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sociology is the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and the consequences of difference.
The sociological imagination
The sociological imagination is an awareness of the relationship between who we are as individuals and the social forces that shape our lives. One might apply this to a particular social problem and to see our place in the world in new ways.
** a blessing and a curse, can lead one to feel trapped within society, or how to better understand how to navigate through society
sociologists rely on data and draw their conclusions about society based off gathering data fromt hose involved in the activities they are studying. Surveys are a common way of collecting this data.
The freedom individuals have to choose and act
The study of society is at the core of sociology. Society is our social environment. Society consists of patterns of relationships and social networks in which we operate.
concentrates on largescale phenomena or entire civilizations. It focuses on society as a whole and how broad social forces shape our lives.
Public Issues would be considered a phenomena of macrosociology because it is an obstacles that many individuals in similar positions face because of social factors.
stresses the study of small groups and the analysis of our everyday experiences and interactions.
Emphasizes the significance of perception. Private troubles would be considered a phenomena of microsociology because they are obstacles that individuals face as individuals.
A sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of society are sturctured to maintain its stability. Society and its parts are structred to provide wocial order and maintain stability. (durkheim)
a sociological approach that assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources including housing, money, access to services and political representation. How the status quo is established and maintained by those who control key resources. (marx)
a sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole.
Society is the product of our everday interactions through which we establish shared meanings and this construct order. (goffman)
is sociology for research, not necessarily applied.
The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering organizations or restructuring social institutions.
is the transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable. an example of this is EX: measuring “religiosity” as the average number of times monthly that a person prays.
A testable statement about the relationshop between two or more variables
A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions
A relationshop between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other.
a relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other
a sample for which every member of an entire population reflects the phenomenon under study.
is the degree to which a measure of scale truly reflects the phrenomenon under study.
is how the study is set up, and it must be considered carefully because it can make a huge difference in the result
a study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire that provides researchers with information about how people think and act.
the subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher.
The Hawthorne effect
The unintended influence that the observers of experiments can have on their subjects.
The systematic coding and objective recording of data guided by some rationale. allows us a better understanding of our cultural practices.
code of ethics
the standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
-Maintain objectivity and integrity in research
-Respect the subjects right to privacy and dignity
-protect subjects from personal harm
-seek informed consent- when data is collected or behavior occurs
-acknowledge any collaberation and assistence
-disclose financial sources
Culture shapes our perception and understanding of the external world, simplifying our day to day interactions. Culture is the water, and we are the fish. the totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
*culture is the tool that enables the individual to adjust to the problem of living. How to beling, protect ourselves. etc.
are common practices or beliefs shared by all societies. EX: need for food, shelter, and clothing, sports, marriage, funerals
is the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior, whereas sociology is just hte study of the relationship between the individual and society
is the process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through discovery or invention
is a period of adjustment when the non material culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions... has to do with material and non material culture..examples: when people are adjusting to typing everything for business instead of handwriting
is a system of shared symbols and nonverbal gestures and expressions that facilitates day to day exchange in socity.
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
is the idea that the language a person uses shapes his or her perception of reality and therefor his or her thoughts and actions..... language preceeds cognition (ex; colors)
are a collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, proper, or bad, -- within a culture.
an established standard of behavior maintained by a society. Norms reflect the values of a society
(5 types: folkways, mores, formal, informal, laws)
are norms governing everyday behavior, whose violation raise comparatively litttle concern (jaywalking, underage drinking)
norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society (bad: rape, murder, incest)
norms that are generally written down and that specify strict punishments for violators
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm the purpose is to influence future behavior
ex: if a person shows up to a formal interveiw without a shirt, they wont get they job. ex: bring your own bag to the grovery store
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society. ex: snowboarder subculture
specialized langhage used by members of a group or subculture
a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspets of the larger culture
the feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices. ethnocentric tendencies can lead to culture shock
*Sociology is more than common sense
common sense knowledge is sometimes accurate but not always reliable because it rests on commonly held beliefs rather than systematic analysis of facts. *Findings of sociologists may seem like common sense because they deal with familiar facets of everyday life. The difference is that sociological findings have been tested by researchers, analyzed and evaluated in the form of sociological theory.
