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Sociologists would be good at all of the following jobs, except for:
Social institutions are unique to U.S. culture.
Lauren is a sociology student who wants to examine the effects that a new restaurant in her town, the Tasty Tidbit, has on the servers at competing restaurants. To conduct her research, she decides that she needs to learn more about the restaurant industry, her town's economy, the national economy, and food service workers in general. Once she knows more about those issues she feels like she could better understand the impact of the Tasty Tidbit. Lauren is using the:
Sociology is a “social” science and, as such, is not bound by the scientific method or tools (e.g., statistical analysis.)
According to sociologists, human beings are naturally social creatures.
A husband and wife, a group of churchgoers, and citizens of the United States are, according to sociologists, types of social:
Social processes are actions taken by individuals (e.g., socialization and stratification) that make a social world possible.
The authors of your text would argue that a change in the economy would eventually result in a change in the family. This argument is justified because:
All social institutions are interrelated
Rigid beliefs that are often untested or unfounded about a certain group of people are referred to as:
The discipline a social scientist is trained in plays a role in the questions he or she asks. "What are individuals' physiological reactions to a violent movie like Saw?" would most likely be asked by a(n):
An environment includes everything that influences a social unit.
A study that looks at dyadic interaction is a trait of micro-level analysis.
All of the following populations would be studied using the meso-level of analysis except:
World literacy programs
Many psychologists explain behavior by examining the personality traits of individuals. In comparison, sociologists examine:
Human interaction and social structure
Like motivations and drives, social patterns are processed internally.
Psychologists are most likely to study:
A fundamental principal of sociology is that people are social by nature. This means all of the following statements are true, except:
All of the following represent micro-level analysis except a:
According to the text, the changes in the institution of the family (e.g., marriage customs) will not have an impact on other social structures (e.g., religion).
In 1989 numerous Chinese students were killed as they protested in Tiananmen Square. The students had become dissatisfied with the government and were calling for political and economic reform. These students were attempting to engage in the process of:
According to the text, the smallest unit sociologists study is a(n):
The discipline a social scientist is trained in plays a role in the questions he or she asks. "How do educational opportunities for women impact national infant mortality rates in Eastern European countries?" would most likely be asked by a(n):
The people and groups that bring order to our lives are:
Our social positions in society are the result of stratification.
Sociology provides a method to assess the accuracy of our commonsense assumptions about the social world.
A married couple is a social unit.
A study that examines how No Child Left Behind has changed education in Iowa best reflects the __________-level of analysis.
When her four-year-old son wanted to wear a dress to kindergarten, Lisette told him that he could not because "boys don't wear dresses." In doing so, Lisette was engaging in the process of:
Change occurs rarely within social units and only when people are dissatisfied with their current situations.
Which of the following subfields of anthropology has the most in common with sociology?
To understand individual behavior, one can ignore large societal beliefs.
The smallest units sociologists study are the individual.
Sharon's volleyball team is a member of the National Society for the Advancement of Net Sports (NSANS). NSANS is a:
A primary responsibility of sociologists is to judge social processes as "good" or "bad."
The separation between sociology and psychology is clear and easy to understand.
Which of the following is an advantage of using micro-level analysis?
It is important for understanding the basis for all social groups and organizations.
Tyler heard a story from a friend about a woman who was beaten by her husband. Tyler decided that the only reason the woman stayed with her husband was because she was too weak to leave him. In this case, Tyler was using his sociological imagination.
The discipline a social scientist is trained in plays a role in the questions he or she asks. "How are gender roles reinforced in a bar subculture?" would most likely be asked by a(n):
The examination of changes in women's status can only take place at the macro-level of analysis.
The social sciences share some concepts but not theories or methods of inquiry.
The aspects of society that provide the rules, roles, and relationships needed to shape human behavior are:
According to conflict theory, the proletariat owned the means of production.
According to the text, conflict is an unnatural part of social life.
The theory that assumes that society is market by inequality and change is:
A correlation occurs when there is no causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
Ethnography is a form of:
Certain research methods work better with certain sociological theories.
The scientific approach is based on all of the following assumptions except:
Research is valid only if it disproves the researcher's initial assumptions.
Richard is researching the way that religious differences have led to conflicts among Iraqi Muslims. His research focuses on:
Pam wants to study the impact of war on soldiers. She plans on observing therapy groups for soldiers who have post-traumatic stress disorder and taking a representative survey of returning soldiers. Pam's proposed research method can best be described as:
Kacie wants to understand teen dating behavior. To do this, she sits down at the food court near the local high school and observes teenagers on dates. According to this method, Kacie is performing a(n):
W. E. B. Du Bois made all of the following arguments, except:
Social class, not race, is the source of inequality in the United States.
Functional theory assumes that all parts of the social world work together to make the whole society run smoothly.
Henri Saint-Simon officially coined the term sociology in 1838.
Meso-level analysis focuses on institutions, large organizations, and ethnic communities.
A manifest function of college is:
Bettering society by educating young people
Systematic, planned observations of social interactions are part of:
The theory that assumes people are utilitarian and motivated by self-interest is:
Secondary analysis uses existing data that has already been collected in other studies.
