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-Ideas, feelings, and ways of behaving that are created by people that affect our lives, such as language, and are accepted.
-Social facts shape social forces.
Day-to-day activities from birth to death that make up a person’s life
Problems extending beyond the individual and local environment.
These are institutional in nature and often involve crises in institutional arrangement.
-The high unemployment rate across the United States is an example of an issue.
1. theological stage where people took a religious view of society
2. metaphysical stage where people understood society as natural
3. scientific or positivist stage where society would be
governed by reliable knowledge
-sought to analyze and explain how conflict drives social change.
-the system of production accompanying the Industrial Revolution gave rise to two distinct classes:
bourgeoisie & proletariat
The profit-driven owners of means of production (materialistic)
The system of social ties that connects people to one
another and to the wider society
Describes a state in which the ties attaching the individual to others in the society are weak
Describes of a state in which the ties attaching the individual to the group are such that the person has no life beyond the group
Describes a state in which the ties attaching the individual to the group are disrupted due to dramatic changes in economic circumstances such as a recession, a depression, or an economic boom.
Describes a state in which the ties attaching the individual to the group involve discipline so oppressive that it offers no chance of release.
Made it his task to analyze and explain how the Industrial Revolution affected social actions with emphasis on the forces that motivate people to act.
1. Traditional- a goal is pursued because it was pursued in the past
2. Affectional- a goal is pursued in response to an emotion, such as revenge, love, or loyalty
3.Value-Rational- a valued goal is pursued with a deep and abiding awareness of the symbolic significance of the actions taken to pursue
4. Instrumental- a goal is pursued by the most efficient means, often w/o consider the appropriateness or consequences of those means
Assumes that social interactions do not stop at political borders and that the most pressing social problems are part of a larger, global situation.
-Introduced other concepts to the functionalist perspective that help us think about a part’s overall affect on society.
-Introduced "latent" & "manifest" dysfunctions.
Focuses on conflict over scarce and valued resources and the strategies dominant groups use to create an d protect the social arrangements and practices that give them an advantage in accessing and controlling those resources.
Conflict as an inevitable fact of social life and as
the most important agent for social change
dominant and subordinate groups, as well
as practices that the dominant groups have established consciously or unconsciously to promote and protect their interests
an explanation that members of dominant groups give to justify the social arrangements that benefit them over others
social interaction and related concepts of self-awareness/reflexive thinking, symbols, and negotiated order.
the various techniques that sociologists and other investigators use to formulate or answer meaningful research questions, and to collect, analyze, and interpret data in ways that allow other researchers to check the results.
Step 1: Defining the topic for investigation
Step 2: Reviewing the literature
Step 3: Identifying core concepts
Step 4: Choosing a research design & data-gathering strategies
An approach to data collection that relies on two assumptions:
a. knowledge about the world is acquired through observation
b. the truth of that knowledge is confirmed by verifications
the truth of knowledge is confirmed by others making the same observations
personal face-to-face or telephone conversations between an interviewer and a respondent
a set of questions given to respondents who read the instructions and fill in the answers themselves; most common method of data collection
the wording and sequence of questions are set in advance and cannot be altered during the interview
question and answer sequence is spontaneous and resembles a normal conversation in that the questions are not worded in advance and are not asked in a set order
a phenomenon in which research subjects alter their behavior when they learn they are being observed
data that have been collected by other researchers for some other purpose
1. the independent variable must precede in time the dependent variable
2. the 2 variables must be correlated
3. eliminate spurious correlations
a correlation that is coincidental or accidental because the independent and dependent variables are not actually related; rather, some third variable related to both of them makes it seem as though they are
customary ways of handling the routine matters of everyday life
the process by which most people come to learn the ways of their culture and accept them as natural
gender expectations are learned and culturally imposed through a variety of social mechanisms, including socialization, situational constraints, and commercialization of gender ideals
the process in which people take as their own and accept as binding the norms, values, beliefs, and language that their socializers are attempting to pass on
the process of stepping into another person’s shoes by which to imaginatively view and assess our (and others) behavior, appearance, and thoughts.
the social self – the part of the self that is the product of interaction with others and that has internalized the rules and
the active and creative aspect of the self that questions the expectations and rules for behavior
A process in which a sense of self develops, enabling one to see oneself reflected in others’ real or imagined reactions to one’s appearance and behaviors.
a biologically based tendency to adjust to and resolve environmental challenges
any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged or condemned because it departs from the norms and expectations of a group
behaviors and appearances that follow and maintain the standards of a group; also the acceptance of the cultural goals and the pursuit of those goals through means defined as legitimate.
the acceptance of the cultural goals and the pursuit of these goals through legit means
methods used to teach, persuade, or force a group’s members, and even nonmembers, to comply with and not deviate from its norms and expectations
All societies must establish mechanisms of ______ to ensure _____.
