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Behavior, belief or condition that violates social norms
By defining what is normal, society defines what isdeviant (relativist approach to deviace)Origin of term in statistics
Deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an offender
A deviant is an individual to whom the identity “deviant” has been successfully applied
What is a bureaucracy?
large hierarchicalorganization governed by formal rulesand regulations and having clearlyspecified work tasks
Subdivision of different people or groups in different tasks, characteristics of most bureaucracies
What is McDonaldization?
McDonaldization:“the process by which the principlesof the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominatemore and more sectors of American society as well asof the rest of the world”
“The process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world”
o framework of society- social institutions,organizations, groups, statuses and roles, cultural beliefs, andinstitutionalized norms- which adds order and predictability to our privatelives
· the cultural beliefthat those who succeed in society are those who work the hardest and have thebest abilities (opposite holds true for those who suffer)
cultural belief that those who succeed insociety are those who work the hardest and have the best abilities and thatthose who suffer don’t work hard enough or lack necessary traits or abilities
· a social system in which individuals earnrewards in direct proportion to their individual efforts and abilities
o Everyone has an equal chance to succeed
Ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society
Through this, society categorizes people
Key Categories: Race, class and gender
Key Resources: Income/wealth, prestige, power
· Slavery=economic forms of inequality in whichsome people are legally the property of others
· Caste system
· Caste system=stratification system based onheredity, with little movement allowed
Individuals or families whose earnings are between 100% and 125% of the poverty line
2009: 15.5 million
Amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs, according ot the federal government
2009: 1 person $10,956; 2 people $13,991; family of 3 $17,098; family of 4 $21,954
Individual's economic position compared to the living standards of the majority in society
In U.S., this may involve "food insecurity," health problems, lack of access to health care, shorter lifespan, lack of educational opportunity
· Social class
· Social class=group of people who share a similareconomic position in society, based on wealth and income; no legal limits, butmobility is limited
· Racism=belief that humans are subdivided intodistinct groups that are different in social behavior and innate capabilitiesthat can be ranked as superior or inferior
· Personal racism=individual’s expression ofracist attitudes (prejudice/discrimination)
· Institutional racism=laws, customs, practices,etc. that produce racial and ethnic inequalities (Ex. Hiring through existingsocial/professional networks)
· Crime Victimization:
· Crime Victimization: lowest income bracket werevictimized the most
What advantages do we gain from learning about a way of knowing about the world (such as sociology)?
What types of questions do sociologists ask about a social world?
Who were the famous ISU alums in the lecture? Why are they famous?
Who was for and who was against these naming decisions?
How did Jack Trice die?
Jamie Schultz argued that the ISU administration decided to name the stadium after Trice for what reason?
Why were there no black athletes at ISU in the 1930s and 1940s?
What was the original meaning of Campaniling? How has that meaning changed?
Who is honored in Gold Star Hall?
What changes have been made recently to the ISU chapel? Why?
What is secularization?
What is the apparent reason Ricardo Salvador didn’t get hired by Iowa State? What was his case used to illustrate?
Define social influence.
the effect of other people on our thoughts,perceptions, and behaviors
What are two key findings from studies of social influence?
o Individuals’ thoughts, perceptions, andbehaviors are influenced by other people
o Individuals underestimate the power of thisinfluence on their behavior
What event inspired Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority study?
What method did Milgram use in his study? What was the design?
What were the findings of the “closeness series”?
What were the findings of the “two peers rebel” and “peer gives shock”
What did Milgram claim was the most effective way of limitingobedience?
What did interviews with Milgram’s subjects reveal about their ability tointerpret the situation they were placed in by the experiment?
Defining and punishing deviance is form of social control by "haves" against "have nots"
"Have-nots" more likely to be labeled and punished for a crime
· a social constructionist sociologicalperspective that focuses on social interaction as the site and language as theinstrument of reality construction
What does research suggest about the existence of panic?
