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Class ideology in the United States is organized around
the American Dream and a belief in meritocracy.
Some participants in alternative sports resist attempts to make their sports more like mainstream power and performance sports because they don’t want to
see competition replace creativity and support for other participants.
In Islamic countries, norms regulating the body are closely tied to
beliefs about the ways that certain physical actions displease Allah.
Being an effective change agent requires a vision of what sports and social life could and should be, a willingness to work hard, and
an ability to rally the resources needed to produce results
The author points out that celebrity athletes
have little real power as change agents in society
Athletes who endorse transformational changes that involve deep structural and ideological changes in society are
likely to lose popular support and media coverage.
Which of the following efforts would a pro basketball player be most likely to join?
a group advocating a program to eliminate poverty in a community
When highly visible and popular athletes become involved in efforts to change something related to sports, they usually have goals that are
When joining opposition groups to establish a vantage point for changing sports, a person is most likely to be successful when working to
create more diverse sport spaces at a local level.
When people use an inside vantage point for changing sports, the biggest problem is that by the time they have the power to exert influence, they will
have a vested interest in maintaining sports as they are.
Using structural theories as a guide for changing sports would lead to an emphasis on
regulating economic processes related to funding priorities.
Using interactionist theories as a guide for changing sports would lead to an emphasis on
developing alliances with people in sports.
Using cultural theories as a guide for changing sports would lead to an emphasis on
changing symbols, vocabularies, and ideologies.
Few people have radical goals for changing sports because people who support radical goals usually
focus on changing living conditions more than changing sports.
A radical goal for changing sports emphasizes
transforming current sports and creating new sport forms.
A reformist goal for changing sports emphasizes
improving sports by making them more fair and equitable.
When people have conservative goals for changing sports, they emphasize
the growth and efficiency of existing sport programs.
The major demographic change that will influence sports in the future is
increased social and cultural diversity.
Organization and rationalization have a tendency to undermine the
element of play in sports.
Telecommunications and the electronic media will influence the future because
people use media content to form standards for assessing their experiences.
The most important issue related to the use of technology in sports is
regulating the ways that technologies are incorporated into sports.
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in spectator sports?
turning stadiums into virtual sports arenas
The Miracle League is an example of what can happen when
people with disabilities become politically active.
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in sports for people with disabilities?
fewer programs for elite athletes with disabilities
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in youth sports?
growth of publicly funded, neighborhood programs
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in high school sports?
decreasing specialization in favor of overall development
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in intercollegiate sports?
growing faculty support for big-time college sports
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in professional sports?
declining media coverage
The author uses adult kickball as an example of
a child’s game being turned into a power and performance sport.
The Gay Games are an example of
a group seeking an alternative to dominant sport forms.
Older people tend to prefer sports that stress
the cultivation of the body rather than driving it.
Pleasure and participation sports will become more popular in the future because
there are growing concerns about improving health and fitness.
If power and performance sports continue to be popular, we can expect that
sports will reproduce ideas emphasizing male-female differences.
The media help to maintain the popularity of power and performance sports by associating them with
storylines that resonate with the experiences of consumers.
The popularity of power and performance sports is connected with gender relations because these sports
celebrate physical superiority and dominating others.
When people play pleasure and participation sports, they are likely to
focus on their connections with other participants.
Pleasure and participation sports generally emphasize
The sponsorship of power and performance sports is generally motivated by the idea that it is important to be associated with
athletes and teams who are currently winners.
Power and performance sports emphasize that people reach their potential when they
achieve machine-like efficiency.
At any point in time in a culture, dominant sport forms
represent the interests of people who have power in that culture.
When considering the future, it is useful to remember that
sports are social constructions.
In the introduction to the chapter, the author explains that the future of sports will
Robert Higgs argues that the combination of sports and Christian beliefs has led religion to become “muscularized” in a way that emphasizes
The combination of sports and Christianity has usually led to
a reaffirmation of the existing characteristics of dominant sports.
The policies of major Christian sport organizations in the United States are based on the assumption that the social and ethical problems in sports will continue to exist until
all people in sports accept Christ into their lives.
