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social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts
- ascribed status is something you can not achieve
· What type of sociology refers to that which focuses on small groups and face-to-face interaction?
a system of concepts and relationships, anunderstanding of cause
3. Peer Group
4. Mass Media
the nonacademic socialization and training that takes place in the schooling system.
A market structure in which a few large firms dominate a market
Example of a meritocracy
-A state in which persons that earn the position, status, wealth, that they accrued
- you earn what you get through your own hardwork
an experiment devised in 1961 by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale university, to see how far ordinary people would go in obeying a scientific authority figure (Electric Shock Experiment)
form of government where rights to political participation are restricted to a small group or even to a single individual.
one's ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchical, fluid and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se.
The media releases stories that sometimesare blatantly racist but other times they just contain racist undertones; Sexism is in the media by ways of advertisements with very attractive female models
There are 6companies that own 90% of the media. These companies basically control what wesee and when we see it, related to the media.
the process by whereby the worker is led to believe that his/her share in life is the outcome of a just and fair competitive system--capitalism.
a form of social organization in which females dominate males
lolwut? like planet of the apes?
we only hearthat 2 genders exist, male and female
-InNavajo tribes there are 3 genders, male female and nadle
-Nadleperforms both male and female roles and dress for whatever activity they aredoing
Idea that only 2 genders exist, male and female
Demonstrates: tragedy of the commons
- test of your own principles
- personalities: one person could make group more aggressive, one aggressive group could sway class
* Globalization: self vs. world - who are you trying to make win??
- Pluralist Model – analysis of politics that views poweras dispersed among many competing interest groups
- Power EliteModel – view that political power is concentrated among wealthy andpolitical elite
o Highest rewards (salaries) go to mostimportant positions in society ensuring the most qualified people occupy thesepositions
o Stratification reflects unequaldistribution of power in society that serves the interest of those at the top
whenever someone dies all their wealth should be taken and stored in a warehouse; Once a year all the wealth will be distributed equally among all the citizens in the country so that it doesn’t not accumulate in the top 1% anymore
denotes a social position, the set of social arrangements that are built around sex.
one's sense of being male or female
technology and innovation,
new ideas and identities,
social change and conflict
Environmental and populationpressures
· Natural disasters, changing foodsupplies
Cultural and technological innovation
· Automobile, cell phones, medicaltreatments
· Civil rights, womens, andenvironmental
· Nonhuman technology and automation
· Control over uncertainty
A. Process that is created and disseminated by large-scale forces, especially in the North, and imposed especially on the South.
B. The global proliferation of McDonald's and other fast-food chains that offer industrialized fast food.C. While companies such as McDonald's are making great profit from the world distribution of their products, a great deal of the population is against it
reducethe size of government and its regulation of business activity
Focuses on how group members communicating with each other develop and share stories(fantasies) to create a convergence or group identity that is larger and more coherent than the isolated experiences of the individual group members.
collective action aries because of people's tendency toconform to the behavior of others with whom they are in close contact
problem: doesn't explain collective action perfectly
doesn't explain why people emerge as leaders
Reformative (social movement)
Revolutionary social movement
social movements that advocate the radical reorganization of society
EX - The Weather Underground (attempting to over throw the US government in the late 60's)
driven by the political community and implies that thecreation of the movement/group supporting it are natural and spontaneous, oftenat the local level but can lead to the national level
social relations characterized by rationality,bureaucratization, a low degree of division of labor, relatively undevelopedtechnology, and traditional social norms
Goals of social movements
-redistribute material resources more equitably (labor movement)
- Gain full citizenship (civil rights, women rights, gay rights)
- re-define societies values
- norms and priorities
Characteristics of Social Movements
- operate outside of institutional political system
- arise due to a group's exclusion from "normal" institutional politics
- are resisted by those in positions of power and privilege
-alters your social balance "what i took for grantedto be true is not true"
-we are able to see it in another way. We are introducedto these things and we can't just put it somewhere info, knowledge and insight
o Large lecture classes
o Unhealthy food…. And bad health
o Alienating work
o Shopping for “deals”
o War on terror
This usually going along with deregulation and lowering of trade barriers
· Free markets- to facilitate trade and ease flowof capital
· Deregulation- reduce the size of government andits regulation of business activity
· Reduce social benefits- government providedhealthcare, public education, public transportation, welfare, etc..