According to conflict theory, social change is undesirable.
Caryn is studying the way that differences in access to education help maintain the social stratification system. She is studying:
Carson, a race and ethnicity sociologist, has a hypothesis; he believes that black students achieve lower grades at community colleges. To test this hypothesis, Carson puts the name of 11 nearby community colleges into a hat and draws 3 of them at equal chance. He then contacts these three schools and examines the GPA averages for Black students. Carson utilized a:
According to the text, symbolic interaction theory is a macro-level theory.
Structural-functional theory traces its roots to the French Revolution.
Anthony wants to know whether his hometown, Farmville, is more or less diverse than the state he lives in, Virginia. To understand this, Anthony uses data from the 2010 Census, an existing source of data that has already been collected by other researchers, to run his statistical tests. Anthony is using:
Determining exactly how to measure concepts is known as:
Feminist theory focuses exclusively on micro-level processes.
A central premise of micro-level rational choice theory is that human behavior involves choices.
According to Merton, dysfunctions are the planned outcomes of social organization and institutions.
Critical sociology was the focus of Émile Durkheim's work.
Critical sociology is "critical" in the sense that it:
Calls for drastic changes in society to promote fairness
Marx and Du Bois are similar in the fact that they both call for sociology to improve human society.
According to the text, conflict theory is a macro-level theory.
Thomas was arguing with Carson about the nature of sociological study. Thomas shouted, "MEANING MAKES SOCIOLOGY COMPLETELY DIFFERENT FROM BIOLOGY!" According to his outburst, Thomas is most likely a:
Allison is a sociologist who feels very strongly that every child should be given equal opportunities for a quality high school education because it is crucial for their futures. However, after studying the topic scientifically, she finds that, in fact, the quality of a child's high school education plays no role whatsoever in the future of that child. What should she, as a scientist, do based on the rules of objectivity and ethical behavior?
Release her findings as they are, even though they are not consistent with her personal views
Micro-level analysis considers the larger social context—national and global—within which a single social unit resides.
According to the text, feminists argue that:
Existing hierarchical power structures mistreat women
While Weber focused on economic conditions, Marx argued that politics, economics, and religion help explain the social world.
Rational choice theory is also called exchange theory.
The theory concerned with how people give meaning to their everyday experiences is:
According to the text, content analysis is unobtrusive, meaning the researcher does not influence the subject being investigated by having direct contact.
Educated guesses that are based on theories but that have not yet been scientifically tested are known as:
George Herbert Mead is prominently identified with the symbolic interaction perspective.
One critique that structural functionalism and conflict theory share is that they:
The primary difference between Marx and Du Bois is that:
Marx saw conflict in his society as between the "haves and the have-nots" while Du Bois saw conflict in his society as based on race, not class
Cultural relativism requires that social scientists accept or agree with all the beliefs and behaviors of the societies or groups they study.
Josh works as a computer software designer in a large society where most individuals are highly educated or have specialized, technical skills. Josh most likely lives in a(n):
Subcultures are suitable for meso-level analysis.
Prison sentences are official punishments used to enforce laws. Because of this, we can say that prison sentences serve as:
When visiting Spain while studying abroad in Europe, Link was surprised to find out that many of his Spanish peers left work and school in the middle of the day to take a siesta, or a short rest at home. However, Link realized how important siesta was to his Spanish peers because it gave them time to relax and be with their families, two very central values in Spanish culture. Link took a(n) __________ perspective when trying to understand siesta.
Having a shared culture is what separates humans from other animals.
A culturally relative perspective examines practices according to the values and behaviors of:
According to the text, nonverbal language may carry as much as 90 percent of the meaning of a message.
Culture acts as the "hardware" of society while structure acts as the "software" of the society.
Both a college sorority and a street gang would be considered a microculture.
The weapons a society uses to wage war are an example of nonmaterial culture.
As a contestant of The Amazing Race, Mary was required to eat fish eyeballs when visiting China. Although the eyeballs are a common snack, Mary, an American woman, could barely swallow the eyeballs without spitting them out and gagging. Mary is having a(n) __________ reaction to eating the Chinese snack.
Individuals who live together in a specific geographical area, who interact with each other more than they do with outsiders, cooperate for the attainment of common goals, and share a common culture over time constitute a:
Which of the following statements is false?
Conflict theorists view culture as having a uniting effect on society.
According to the symbolic interactionism view of culture:
We learn the meaning of symbols through our interaction with others
The main difference between a horticultural society and an agricultural society is the technology they use to raise crops.
_______________ are nonmaterial shared judgments about what is desirable or undesirable, right or wrong, or good or bad in a culture.
Individuals often smile at another person who does something nice for them; however, this action is not an official action required by society when someone does something nice for us. Smiling is an example of a(n):
Symbolic interactionists often cite the importance of symbols in how we define situations and how we determine how to act.
Which of the following is not a facet of culture?
the hand a person uses to eat
Ethnocentrism is a Western phenomenon not found in the developing world.
Globalization is not a product or an object. Globalization is a process.
Terrorist organizations are countercultures, but all countercultures are not terrorists.