Which of the following is NOT one of the strategies Christian athletes use when they doubt the worth of their sport participation as an act of worship?
developing friendships with non-Christian athletes
When elite athletes experience a crisis of meaning in sports, research suggests that they
use sport participation as a means of promoting their religious beliefs.
Combining traditional Christian religious beliefs with the dominant forms of sports sometimes creates challenges for athletes because Christianity emphasizes
humility and service, whereas sports emphasize personal success.
In the box “Public Prayers at Sport Events,” it states that in 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that public prayers at sport events sponsored by public schools are
a violation of the U.S. Constitution.
Religion can become a means of social control in sports when
sport performances are connected with the moral worth of athletes.
Because sport participation is based on self-promotion, athletes may sometimes combine sport participation with religious beliefs to
give sport participation special spiritual meaning.
In sports that are associated with risky lifestyles, athletes sometimes use religion to
Magic is different than religion in that magic consists of
Some athletes have used religion to deal with the uncertainty they face during sport participation. When this is done, it becomes difficult to distinguish religion from
Those most likely to use the Olympics as sites for spreading religious beliefs are
The major religious sport organizations in the U.S. tend to
emphasize conservative, fundamentalist Christian orientations.
Christians and Christian organizations have used sports to
recruit new members to their organizations and belief systems.
Traditional games among Native Americans were often connected with
animistic beliefs linking the material and supernatural worlds.
Taoist, Confucian, and Buddhist ideas in China emphasize the importance of
Sumo wrestlers take great care to preserve the sacredness of the dohyo (wrestling ring). They do this because
it is a tradition that they do not questions as wrestlers.
Sumo, or traditional Japanese wrestling, has strong historical ties to
When Jews in the United States played and excelled in sports during the last century, their motivation often was to
The popularity of sports among men in Islamic nations is often tied to
Muslim women in sports are active subjects who introduce new ideas about what it means to be a Muslim woman. At the same time, these women
are objects used by people as they debate issues of morality and change.
In the box, “Allah’s Will,” the experiences of Hassiba Boulmerka illustrate that
the bodies of Muslim women are at the center of struggles over values.
The recent Olympic teams that have been least likely to have women athletes are from nations where
most people hold fundamentalist Muslim beliefs.
In India, the Hindus who are most likely to participate in sports are those with
a middle- or upper-caste heritage.
Buddhism and Hinduism don’t support competitive sports because they emphasize
transcending the self and the material world.
The self-proclaimed Christian athlete is unique because
no other religion has an equivalent religious identity.
Research indicates that gold medal winners in the history of the Olympics are most likely to come from backgrounds associated with
Traditional Protestant beliefs favor competitive sports over spontaneous play because sports are
Traditional Protestant religious beliefs emphasize a set of key virtues that
religious beliefs often influence opportunities for females to play sports.
A social constructionist approach to sports and religions is based primarily on
When social constructionists study sports and religions, they assume that meanings associated with each of these spheres of life
change over time and vary from one group to another.
Those who say there are essential and unchanging differences between sport and religion believe that sport is essentially
self-promotional, whereas religion is service- and love-oriented.
When people define sport as a form of religion, they identify similarities between sport and religion. For example, they note that both
When people argue that sport is religion-like, which of the following is NOT one of the similarities they identify?
Both trace their origins to rituals practiced in the Garden of Eden.
Religions share certain characteristics with ideologies, but they differ in that ideologies focus mostly on
In sociological terms, religions are integrated and socially shared beliefs and rituals that people
NCAA data on black female athletes in college sports indicate that
over 70 percent of black women athletes are in basketball or track.
NCAA Division I data show that about 70 percent of black male athletes participate in
Title IX law remains controversial in intercollegiate sports because
it exposes the contradictions of big-time intercollegiate football.
Data on Division I colleges and universities show that women's sports receive
about one third of all money spent on athletic recruiting expenses.
In the discussion of athletes’ rights, it is noted that
athletes have no formal means to challenge violations of their rights.
Which of the following is NOT one of the recommendations to reform intercollegiate sports offered by The Drake Group?
drop sport teams that do not generate revenues
When an emphasis on varsity sports distorts the status system among students in a high school, there is likely to be
Participation rates in varsity high school sports since 1971 show that
girls’ participation has increased but remains lower than boys’ participation.
there is 1 athlete in adapted sports for every 5,000 athletes on varsity teams.