The development of sociology
comes from the wide range of theories in which the diversity of social behavior has been described
Globalization is of Sociological interest
The emergence of starbucks in China demonstrates the cultural impact of clobalization. Not only effects coffee consumption patterns but also the international trade in coffee beans which are harvested mainly in developing countires.
are considered to be obstacles that individuals in similar positions face. They are known as “public issues”. Ex: unemployment is a public issue when millions of people lose their jobs due to social factors
are considered to be obstacles that individuals face as individuals. They are “private troubles”. Ex: unemployment is a private trouble when an individual fails to get a job.
The hamburger miracle
illustrates how a hamburger is a miracle because it is a symbol of our society’s schared knowledge and skills. Another example of this concept would be for example would be making a sandwhich from pure scratch
Sociology is most commonly associated with the study of groups.
However there is no such thing as a group apart from the individuals who
compose it. individuals act within the contexts of their relationships.
The consequences of difference-
Sociology looks at how economic, social and cultural resources are distributed and how they create opportunites and obstacles for individuals or groups.
Sociology is a science because..
just like other sciences it involves the organized, systematic study of phenomena (human behavior) in order to enhance understanding.
*It is distinct from natural sciences because Social sciences is the study of social features of humans and ways in which they interact and change, while natural science is the study of how the physical features interact and change.
A Theory in sociology is
set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions or behavior. Example: Durkheim theorized that “Suicide varies inversely with the degree of integration of the social groups of which the individual forms a part.”
Sociological theories are tested by gathering data, and comparing and analyzing this data. They are applied by analyzing the data we find and creating theories and testing them. Theories are created to be tested and lead to conclusions.
Durkeim’s study of Suicide
was sociological because he studied suicide rates of countries on a macro level then analyzed to look at other factors of social integration on suicide at a micro level and combined the two to come to a conclusion. He theorized that “suicide varies inversely with the degree of integration of the social groups of which the individual forms a part.
theorized that “Suicide varies inversely with the degree of integration of the social groups of which the individual forms a part.” Studied suicide rates of countries on a macro level then analyzed to look at other factors of social integration on suicide at a micro level and combined the two to come to a conclusion.
wanted to know how power and inequality shape outcomes, the significance of power and control over resources. According to Marx, Social inequality is determined by ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources. “those who control the means of production rule the world.”
combined an emphasis on the analysis of the everyday lived experience with a comitemnt to investigating power and inequality based on race. His research revealed the social provesses that contirbuted to maintenence of racial separation.
Sociology’s primary professional organization is
ASA (American sociological association) which is a “non profit membership association dedicated to advancing sociology as a scientific discipline and profession serving the public good.”
The sociological imagination is important to understand Hernando Washington’s
story because it helps us to understand the biographical and historical context of Hernando Washington’s life that may have led him to do the things he did.
The steps in the research process are:
-Defining the problem
-Reviewing the literature
-Forumulating the hypothesis
-Collecting and analyzing data:
-Developing the conclusion
Is the relationshop between a condition or variable and a particular consequence with one event leading to the other.
A variety of reserach techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data.
american sociology association, published the code of ethics
confidentiality is an issue
because the subjects privacy must not be invaded.
is an issue because fuding sources could influence research findings
theorietical orientation necessarily influences the questions they ask or the quesitons they fail to ask. Feminist theories reject that family and work are separate notions.
Some data collection tequniques are not scientific
because they can lead the audience to a certain answer. (glamour online surveys, person on the street)
Humans need culture
to act as the “yolk” that guides them through society
material elements of culture
physical appearance, car, house, stuff, laptop, cell phone
non material elements of culture
language, freedom, individualism
core american values
privacy, freedom, rights, individualism
the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before. the basis of cultural production
the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
geographic and historical forces
help to shape culture because they determine what is good/bad and normal to help set norms
many people appeal to superheros such as ironman and batman because they rely on human innovation for their strenghth through the use of technology, etc.
include efficiency, success, wealth, technology
formal norms enforced by the state
the tendency to assume that ones own culture and way of life represent what is normal or superior to all others
the tendency to see the home culture as inferior to a foreighn culture
reverse culture shock
the feelings of disorientation and uncertainty experienced when one returns to their own culture after being immersed in a nother culture.
facebook has changed our norms in regaurd to social interaction