reactions of approval or disapproval to others’ behavior or appearance
an expression of disapproval for noncompliance
spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law
expressions of approval or disapproval backed by laws, rules, or policies that specify (usually in writing) the conditions under which people should be rewarded or punished and the procedures for allocating rewards and administering punishments
a mechanism of social control that involves watching and otherwise monitoring the movements, activities, conversations, and associations of people to prevent them from engaging in wrongdoing; to catch those who are engaged in wrong doing; and to ensure that the public is protected from wrongdoers
a social arrangement that normalizes surveillance, making it expected and routine
although definitions of what constitutes deviance vary by place, it is present in all societies
it helps in identifying and exposing the wrongdoing, determining a punishment and carrying it out is an emotional experience that binds together the members of a group and establishing a sense of community
it helps bring about necessary change and helps prepare people for change
maintain that an act is deviant when people notice it and then take action to label it as a violation and apply appropriate sanctions
rules are socially constructed ; because definitions of deviant behavior vary across time and place, people must decide what is deviant
Rules are not enforced uniformly or consistently. Some people break rules and escape detection, whereas others are treated as offenders even though they have broken no rules.
people who have not violated the rules of a group and aretreated accordingly
people who have broken the rules and are caught, punished and labeled as outsiders
people who have broken the rules but whose violation goes unnoticed or if it is noticed, prompts those who notice it to look the other way, rather than report the violation
people who have not broken the rules but are treated as if they have
people whose rule breaking is viewed as understandable, incidental, or insignificant in light of some socially approved status they hold
those whose rule breaking is treated as something so significant that it cannot be overlooked or explained away
an identification that “proves to be more important” than most other statuses that person holds, such that he or she is identified first and foremost as a deviant
i. linked to an expected set of auxiliary
Conducted research for his book Obedience to Authority.
learn how people in positions of authority persuade other people to accept the authorities’’ definitions of deviance and to conform to orders about how to treat people that are classified as deviant
people who articulate and promote claims and who tend
to benefit in some way if the targeted audience accepts their claims as true
actions taken to draw attention to a claim such as demanding services filling out forms, lodging complaints, filling lawsuits,
calling press conferences, etc…
Deviant behavior is a response to __________.
1. the valued goals have unclear limits (that is people
are unsure whether they have achieved them).
2. people are unsure whether the legitimate means will allow them to achieve the goals
3. legitimate opportunities for reach the goals remain
closed to a significant portion of the population
the acceptance of the cultural goals but the rejection of legit means to achieve them
the rejected of both culturally valued goals and the means to achieving them
the full or partial rejection of both the goals and the means to attaining them and the introduction of a new set of goals and means
criminals constitute a special type of conformist in that they conform to ______.
When persons become criminal, they do so because of _____.
contacts with criminal patterns and also because of isolation from
groups that are part of the larger society but whose
members adhere to norms and values that favor violation of the larger society’s laws
Criminal behavior is not simply the result of differential association with criminal ways. There are other factors at work:
social settings and arrangements that offer people the opportunity to commit particular types of crime
“crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations”
crime committed by a corporation through the way that it does business as it competes with other companies for market share and profits
the unofficial aspect of an organization, including behaviors that depart from the formal dimensions, such as employee-generated norms that evade, bypass, or ignore official rules, guidelines, and procedures
quantitative (and some qualitative) measures of how well an organization and its members or employees are performing
a trend in which organizations hire experts with formal training in a particular subject or activity-- training needed to achieve organizational goals
the division of society into classes that have unequal amounts of wealth, power, and prestige
segment of society whose members hold similar amounts of resources and share values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle
amount of money received by an individual or group over a specific time period
ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will
Karl Marx said that controlling capital is _____, but Max Weber said ________ _______ and _____ aren’t the same.
lawyers – convert expertise into political power
recognition, respect, and admiration attached to social positions
culture & society
a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideals about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental and emotional characteristics for males and females
What do the biological mechanisms involved in creating males and females explain?
a caricature, in that it exaggerates the characteristics that make someone the so-called perfect male or female
the organizing of social life around male-female ideals, so that people’s sex influences every aspect of their life, including how they dress, the time they wake up in the morning, what they do before they go to bed at night, etc.
Sexuality encompasses __________.
significant others intentionally convey the societal expectations to children
children learn gender expectations by observing others’ behavior, such as through jokes, comments, and stories or through portrayals of men and women in media
the significant people, groups, and institutions that act to shape our gender identity
a. children’s toys and celebrated images of males and females figure
prominently in the socialization process, along with the ways adults treat
b. if socialization experiences are changed, behavior will change accordingly
One way to convince people to buy products is to play on their ______ over whether they meet or maintain (as they change) appearances that conform to _______ _______.
the belief that one sex – and by extension, one gender – is superior to another, and that this superiority justifies inequalities between sexes
people can be placed into two categories: male and female
a close correspondence exists between a person’s primary sex characteristics and characteristics such as emotional activity, body language, personality, intelligence, the expression of sexual desire, and athletic capability
primary sex characteristics are so significant that they explain and determine behavior and the social, economic, and political inequalities that exist between the sexes
Of all the human divides, gender is:
Females are ________ assigned to statuses that are considered _______ to the statuses that are predominantly male.
disproportionately ; inferiori.e. - males make important decisions that affect females’ lives
A gender category does not stand ______.
empowers and privileges some categories of people while disempowering other categories