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leave a role
1.) doubt 3.) turning point
2.) search for alternatives 4.) assume new role
smaller, more intimate relationships, long lasting
teach you how you be aware of your looking glass self
Perception shaped by experience
- we analyze to make a definition of situation
o refers to groups we use as standards against which we evaluate ourselves.
o They may include family, , your neighbors, teachers,
o The group you choose as your point of reference does not have to be one to which you actually belong; it may include a group to which you aspire.
changes in behaviors due to real of imagined influences
normally happes without us noticing
subjects were dircted to deliver electric shock
1.) Normative- Save the NBA (interest)
2.) Coercive- Jail (force)
3.) Utlilartion- College (reward0
a system where people are ranked in a hierarchy of superior to inferior
not the choice of individuals but the hierarchy is built into the system
can't associate with people in other castes
caste determined at birthsocial institutions will resist change as long as they believe in letitimizing institutions
The application of the law of cause and effect. If you do something good you will putyourself in a good karma and receive something good and vice versa.
one’splace in the social hierarchy is also determined at birth. Contacts between different estates arepermitted, but marriage between estates is forbidden (ex) feudal systems in western Europe during middle ages
Legitimating Rationale: Socialrank is assigned by God
determined at birth
can associate with people in other classes but not marry with them
legitimizing rationale: god determines rank
changes across the generation/
parents get a highschool degree and kids get a college degree
1) general agreemnt within a society regarding important values and norms
2) when one part changes other parts will change in response
3) Society seeks stability and avoids conflict is not normal but dysfunctional
The conflict paradigm
based on assumptions opposite to the functionalist paradigm
There are subgroups of people in society who have different beliefs and have conflicting values and goals
Society is never in harmony/conflict is normal
: focus on the interactions of individuals and the context of those interactions
broader social phenomena, social structures, systems, and institution
interested in how ppl construct their own social worlds/how people use symbols to make sense of their environments
a label that is applied to things with similar characteristics or attributes
o Focuses not only on the objective nature of behavior but on tis meaning as well
expressed in numbers
described the evolution of society:
1)Savagery: gathering, hunting, and fishing
2)Barbarism: horticulture-production of food
3) Civilization: our own society which has developed agriculture and industry
cultural realitivity: argued that a culture can be understood only in terms of its own values and in its own context
no single value, ceremony, or other cultural trait can be fully understood if it is taken by itself.
o interaction between the individual and his or her social environment
o The self ( or that person we are) is essentially made up of those things that we take from society
§ Values, ideas, possessions, habits, etc
o described this process he called the Looking glass Self
§ 1. First, we imagine our appearance or image in the eyes of the other
§ 2. Second, we imagine some judgment of that appearance
§ 3. Third, and finally, we experience some sort of self-feeling-pride or mortification
o Our “self” involves 2 interacting things- the “I” and the “me”
o The “me” is that part of myself that is based on how others see me ( the self as object being viewed)The “I” is one’s personal reaction to a situation (self as subject doing the viewing
§ 1. The ability to see oneself as an object that is subject to the scrutiny of others
§ 2. Ability to imagine what others think of you3. Self-discipline to take into account other people’s point of view
to gain cultural competency
manifest is intended
to continue the structures of society
latent is unintended
working class-concerned about their children conforming to the expectations of others
middle class-concered about their children being able to be independent
1) show how to behave2) set standards for how we evalutate ourselves
People begin to change their attitudes and behavior in anticipation of joining a group.
o involves learning new norms, values attitudes and behavior.
o can either be voluntary or involuntary.
goal is to totally resocialize individuals who come into them
they cut off the individual from any outside factors which may disrupt the resocilizing process
acts which are only bad becasue they are prohibited by law
The totality ofbeliefs and sentiments common to the average members of the same society.(Durkheim). Made up of values, beliefs norms and goals shared by people in aparticular society.
occurs when people are not well integrated into society
Work on social identity helps us to make sense of the powerof labels. Argued that a stigma can affect ones social interactions in twoways. Observed that the results are the same regardless whether the personachieves a stigma or has it ascribed to them.
Slavery can exist within caste, estate, and class systems. slaves are people whose function is to serve others and who have no political rights of their own, no right to own property... etc. form of social stratification in which some people own other people.
Children are very likely to end up in the same social classas their parents.