· Privatization- selling of publicly owned andoperated services to private, for-profit companies.
global power relationships
Air Pollution and Global Warming
Drinking water contamination
Unknown health risks from genetically modified foods
-It cant be controlled as easy. Hard to shoot down
- don't have much power as an individual, but when youcome together as a group you are very powerful
We still understand that social forces are difficult tochange
- if there was another system, IE communist China, wewould still raise the same questions
- Sure we can identify the problems but we can't alwaysfix them
- there are social limits to freedom
Main Problem with Contagion Theory
- downplays individual agency
- treats individuals as mindless sheep
1) Emergence- People think that all is not well.
2) Coalescence- Social Movement defines itself and attracts members.
3) Bureaucratization- Movement becomes established,depends less on the charisma and talents of leaders & more on professional staff. this increases the chances for the movemnts long term survival.
4) Decline- As resources dry up, there is overwhelming opposition or members achieve their goals and lose interest.
Movement outcomes ( what do social movementsaccomplish)
- changes in legal codes
- shifts in attitudes, norms, and values
- often inspire counter movements
Sociology of Social Movements (Why are social movementsimportant sociologically)
Represent efforts to re-define social reality from the bottom-up
Expose the normally hidden structures of power in society
Demonstrate that otherwise powerless people are able to "act back" and influence society
waysrationalization lead to "irrational" outcomes:
Large lecture classes
Unhealthy food...bad health
peopleoften support policies and practices that are not in their interests
factorscontributing to globalization:
3.Neo-liberal economic policies
Companiesthat produce goods or market services in more than one country (Coca Cola, GM)
-Representthe foundation of economic globalization
Howdo powerless people exercise power?
by withholding their consent
* refrusing to participate in everyday life
*denying others their labor
*most effective when done COLLECTIVELY
Value of the sociological perspective
Humanizing - foster appreciation for diversity and broadens personal views
Liberating - empowers people to recognize their role in making history "helps overcome BAD FAITH"
Myth Debunking - inoculates us again against simple explanations of complex issues
Alterative ( Type of Social Movement)
Redemptive (type of social movement)
Classical (earliest model of social movements)
-Model of social movements based on concept of structural weakness in society where results in the psychological disruption of individuals
- when this disruption reaches a certain threshold, it gives rise to a social movement
- political goals dont play a part in this movement
- focuses on strain
Resource - Mobilization Theory (model of social movement)
-Social movements are collective phenomenon rather than symptoms of individual discontent
- theory emphasizes political context and goals, also states that movements are unlikely to emerge without the necessary resources
- powerful or elite members of a society have a greater chance of leading or contributing to a movement because they control more resources
20% of the population holds how much of the wealth?
- private ownership of private property is Marx's central critique of capitalism
- private property - means of production
Sex vs. Gender
sex is biological
gender is socialized
What does the term "miscegenation"
- racial and ethnically integrated schools
- a child of mixed race
- a multiracial marriage
- Focused on division of labor = specialization of tasks within a society
- Functionalism - without these roles, society is unstable
Piven in her piece in her piece "Neo-liberalismchallenge" argues
- neo-liberalism is an attack on the basic principles of sociology
- neo-liberalism = free market economics is the best way >> free trade. basic for why we have globalization
Derber argues in his piece "One World UnderBusiness" that...
Globalization enthrones 3 intertwined institutions(Derber: one world under business)
1. global financial markets & transnational co. at heart of world ecomony
2. national govs w/ busniess-oriented regimes linked to each other in economic & military alliances led by US
3. rising "global governments" (WTO)
Derber: One World Under Business
What can we do? Becoming part of the solution - Johnson
Why Bother? Michael Pollan
The Sociological Imagination- Newman
Berger - sociology & Freedom
paradigm shift/scientific revolution
normative view of science