An overemphasis on “sports development” in high school often leads athletes to
specialize in one sport in a way that restricts overall development.
Research by William Bowen and his colleagues indicates that since the 1980s there has been growing tension between university policy decisions that favor college sports and
Recent research suggests that college sport programs have hidden costs that are not included in their financial records. One of the primary indirect costs is that
there is a growing divide between athletic and academic programs.
spending on college sports has increased much more than academic spending.
Recent research on NCAA schools has found that when Division I universities increase their spending on big-time sports,
the win-loss records of their football and basketball teams do not improve.
Recent data indicates that of the 1,900 college athletic programs in the United States,
there are less than 25 that regularly make more money than they spend.
Financial information on big-time intercollegiate sport programs shows that they
are run as businesses but pay no taxes even when they show a profit.
Relying on participation fees to support high school sports
discourages participation among students from low-income families.
The use of corporate sponsorships to support high school sports is risky because
sports could lose funding during economic recessions.
The growth of booster club support for high school teams has led to an increase in
sport participation opportunities at schools in low-income areas.
What percentage of high school budgets are used for varsity sport programs?
The professors who established The Drake Group argue that there will be no meaningful reforms in intercollegiate sports unless
college sports are monitored by an agency independent of the NCAA.
Data on academic support services for athletes suggests that
the services don’t always boost graduation rates for athletes.
Recently passed rules for defining academic progress and graduation rates for NCAA Division I teams shift more responsibility for academic reform to
Data on graduation rates among athletes at Division I universities indicates that
female athletes have higher graduation rates than male athletes.
NCAA data show that graduation rates for athletes are generally lowest among
black male athletes in revenue-producing sports.
Research indicates that "clustering" occurs when athletes in certain sports
are over-represented in specific courses and majors.
The educational mission of higher education is most likely to be achieved among athletes on a
Research done by Patti and Peter Adler indicated that the male athletes in a big-time intercollegiate basketball program
experienced academic detachment after one or two semesters.
Among male athletes in big-time college sport programs, there is a tendency for athletic identities to be given a higher priority than academic identities because of
the social support they receive for athletic participation.
Male athletes on intercollegiate teams are most likely to put their athletic and social lives ahead of academics when they
play on big-time, entertainment-oriented teams.
According to data on college sports,
NCAA Division III has more athletes than any other NCAA division.
When comparing big-time and lower-profile intercollegiate sport programs, it is seen that
very few athletes in lower-profile programs have athletic scholarships.
A study by Doug Foley found that high school sports presented students with a vocabulary that generally promoted values emphasizing
When journalist H.G. Bissinger studied the football team in a well-known Texas high school, he found that high school football was organized in ways that
reaffirmed traditional racial ideology among many whites.
In the box, “Status and Privilege in Student Culture,” it is explained that systematic and chronic bullying is most likely in schools where
In the box, “Status and Privilege in Student Culture,” it is explained that
most high schools have multiple popularity and status criteria.
Research shows that sport participation
usually must be combined with other things to increase a girl's popularity.
A study done in the late 1990s found that young women who played school sports had lower rates of sexual activity than other young women, while young men who played sports had higher rates of sexual activity than other young men. This illustrates that
social factors influence the meanings and consequences of playing sports.
Much of the difference between athletes & other students in high school is due to
selection-in and filtering-out processes.
Research shows that when high school athletes as a group are compared to other high school students, they tend to have
higher grades and more positive attitudes toward school.
The main point of the chapter is that
sports and politics cannot be kept separate.
Politics are part of sports and sport organizations. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of sports that involves political processes?
setting goals and motivating athletes and coaches
To make sense of complex new political realities around the world, we should
study changes on both the global and local levels.
The Nike transnational advocacy network was developed to
force Nike to change its exploitive labor practices in Southeast Asia.
The production of sport equipment and clothing is tied to global political processes. The companies producing these goods often
locate production facilities in nations where labor is cheap.
Which of the following issues is NOT related to athletes as global migrant workers?
the academic success of athletes’ children
The images and messages presented by the sponsors of major sport events tend to
influence what people think about.
