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The ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to seemingly impersonal & remote historical forces.
any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups orpeople within it.
A complex group of interdependent positions that together perform a social role & reproduce themselves over time.
· Any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups of people w/in it.
Interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time which shapes the behavior of people
(Ex. Family,Religion,Education,Economy,Law,Mass Media,Government)
a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable.
· Too little social regulation- without norms.
generally concerned w/social dynamics at a higher level of analysis across the breadth of a society.
a measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable.
a proposed relationship between two variables.
of the subset of the population from which you’re actually collecting data.
research that collects data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts, television programs, diaries, artwork, & other artifacts that data to a prior time period under study.
a set of beliefs, traditions, & practices.
· The total sum of social categories & concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, behaviors, & practices that which is not the natural environment around us.
the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others & the tendency to view all other cultures form the perspective of one’s own.
we are the center . (one's culture is the best.)
the belief that other people and their ways of doing things can be understood only in terms of the cultural context of those other people
values, beliefs, behaviors, & social norms.
norms that describe socially acceptable behaviors but don't have moral significance
an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before.
the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses.
tendency forthe race of a society’s majority to be so obvious, normative, and unremarkablethat it becomes, for all intents and purposes, invisable
the ways social institutions help perpetuate social and economic inequalities acrossgenerations.
- Attending a prestigious school matters
- Chances you'll have a college degree
a sociological term referring to processes which sustain or perpetuate characteristics of a given social structure or tradition over a period of time.
those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals.
a research approach that starts w/empirical observations & then works to forma a theory.
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as male or female.
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, & assumptions from the basic motivations behind people’s actions.
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, & assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions.
“the methods of the people” approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding of others, & produce a shared social order.
the workingclass. Sells labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages and therbysurvive.
Ex: Not allowing inheritance. This would be equitable and would make for equal opportunity in a real way. The fact that so many people who would benefit from Sullivan’s plan but would oppose it.
Ex: Workers that believe they have a good relationship with their boss. Their boss’s interest is still to get more profit from work from you than what they are paying you
: a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress & history, the replacement of narrative w/in pastiche, & multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations.
a condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers
Don’t want to be somewhere, not attached to the project at hand, Feeling against something because it’s something that you may have to do.
(Ex: people who work at the pub II hate working so much because they don’t get tipped or they are under tipped)
(Ex: 15 year old first job is very exciting, but for someone who has been working at the same place for 5 years, work is boring and slow.)
methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that’s already in or can be converted to numeric form.
social cohesion based on difference & interdependence of the parts.
Social institutions, organizations, groups, statues and roles, values, and norms that add order and predictability to our private lives
A force opposing individual action. Must be observable, external to the individual, and independent of individual motivation. Structure as constraint
large, complex network of positions, created for a specific purpose
Legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules androles and which emphasizes meritocracy
degree towhich jobs are specialized
Societyof hunter/gatherers has low division of laborUnited states has high division of labor with specialized occupations
Division of Labor
potential for society’s long term ruin because of individuals’ tendency to pursue their own short-term interests
Tragedy of Commons
tendency for people to not contribute to the common good when a resource is available without requiring any personal cost or contribution
why Americansare afraid of the wrong things
-Small scale issues cause a big frenzy
-Why are our fears misplaced?
-Create opportunities to manipulate fear and insecuritiesImmense power/money await those who tap into our moral insecurities
Culture of Fear
The Culture of Fear: Why Americans are Afraid of the Wrong Things
What is the problem that concerns Glassner?
o People were freaking out about crime rates, but they were lowering
What are some of the unwarranted fears he identifies?
o Putting stuff in Halloween candy
o We fear Pedophiles
What are some of the other consequences of the culture of fear?
o Fearing of flesh eating bacteria but not fearing of things like driving car without airbagAre there some unwarranted fears today that may be similar in nature?
a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary “consent” of the masses
Total control of a society. Some people apply it to capitalism – a system that has total control over us
-There is no other avenue; very closed politically
The media effects people in ways that are intended or unintended as well as short-tern or long-term.
The media releases stories that sometimes are blatantly racist but other times they just contain racist undertones.Sexism is in the media by ways of advertisements with very attractive female models.
The media releases stories that sometimesare blatantly racist but other times they just contain racist undertones. Sexism is in the media by ways of advertisements with very attractive femalemodels.
There are 6 companies that own 90% of the media. These companies basically control what we see and when we see it, related to the media.
the steady acquisition of material possessions, often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved.
roles of education system are socialization and social reproduction
- Teach appropriate behavior
- Prepare students for labor market
- Informed citizens
inadequate reading and writing skills needed to manage daily living and employment tasks
behaivors and attitudes taught in schools that are not in the formal curriculum
-Passive consumption of ideas (accept ideas given to you)
-Accept exisiting social order
a society thatbases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability, and achievement
socialinstitutions that governs production, distribution, and consumption of goods,services, and raw materials
40 millionworkers – 30% of the US workforce. Two subgroups of the creative class:
- Super-CreativeCore = 12% of all US jobs. Considered innovative, creating commercial products and consumer goods
-CreativeProfessionals = draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problemsusing higher degrees of education to do so.