· societal influence continues to guide behaviorin extreme circumstances and doesn’t provide evidence for the existence of“panic”
Recount the basic details about the two disasters studied University of Cincinnati sociologist NorrisJohnson.
What abilities may people lose in an emergency situation? Why?
to perceive, move or communicate; smoke or crowding may make it difficult to see, dense bodies may make it difficult to move, noise may make it difficult to communicate
How does social structure continue to guide behavior in emergency situations?
· People escape or die in groups
· People continue to help others
· Gender roles continue to guide action
· People’s occupational roles continue to guideaction
What are three negative consequences of the belief that people panic in emergency situations? Giveexamples of each from lecture
o Disaster victims may receive blame for their owndeath or injuries
o Early warning systems may be avoided,contributing to insufficient appreciation of danger
o The advantages of improvisation may be ignored
Why do people jump out of burning buildings? Should we think of their behavior as “irrational?”“Panic”?
Why was the word “tornado” once banned from weather forecasts?
What examples were given in lecture of successful improvisation during emergency situations?
· Following the 9-11 attacks approx. 500,000people were evacuated from lower Manhattan in an improvised boat lift
· Duke students drove to New Orleans afterHurricane Katrina, impersonated journalists, drove to the convention center andshuttled two car loads of people out of the city
What do sociologists attempt to accomplish when they study “irrational” behavior?
Define sociological imagination.
· the ability to see the impact of social forceson our private lives
What does it mean that sociology is a “multi-paradigm science”? What three metaphors did the instructor use toillustrate this?
· Different perspectives attempt to answerdifferent questions
· Different perspectives provide different ways oflooking at and trying to make sense of society
Lenses, toolkits, tour guides
What aspect of society is emphasized by structural-functionalism?
What are Merton’s three types of functions?
What type does he believe sociologists should
What does Thorstein Veblen’s concept of “conspicuous consumption” illustrate about Merton’s functions?
What are the four latent functions of CPR according to Stefan Timmermans?
· Takes some suddenness of sudden death away
· Fosters sense of interpersonal solidarity
· Opportunity for friends and relatives ofdeceased person to talk to social worker or chaplain
· Allows relatives to conclude that everythingmedically possible has been done to revive their loved one
How does the conflict perspective claim social order arises?
Define the feminist perspective
Define social constructionism
· : perspective in the social sciences andhumanities that focuses on how people build, maintain and change the worlds ofmeaning in which we live
What two worlds do people live in?
o The physical world
o The world of meaning
What are the three stages in the social construction of reality? How were colors used in class to illustrate these stages?
What does it mean to say that time is socially constructed?
· Time is an aspect of the physical world. Humansgive it meaning, i.e. we construct time
· Early societies had no abstract time concepts.Time was organized by activities
How did early societies organize time before the construction of abstract time concepts?
· Early humans organized their life aroundastronomical/ seasonal events
· Shared meanings of time allow people to makeplans into the near or distant future
What time unit did Eviatar Zerubavel claim was a major attempt to break away from nature?
How do units of time illustrate that meanings are not inherent?
How does the week illustrate how social constructions (a) allow easier social coordination, (b) impose constraints onsocial life, and (c) shape how we experience the physical world?
What is the Thomas Theorem?
· if people define situations as real, they arereal in their consequences.
What does the Guugu Yimithirr language illustrate about how meanings direct and organize our attention and thoughts?
Don’t use “left”, “right,” “in front of” and“behind” they use cardinal directions
Define calendrical contrast and give an example from lecture.