As corporations sponsor more of the media coverage of international sports, sports events have become vehicles for presenting messages
Corporate sponsorships of sports are primarily motivated by corporate interest in
promoting a way of life based on consumption and consumerism.
Sports in recent years have become framed in new political terms. Which of the following best describes these terms?
Commercial interests have become increasingly important.
Changes in global politics since 1990 have made international sports
important stages for commercial displays by transnational corporations.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the author suggests that the Olympic motto, “Citius, Altius, Fortius,” should be replaced by a new motto that emphasizes
the interests of all humanity.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” it is noted that the major advantage for using multiple sites for each Olympic Games would be to
increase the value of stocks for major world-wide airlines.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” which of the following is NOT a change recommended for reforming the Olympic Games?
eliminate the opening and closing ceremonies
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” it is noted that the current method of selling media broadcasting rights to the Olympic Games
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the table showing total medal counts from 1896 to 2004 indicates that when the size of nations is taken into account,
the United States is not rated in the top 25.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the author endorses the elimination of national medal counts because such counts tend to
intensify nationalism and political differences between countries.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” Bruce Kidd, a former Olympian and now a physical educator, suggests that the Olympics be changed so that
the service of athletes is central in athlete selection and media coverage.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the author explains that the Olympics are now designed primarily to
promote the commercial interests of corporate sponsors.
Sports are likely to foster meaningful cultural exchanges between nations when
people share information equally and develop mutual understanding.
A problem associated with using sports to bridge diplomatic and cultural gaps between peoples of the world is that sports may
encourage developing nations to depend more on wealthy nations.
Nationalistic themes in media coverage of international sports are now accompanied and sometimes obscured by images and narratives that promote
social justice and human rights.
The history of sports, especially the Olympic Games, shows that the main purpose underlying participation in international sports by most nations has been to
pursue national political interests.
Data on connections between sports and international relations suggest that sports
are most often used as forms of public diplomacy.
Government officials are most likely to use sports as a diplomatic tool when
there is a need for public expressions of unity between different nations.
Government involvement in sports is usually connected with
power struggles between groups in a society or community.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for government intervention in sports?
When governments sponsor sports and political officials associate themselves with sports, their primary purpose is often to
increase their legitimacy in the eyes of citizens.
When Germany hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Hitler used the Olympic Games to
promote the Nazi ideology of “Nordic supremacy.”
When government involvement in sports is intended to promote identity& unity, it
usually benefits some people more than others.
Sports do bring people together and create “emotional unity,” but a sociological understanding of the significance of this unity requires that we ask questions about
the long-term political consequences of the unity.
Many governments pay cash rewards to athletes who win Olympic medals because
wins by athletes bring prestige and other benefits to the whole country.
The belief that participation in competitive sports lowers health care costs is
challenged by research on actual consequences of sport participation.
Research shows that if maintaining health and fitness is the goal, a nation should sponsor sports that are
noncompetitive and have aerobic benefits.
The Casey Martin case is an example of government intervention designed to
ensure fairness and protect human rights.
When golfer Casey Martin sued the Professional Golf Association because they would not let him use the golf cart he needed to play with his disability, the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court where they ruled that
allowing Martin to use a cart was not an unreasonable accommodation.
When government organizations regulate access to sport facilities and make rules about who can play sports under what circumstances, the intent is to
safeguard the public order.
Governments become involved in sports because they often are the only organizations with
the power and capital needed to sponsor events and build major facilities.
The author distinguishes between power and authority. Power refers to the ability to influence people and achieve goals, whereas authority refers to
a form of power that comes with a formal office of position.
Politics refers primarily to
processes of organizing power.
Tensions between elite athletes and sportswriters has intensified as
salary differences between athletes and sportswriters have increased
Sportswriters differ from sports announcers and commentators in that they
do more investigative reporting.
Research shows that gambling on sports
has declined between 1992 and 2008.
Research on media audiences shows that
men and women who live together often watch sports together.
Studies of the relationship between consuming media sports and the actions of spectators show that
watching media sports does not influence patterns of sport participation.
Research shows that color-blind media coverage of sports
misses important parts of sport reality and reproduces the status quo.
Covert and unintentional racial and ethnic bias in the media can be reduced by
hiring more blacks and ethnic minorities in all media jobs.