Most non-Western societies are isolated from global impact.
As a small child, Kirby's parents read to him many stories about their equal treatment of all individuals and how individuals are able to pursue their desires. Kirby was told about his society's __________ culture.
The idea that people who speak a specific language make interpretations of their reality based on their knowledge of language is:
Simm is a small town (population: 10,000 people). Their main form of commerce is agriculture. Virtually all denizens attend church every Saturday, and sociologists say that they share values and have many emotional ties to each other. Simm is a(n) ________ society.
According to Durkheim, an organic society is a modern society with a complex division of labor.
Jason is homeless and lives with a group of five people under a local freeway overpass. Jason does not like working, and he prefers to live outdoors. Jason is part of a counterculture.
According to the linguistic relativity theory, men and women tend to have different misinterpretations of nonverbal signals.
After World War II, the transition from industrial to postindustrial society began in Asian and South American countries.
When explaining society and culture using the computer metaphor discussed in your text, society is the ______________ and culture is the ______________ of our social world.
Because of health hazards, microcultures do not exist in hospitals.
Ideas we hold about life, about the way the society works, and about where we fit into it are called:
Hoops is the member of a militia organization who believes that individuals should be able to live without rules and regulations imposed by society. Because the militia has values and practices that go against the practices of the dominant culture, Hoops is the member of a:
An organization that influences one small segment of an individual's life or influences an individual's life for only a short period of time is a:
All of the following are examples of material culture except the:
A terrorist organization, such as Al Qaeda, is a counterculture in American society.
Zuzu went to the doctor's office and sat directly beside the only other person in the office, even though there were multiple empty seats in the office. Zuzu violated a:
While ethnocentrism can fuel cultural conflict, it can also:
Beliefs are nonmaterial shared judgments about what is desirable or undesirable, right or wrong, good or bad.
Carol is examining women who work for a major corporation. She hypothesizes that the women will have difficulty meeting the expectations of the corporation while still trying to live up to what is expected of them as wives and mothers. Which theoretical perspective is she most likely using?
Widowhood and prison rehabilitation programs are both sources of resocialization.
According to the “Iowa School,” the reason some very religious people are fighting so hard to prevent same-sex marriage from becoming legal is because:
Which of the following is a meso-level socialization activity?
Willy was unsure whether she should ask her friend Susan to help her host a party or not. Finally, she thought, “Well, Susan loves throwing parties so she would probably like helping me out with this one.” Willy is:
Which of the following do most sociologists see as a uniquely human characteristic?
Which of the following statements are untrue about resocialization?
Resocialization only applies to prisoners and retired persons.
Parents and teachers are:
Becoming a parent is a resocializing experience.
When asked why women want to get married more than men do, Ed explained, “It's because women have an instinct to ensure that they have a male partner to provide for their children, therefore ensuring that their kids will be able to survive to adulthood and have children of their own.” Ed is most likely a:
To be in the game stage, a child has to be able to:
assuresconformity but also creates fear
-“living in a bubble”: discouragement of descending opinions
-illusion of invulnerability
-falsely negative impression of those who are antagonists to thegroup's plans
-illusion of unanimity
- canlead to “risky” shift phenomenon: a willingness to engage inextreme behavior if condoned
transplanetaryprocess or set of processes involving increasing liquidity and thegrowing multi directional flows of people, objects, places andinformation as well as the structures they encounter and create thatare barriers to, or expedite, those flows
settingsthat have well-defined borders and can limit flows of all kinds andeven stop them from crossing those borders completely (ex. City ofJerusalem made up of different quarters for different religions –people relate with)
unlikelyto have clear and defensible borders; they are likely to be quitefluid and more likely than spaces of places to be temporary in nature(ex. Airport, mall, drive thru – people don't really identifystrongly with)
involvethe movement, or fantasies about movement, of various individuals andgroups such as tourists and refugees
involvemechanical technologies such as the containerized ships now used totransport freight, informational technologies (internet), and thematerial such as refrigerators and email that moves so quickly andfreely throughout the world via those technologies
involveboth the electronic capability to produce and transmit informationaround the world and the images of the world that these media createand disseminate (those who write blogs and download photos)
likemediascapes, are involved with images, although they are largelyrestricted to political images that are in line with the ideologiesof the nation-state
mostimportant/obvious barriers are those created by nation-state
theintent is to meet specific goals with most efficiency,predictability, control through technology, quantity over quality,calculation
life changes: aka what you have access to
-people use time on clock to make the best of it (legal-rationalmodel of organization)
-result from situations that brings out physiological arousal
- butsociety instructs us how to respond to them
- fear, anger, depression/sad, happy
thoseemotions we learn to feel via rules/ emotion norms
- guilt,shame, proud, embarrassment
- notborn with, we are given these feelings from the norms of society
not acase of who you know, no one gets special treatment
unitsconflict with organizational goals or infighting occurs
losesight of original goals and sometimes those in power start tomanipulate the organizational “oligarchy”
- changein the division of labor (how tasks are divided – went fromhunting and gathering to the postindustrial)
-changes in solidarity
women have weaker shields than men whenit comes to emotions
bc women have weaker shields, they have less status
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