· symbolic group boundaries created by calendarusage;
· Jews, Christians and Muslims distinguishedthemselves by their weekly holy day
What were the two modern attempts to replace the seven-day calendar?
o French revolutionaries attempted to institute a10-day week
o The soviet union introduced a five-day week andthen a six-day week
· The failures suggest the resilience oftraditions, especially religious ones
· perspective of the larger society and itsconstituent values
· The practice of tracking in widespread in theU.S. education system e.g., academic, general & vocational tracks; giftedprograms
· Research shows that factors such as class, race,gender, appearance, room size, teaching preferences, etc. affect trackassignment
· First clock like regulation of time was inmonasterieso Monasteries also introduced the use of bells tomark time
· Cities built their own bell towers to organizecity life
· Eventually, mechanical clocks rang bells atstandard intervals
· Early factory managers asserted the right tocontrol the bells
· Clock time is required for the complexorganization needed for mass production and other bureaucratic activities
· Clock time also organizes school, eating,shopping, sleeping and so on
· led to thinking about time as a quantity andcommodity
How has the power to construct time changed? Illustrate this with examples from lecture.
· Gregory XIII instituted the Gregorian calendarin 1582 to deal with problem of placing Easter
· Capitalist firms (e.g., railroad companies) andgovernments created international time zones
· “Leap second” dispute pits astronomers againstcomputer programmers
What does it mean to say animals are socially constructed?
· Animals get placed into categories like pet, food,vermin, endangered and so on
· shared meanings, which arise from interactionand interpretation
How does it differ from othersociological perspectives?
What are the three premises of symbolic interactionism?
· People act toward things based on the meaningsthose things have for them
· These meanings arise out of interaction withother people
· These meanings are modified throughinterpretation as people deal with the things they encounter
alse definition of the situation evokinga new behavior which makes the originally false conception come true.
· Horses are consumed in much of Europe as steaks,sausages, hot dogs and stews
· Americans connect horses to romance of the oldwest and the American frontier
· In Alaska, wolf hunting/ eradication policiesare a divisive issue
· Although bears cause more harm to otherwildlife, wolves have a worse cultural reputation
· Hunting wolves is also connected to “frontiermasculinity” which involves subjugating nature
· Fox hunting, banned in 2005. Is one of the mostdivisive issues in Britain
· Social class shapes the meaning of the hunt:majestic community event or an elitist form of animal cruelty?
· The meaning of history shapes the meaning of thepresent
o Banning fox hunt is seen by some as payback forbanning of bear baiting, cockfighting and dog fighting in 1835
· Michael Vick served 21 months in prison afterpleading guilty of running a dog fighting ring
· Critics of his sentence pointed out the crueltyof horse racing, dog racing, and rodeos- and the meat industry
· Dog fighting and cock fighting were legal whenthey were viewed upper class white pursuits; dog fighting is now typified asblack
· In the late 19th century sparrowswere considered “dirt immigrants.”
· Sparrows were one of targets of the “four pests”campaign during the Chinese “great leap forward”
· Pigeons became a problem animal in the 1960s asthey became a symbol of urban disorder-“rats with wings”
· Opponents of pigeon hunting call them dovesDoves and pigeons are the same thing
· Conservation organizations highlight selectanimals to raise interest and money
· Attributes that help animals get more attentionfrom conservationists and scientists include cuteness, social complexity, largesize, genetic proximity to humans and familiarity as pets
· As a consequence, other (uglier) animals may beat greater risk for extinction
Define self-fulfilling prophecy. Who coined this term?
· assumption or prediction that in itself causesthe expected event to occur, thus seeming to confirm the prophecy’s accuracy
Coined by Robert K. Merton
· Special case of the Thomas theorem: “If [people]define situations as real they are real in their consequences.”
· Modern banks have only a small percentage ofdeposits available in cash (fractional-reserve banking)
· A “bank run” occurs when depositors beginwithdrawing money because they believe the bank will fail. This belief mayresult in an actual bank failure
· Multiple banks runs can result in a systemicbanking crisis, such as the Great Depression
· Belief in the inevitability of war can lead towar.
· Leading up to World War I, European nationsarmed and mobilized to prepare for the inevitable war.
· Each nation wanted to be in a position to attackrather than be attacked (cult of the offense)
· Merton believed the self fulfilling prophecy wasimportant for understanding racial prejudice
· Segregated schools and libraries made itdifficult for African Americans to gain academic achievements, which served asevidence of their intellectual inferiority
· Clever Hans gave public performances doingarithmetic, working with fractions, calculating dates, and other mental feats.Some of the questions were submitted to Hans in writing
· Investigation showed that Hans could only answerquestions if the questioner knew the answer and Hans could see him. No fraudwas involved.