In the box, “Meet the Press,” it is noted that the media coverage of women athletes
is generally consistent with dominant gender ideology.
The coverage of men’s sports is infused with dominant ideas about manhood. In fact, the author describes men’s sports on television as
soap operas for men.
At least part of the difference in the newspaper coverage of men’s and women’s sports has been due to the
work routines of sportswriters and the formats of sports sections.
Recent research shows that boys in the U.S. consume sports coverage that tends to
present aggression and violence as normal and exciting behavior.
In the coverage of women’s sports, it is common for the media to
erase any acknowledgment of lesbian or gay athletes.
If you regularly watch women’s sports on network TV, the sport you see most often is
Research on media coverage of men’s and women’s sports has generally found that
women’s sports are covered less often and less seriously than men’s sports.
A person in the U.S. who watches sports on network television
sees and hears commercials during 20 percent of the time.
As opposed to coverage in many other countries, the images and messages in televised sports in the U.S. tend to highlight
competitive rivalries and competitive outcomes.
Corporations that profit from alcohol or tobacco sales tend to sponsor sports because
it enables them to associate their products with healthy images.
Which of the following is NOT a reason that global corporations have become more involved as sponsors of sports?
Sports are covered in a way that makes people more active as citizens.
Women’s sport events do not receive more coverage in the media partly because the viewers of women’s sports
have not been identified by advertisers as a unique target audience.
The author notes that as more people go online for coverage of national and international sports, local newspapers
focus more coverage on local high school and college teams.
Golf and tennis are frequently covered sports on television because they
attract revenues from companies hoping to reach high-income consumers.
Even though many sport events have low ratings, television companies want to broadcast them because they fill “dead time” on weekends and because they
attract audiences that sponsors want to reach.
The amount of space given to the coverage of sports in major city newspapers is
Those claiming that television corrupts sports generally fail to realize that
television does not operate in a political and economic vacuum.
In accommodating the interests of commercial television, many sports have
willingly made trade-offs in order to increase their commercial appeal.
According to data in Table 12.1 and Figure 12.2, rights fees for major sports have
increased steadily through 2008.
Rights fees for certain sports have increased dramatically. This has
increased the profitability of certain commercial sports.
Sport organizations now seek to make money from “rights fees” paid by
the electronic media that want to sell sport audiences to advertisers.
Sports are unique forms of entertainment because
they have limited and controllable production costs.
The sport-media relationship in the U.S. is organized so that
commercial forms of media and sports depend on each other for profits.
In the box, “Win at Any Cost,” it is noted that
some televised sport images are filtered to look like video game images.
Most of the people who play sport video games are
people who regularly consume sports through the mainstream media.
In the case of sports, the Internet has made it much easier for people to
understand the politics of sports.
In connection with sports, most people today use the Internet to
extend and complement what other media already provide.
The Internet is different from traditional television in that it
gives users control that can radically alter their media experiences.
Nearly all television broadcasts of sport events are sponsored by
large capitalist corporations and other for-profit businesses.
When the media are privately owned and depend on audience ratings, televised sport events are “re-produced” in a way that usually emphasizes
forms of soap opera storytelling.
Most media content is tied to power relations in the sense that they
emphasize images and messages consistent with dominant ideologies.
When media are privately owned, their major interest is profit making; when media are controlled and operated by the state, their major interest is
shaping values and providing a public service.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about sports and the media?
All media coverage involves selective “re-presentations” of sports.
When universities profit from big-time football and men’s basketball, it is primarily because they
have access to cheap athletic labor
The legal status of amateur athletes around the world is controlled by
numerous organizations, each with their own interests and goals.
The author notes that many of the professional athletes in individual sports make less money than people think because they
often pay their own expenses for travel and training.
Data on athletes’ salaries show that
the salary gap between the highest- and lowest-paid athletes has increased.
The recent, large annual increases in the salaries of athletes in the major men’s professional sport leagues are primarily due to
changes in the legal status of players and increased revenues in sports.
Team owners in the major men’s sports are free-market capitalists who protect their power and wealth through
market regulations and socialist forms of organization.
Despite the success of players’ organizations in professional team sports, it is difficult to get players to join an organization that may ask them to participate in a strike. This is because athletes
have short playing careers and are dependent on owners.