The money that an individual or family group receives eachyear (from wages, salary, investments and so on).
The total value of the assets owned by an individual orfamily group.
People of different social classes have different patternsof values, beliefs and behavioral norms, which is passed on to their children. People who are poor usually are poor becausetheir degree to which these values, beliefs and behavioral norms are out ofwhack with those of mainstream society.
By the time slum children are age six or seven they haveusually absorbed the basic values and attitudes of their subculture. Thereafter they are psychologically unreadyto take full advantage of changing conditions or improving opportunities thatmay develop on their life time. Viciouscycle that is passed on from generation to generation.
Unjustly stating or believing that the cause of a problemresides in the individuals or groups who experience the problem, when the realsource or cause of the problem in the social environment.
The process whereby students are divided into categories sothat they can be assigned in groups to various kinds of classes. Usually placed in a category on how fast thechildren are able to learn.
Mobility that results from such social facts as changes inthe occupational structure, immigrations and birth rates.
Oversimplified generalized images of members of a particulargroup.
an individual discriminates against another indivdual or group of individuals
Involves a denial of opportunities and equal rights toindividuals and groups that results from the normal operation of society.
Minority group ofpeople because of their physical and cultural characteristics, are signed outfrom the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequaltreatment. Basically it’s the exclusionfrom full participations in the life of the society. The Dominant group membership is that one enjoys greater privilege.
Generally applied to acts of discrimination that occur atthe institutional level or, when they occur at the individual level, areconsistent with institutional patterns of discriminations.
Studied the degree to which differences in male and femalepersonalities were a result of socialization rather than biological factors.Found a standardized male and female personality in each culture.
Durkheim’s suspecting that suicide rates were manifestationsof he amount of structural strain in the social system. As societies grew larger, more complex, andmore specialized, the things that traditionally have held people together wouldbegin to fail. Merton saw structural strain as a cause of deviance, notsuicide.
One learns to be deviant through socialization. Deviance is a frequently learned socialbehavior. Ex. People smoke weed because they want to be accepted socially.
gives labels to people as a shortcut-represent behavior characteristics
these labels can affect the way an individual is treated
deviance and conformity about how people respond to these labels
Danger of feeling the force of the stigma because they arevulnerable to being found out.
Caste-based duties, will inevitable be born into a highercaster in the next life, but if duties are not carried out you will lose castein the next life.
Occupational groups within castes in India.
A person’s place in the hierarchy of an estate system isdetermined at birth. Contacts betweenmembers of different estates are permitted though the contact is usuallyimpersonal (Ex. Boss to employee).
The highest stratum, made up of the aristocracy or nobility.
Made up by the clergy. The church had a great deal of power because it owned a great deal ofland.
ORINGINALLY: Peasants, people who were tiled legally tospecific parcels of land. LATER: included merchants and craftsmen as well aspeasants.
The observation that the intensity of social inequalityvaries with the economic structure of society.
Measures look at people’s income, education, occupationalprestige, and wealth and provide some overall assessment of peoples place inthe social stratification system.
Norm that requires an individual to marry someone fromoutside of his or her own kinship, religious or social class group.
Norm that requires an individual to marry someone fromwithin his or her own kinship, religious or social group.
Mala in se/example:
acts which are evil in themselves
focus on what causes deviance in the individual
also what causes people to do things that are innately evil(mala in se)
lack of regulation on the goals and desires of the individual leaving people without social normsleft people in a time of uncertanity(anomie) wihtout norms
1) criminal behavior is learned
2)learning occurs in intmate groups
3) people establish legal codes as favorable or unfavorable
4) learning criminal behavior is the same as any other learning process
Social Control Theory
everyone has the potential to violate the law
1) behaviors are controlled by internal/external sources
1)attachment to others
2)commitment to activities
3)involvement in activities leaves less time for illegal acts
4)beliefs: people who share the same morals
2) resistant to change
3) bolstered by a widely accepted legitimating rationale
"high society": richest and most prestigous families
"newly rich": may be wealthy but lack prestige to be included in the community
upper class has competing centers of wealth and power
union membershipmore conscious and uncertain about their class identity
calls attention to the ways that wealth and poverty are defined
the consequences of being labeled as poor
lifestyle: how a person lives day to day
life changes: what an individual can expect to get from life
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