· Sane people checked into 12 mental hospitals
· Reported hearing voices (“empty”, “hollow,” and“thud), but acted normal after admission
· Normal behaviors were interpreted as symptoms
· Pseudo patients were discharged with the label“schizophrenia in remission”
· The Clarks’ doll experiments suggested thatblack children internalized negative stereotypes about their race
· Research question: do the characteristics thatlead to an “insanity” diagnosis lie within the patient, OR do they reside inthe social context and in labels?
· language, values, Beliefs, rules, behaviors andartifacts that characterize a society
Explain James Loewen’s distinction between the past and history.
· “past” (things that happened) and “history”(what we say about them)
o The past can’t be changed
o History is always changing; people construct andreconstruct it
presenting afavorable picture of local communities
· Only 3% of national historical markers in U.S.focus on women
· Women are often overlooked when they makehistory with their husbands
o The Levi coffin house, an important undergroundrailroad station, was the home of Levi and Catherine coffin
· American history tends to focus on Englishprotestants who settled east coast at expense of American Indians and Spanishsettlers
· Monuments throughout the south honor slaves whowere loyal to the confederacy
· In fact, most slaves stopped working, fled,joined the union army and/or engaged in espionage
· No monuments in south honor local blacks inunion army
· Intent of monuments is to present slavery asbenign institution that had support of slaves
promoting stereotypes aboutAmerican Indians and justifying whites conquering them
· Whites often used “devil” as a place name forIndian holy sites
· In the late 1980s the board of geographic namesrenamed 102 places in 34 states containing the “N-word”
· Over 900 “squaw” place names remainSquaw: for women Indian
Who is Nathan Bedford Forrest? What is his significance?
· Nathan Bedford Forrest, a confederate cavalryleader, has more statues in Tennessee than any other state has honoring asingle person
· Forrest is symbol of white supremacy
o First national leader of KKK
o Slave trader before war, hired black convictlabor after warLed massacres of black soldiers during war
What does it mean that historical monuments tell the tale of two eras?
Historic sites are always the tales of two eras
Era of person or event honored
Era when monument was erected
What is snowplow revisionism?
o The wording of a marker near Woodstock,Virginia, was revised after the marker was damaged by a snowplow
What is the motto of Cawker City’s ball of twine?
· “thrift + patience= success”
What is the difference between a “common-sense” view of emotions and a sociological view?
· Common sense belief: our emotions represent our“true” self, not social rules
· The sociology of emotions studies how cultureshapes the way we feel
Define feeling rules
prescribe how people are supposed to feelin particular situations
Define emotion management (a.k.a. emotion work)
· trying to make your feelings match feeling rules
Define emotive dissonance.
Define emotional socialization.
· learning feeling rules and how to achieve themthrough emotion management
Describe Arnold Arluke’s study of managing emotions in an animal shelter, including itsresearch question, research method, design, and findings.
· based on participant observation in animalshelter·
Employees must accept premise that sometimes itis necessary to kill animals
· Employees must be socialized to manageuncomfortable feelings about killing
List and describe the five strategiesthe workers used to manage their emotions.
· 1. Not treating animals as pets (except for“shelter mascots”)
· 2. Framing euthanasia as eliminating suffering
· 3. Selectively avoiding euthanasia (forparticular animals)
· 4. Blaming owners, who are ultimatelyresponsible for the killing
· 5. Avoiding discussing the job with outsidersand neutralizing their criticism by defining it as ill-informed
o Americans both treat animals with affection andkill them
How do the concepts of “pride” and “self-esteem” illustrate the social construction ofemotions?
· Pride (superbia): first and most serious of theseven deadly sins; led to Lucifer’s rebellion against god
· Self-esteem: basic human need required forhealthy self development