What term was used by the author to describe wealthy and powerful capitalists who use public financing (money) to build stadiums for personal gain?
The legal status of most athletes in professional team sports in North America was for many years governed by the reserve system. The reserve system was designed to
give team owners nearly total control of players and their careers.
The power of organizations that control amateur sports is primarily related to
the money they generate through sport events and sponsorships.
The author notes that recently built sport stadiums tend to resemble
shopping malls with a playing field in the middle.
Many sport team owners have made requests for new stadiums because they want to
gain access to new revenue streams related to the stadium.
The fact that the U.S. government allows corporations to deduct a portion of sport ticket prices on their tax returns has ultimately served to
increase ticket prices for the average fan.
A thorough review of research shows that the arguments used to justify subsidies for pro sport teams are
contradicted by studies done by independent economists.
Which of the following is NOT one of the widely used arguments made to justify stadium subsidies and other forms of public support for professional sport teams?
Team owners regularly share their profits with city governments.
Owners of team men’s spectator sports in the U.S. often receive public assistance in the form of
tax breaks and subsidies related to the use of facilities.
Over the past 40 years the people who have bought and sold teams in the NBA, NFL, NHL, and Major League Baseball have generally
made vast amounts of money on the sales.
The relationships between the team owners in the major professional team sports in North America are most accurately described as forms of
The franchise fees paid by the owners of new teams in the major men’s sport leagues in North America have
increased dramatically over the past three decades.
When sport leagues and team owners become monopsonies, it means that they
are the only buyers of athlete labor.
Team owners in the major sport leagues in the U.S. have formed cartels that
coordinate the actions of owners.
The owners of major sport teams and the sponsors of major sport events do not think alike on all issues, but they generally
agree on the need to protect their investments and maximize profits.
Professional sport teams in North America are privately owned. Most people who own the hundreds of minor-league teams in North America
regularly lose money on their teams.
As commercialization increases, the decision making in sport organizations
moves further away from the control of athletes.
In the box, “Extreme Heroic Action,” it is noted that someone using cultural theories would hypothesize that professional wrestling is popular because it
reaffirms the ideologies that people use to make sense of their lives.
The storylines presented in major professional wrestling (WWE) emphasize that
working men are either victimized or privileged by greedy bosses.
In NASCAR racing, a highly commercialized sport, sponsorships for drivers are based primarily on the driver’s ability to
attract attention and increase financial profits for the sponsor.
In commercial sports there is a tendency for aesthetic values to be replaced by
When rules are developed or changed in connection with commercialization, the new rules are likely to
Spectator interest in sports is related to a combination of the level of risk or rewards associated with an event, anticipated displays of excellence or heroics, and
the uncertainty of an event’s outcome.
Because there are few objections to the branding of sports, the author suggests that
corporate branding has been normalized in the minds of younger people.
When corporations brand athletes, they like to do it when the athletes are
young so they can mold the athlete’s career to fit corporate interests.
Michael Jordan has been a key figure in spreading around the world an ideology emphasizing that Michael Jordan has been a key figure in spreading around the world an ideology emphasizing that
sports are valuable tools for advertisers who must sell products.
Transnational corporations sponsor sports today because they want to
associate pleasure and enjoyment with corporations and their products.
The globalization of commercial sports is due in part to the fact that
sport organizations are interested in expanding their markets.
Television has a positive impact on the growth of commercial sports because it
serves as an effective tool for recruiting new spectators and fans.
Class relations are connected with commercial sports in any society because
people with money promote and sponsor sports that fit their interests.
Football has become “America’s game” because it
celebrates the values and experiences of powerful people in the society.
Commercial sports are most well-established in cultures where lifestyles involve
high rates of consumption and an emphasis on status symbols.
Commercial sports are most likely to grow and prosper in societies with
market economies, large urban centers, and the availability of capital.
After reading the chapter on social class and sports, it is clear that in recent years
white men have retained power and control in sport organizations
Data from NCAA schools indicate that
revenues generated by black athletes often pay for scholarships for others.
Data on athletic scholarships in NCAA schools indicate that
over 60 percent of all athletes play with no athletic scholarships.
Research indicates that problems are most likely when retirement from sport
is forced on an athlete because of injury.
