% of the US population
o Possess most of the wealth of the country
o Can divide into old money and new money
o Professionals (attorneys, physicians, professors) and managers
o Make up about 15% of the US population
o Many have high income and advanced degrees
o “White collar” workers
o Have a broad range of incomes
o Make up about 33% of the US population
o White-collared jobs, non-manual
o Blue collar or service industry workers
o Less likely to have college degrees
o Make up about 30% of the US population
·Is the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system
· Closed vs Open system
· Vertical social mobility is the movement between social classes and is often called either upward mobility or downward mobility
· Intergenerational and Intragenerational
is the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social class
-Closed system vs. open system
-Vertical social mobility is the movement between social classes and is often called either upward mobility or downward mobility
-Intergenerational and Intergenerational
Feminization of Poverty
-Because of social changes, including divorce and the increasing normalization of single parenting, there are more female-headed households today than throughout modern US history
-Of these families, 28% were poor in 2007
Ever-increasing polarization between haves and have-nots
New opportunities for everyone
Entrenched technological divide
What will globalization bring?
-There are ever-increasing polarization between haves and have-nots
-New opportunities for everyone, ex. Cheaper and easier travel
-Entrenched technological divide
Why in the paintings of medieval Europe are children portrayed as little adults, with mature faces and the same style of dress as adults?
a. People living in medieval Europe did not have a conception of a phase of development called “childhood,” but rather only disguised between infants and adults.
Many people are willing to discount their own perceptios rather than buck a group’s consensus.
Which of the criticisms Ritzer offers of McDonaldization is most similar to Weber’s idea of the iron cage?
3 Worlds of development
1. First World- advanced capitalist nations, ex. US
2. Second World- Marxist/Socialist nations3. Third World- Poor nations
§ Global development- process in which advanced nations help poor nations advance
§ Modernization generally leads to a shift in values from the absolute to the more rational
Economic/political system allowing powerful to exploit weaker
Rich nations keep poor nations from advancing
Nations are all part of global division of labor
-The theories are a rejection of market theories, built on Marxian ideas
-Global inequality is seen as the result of exploitation by wealthy countries
-Global inequality steamed from colonialism and has been reinforced by global trade and finance
-Only way to fix is to overthrow entire system
· Developed in 1970s by Immanuel Wallerstein, World System Analysis (WSA) sees the entire world economy as one system
· There are core, peripheral, and semi-peripheral nations whose uneven balance of wealth and power defines the current order.
· Without debt relief, the system will be nearly impossible to change
is a collection of people who share some attribute, identity with one another and interact with each other
Social groups provide the values, norms, and rules that guide people’s lives
-Members feel as if they share membership
is any group that an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility towards
is different because it is simply a temporary gathering of people in a public place where members may interact but do not identity with each other and will not remain in contact
Ex. An aggregate, a collection of people who share a physical location but do no have lasting social relations. A football game.
A statistic. Individuals in the category may have no awareness of each other.
usually involves more face to face interaction, greater cooperation, and deeper feelings of belonging. Ex. Friends and family
Based on large landholdings by a small number of people in an agricultural society
The Lower Class
Many poor people who typically have lower levels of literacy than other classes-Make up about 20% of the US population
a class that knows its real interests
Upper Class in the US
-Wealthiest people in a class system
-Make up about 5 % of the US population
-Posses most of the wealth of the country
-Can divide into Old money and New money
-Professionals (attorneys, physicians, professors) and managers
-Make up about 15% of the US population
-Many have high levels of income and advanced degrees (Both is not required)
is based on an income 3 times the cost of monthly groceries-Many are women, children, and elderly
(U.S. Western Europe)
-Advanced industrial economy
-AKA 1st World
(Mexico South Korea)
-Moderate wealth and living standards
-AKA 2nd World
(sub-Saharan Africa, Bangladesh)
-Benefit least from world economy
-AKA 3rd world countries
the process in which advanced nations help poor nations advance
the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people by a foreign power for an extended period
1. Intensity decreases
2. Formal organization increase3. Stability and exclusivity
3 important studies to know on conformity
1. Solomon Asch: Group Pressure
2. Stanley Milgram: Obedience to authority3. Irving L. Janis Groupthink
1. Clear hierarchy of authority, chain of command
2. Written rules governing the actions of all officials
3. Roles of officials: job description, full time, salaried
4. Role of officials within the organization separate from their private lives5. Officials and workers do not own the business, they work for it
are crimes which are carried out by those in a non-manual labor, higher status jobs
-There crimes are typically non-violent but can be extremely damaging to society
-White color crimes include embezzlement, various kinds of fraud, illegal sales and more
-Those who perpetrate these crimes are rarely prosecuted
Criminal Justice System
3 parts and 3 branches
-Only deals with deviance that is criminal, made up of 3 parts
3 branches at all 3 levels
The US Prison system
-Crime and punishment remain top priorities for Americans
-Currently it cost more than 25,000 per year per inmate
-More then 25 percent of African American men are under the authority of the penal system
-Imprisonment is not a powerful deterrent
3. Prestige-respect from others
-Made up primarily of ‘White collar’ workers
-Have a broad range of incomes
-Make up about 33% of the US population-White collared jobs, non-manual jobs
Working (Lower-Middle Class)
-“Blue Collar” or service industry workers
-Less likely to have collage degrees
-Make up about 30% of the US population
2 types of poverty
you cannot afford the basics at all, like food/roof over your head. Homeless.
process in which advanced nations help poor nations advance
-Modernization generally leads to a shift in values form the absolute to the more rational
are seen as the best path for optimal global development
-Low government intervention should be coupled with “free” unconstrained individual action
-Tends to be ethnocentric, not considering local traditions
1. Rural to Urban areas in the developing world
2. Southern to Northern hemispheres
(with varying degrees)
-Religion and culture
-Kin or ancestry
-Sense of shared identity
The process involves both formal and informal inequities, including segregated schools and businesses, along with differentiated rights-These inequalities shape the lives of all those in the racialized society
-Individual consciousness and behavior
-Ideologies of supremacy
Sex and gender do/or do not always align with each other
meaning having an abnormal chromosome makeup and missed or indeterminate male and female sex characteristics
and glass escalator reproduce gender inequality by favoring male employees
way more for men to dominate women in the workplace
-Was considered the norm until 1970’s
-Still the majority of women report they have been sexually harassed in the workplace
with age we gradually withdraw from social participation and simultaneously are relieved of social responsibility
older persons form subcultures in order to interact with other with similar backgrounds
2 or more people who consider themselves related because of blood, marriage or adoption
Critical social institution that functions as part of society
The family is also a distinct social group with its own roles, patterns, and behaviors
U.S. Families Types
Non-families and households, Nuclear,
Gay and Lesbian
Until the 1960s, African Americans had few legal rights or protection
1954 Brown Vs. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
1950’s Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr.1964 President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law