The two major challenges faced by retiring athletes are reconstructing their identities and
renegotiating their relationships with family and friends.
After reading the chapter we could conclude that future occupational success and upward mobility would be highest among former elite athletes in
The author concludes that being a varsity athlete in high school or college is most likely to give people an occupational advantage when
playing sports enabled them to expand their experiences apart from sports.
There have not been significant increases in the proportions of blacks working at top management levels in sports because
hiring processes for top jobs favor people similar to team owners.
Lawyers Johnnie Cochran and Cyrus Mehri used NFL team data from 1986 to 2001 to show NFL owners that
black coaches had better records than their white counterparts.
Information on the number of blacks in coaching and management positions in North American professional team sports shows that
blacks are underrepresented in most power positions in all sports.
Data on the salaries of players in the major team sports shows that
there is no evidence of race-based salary discrimination.
As entry barriers into professional sports declined for black athletes, retention barriers took their place. Retention barriers benefited
white players with marginal skills.
When sports were first desegregated, the existence of “entry barriers” in top-level competitive sports in the U.S. created a situation in which
black athletes had better performance records than white athletes.
Data suggest that opportunities for African Americans in sports are
generally insignificant for the African American population as a whole.
The author argues that full gender equity in jobs in sport organizations depends on
changing the cultures of sports and sport organizations.
Women are less likely to get certain jobs in sports and sport organizations because being qualified for the jobs is
often defined as being able to do them as men have done them.
Which of the following is true about women’s careers in sports?
Job turnover is relatively high among women.
For every contract dollar made by NBA players during the 2008–2009 season, players in the WNBA made
When athletes sign pro sport contracts at 21 years old, they can expect to retire between the ages of
NCAA data on the probability of playing sports beyond high school lead to the conclusion that
less than one half of one percent of high school athletes play pro sports.
Opportunities to play professional sports are best described as
short term and limited to relatively few people.
Data on global income and living conditions show that
nearly half the people in the world lack the resources to play organized sports.
Efforts to organize fans to resist ticket price increases have generally failed because
wealthy status-conscious spectators don’t object to high ticket prices.
Data show that ticket prices at men’s professional sports in North America have
increased faster than the rate of inflation.
When school sports depend on corporate sponsors, the main problem is that
corporations usually sponsor only the sports that promote their interests.
When there are budget shortfalls, the high school sport programs most likely to be cut are in communities where there are
large proportions of low-income families.
In his research on boxers, French sociologist Loïc Wacquant notes that being a professional boxer in the U.S. is a life choice that
is heavily influenced by the oppressive realities of race and social class.
Mike Messner’s study of former elite male athletes showed that men from lower-income backgrounds often saw sport participation as a means of obtaining
respect and a foundation for their identities.
When gender relations and class relations come together in people’s lives, which category of women is likely to have the highest sport participation rate?
women from upper-income households
The lifestyles of middle-income and working-class people are most likely to include those sports that have traditionally been
free, open, and sponsored with public funds.
Research on sport participation and social class tends to show that
higher-income people have high rates of attendance at most sport events.
At the same time that public money in cities and states has been used to fund the construction of sport venues,
fewer average people can afford to buy tickets to see local teams.
When tax money is used to build sport stadiums and arenas for professional teams, one of the main results is that
public money is transferred to wealthy individuals and corporations.
The author points out that sports and other forms of exciting entertainment are culturally important because they can be used to
establish ideological outposts in the minds of people.
According to political theorist Antonio Gramsci, the people who sponsor activities that provide popular pleasure and entertainment in society often do so to
deliver subliminal messages that determine what people think.
According to political theorist Antonio Gramsci, members of the ruling class in contemporary societies maintain their power to the extent that they
can effectively use the media to show that social classes don’t exist.
In the Sporting News list of the Most Powerful People in [U.S.] Sports during 2006, the people most represented in the top 25 of the list primarily were
CEOs of transnational media companies.
Many people in North America believe that sports are
models of social equality and meritocracy.
Social class relations are related to sports and sport participation because
organized sports depend on material resources.
The best chance of finding a black coach of a professional U.S. men’s team is in
Americans tend to avoid public discussions of issues related to race and ethnicity because
they follow a civic etiquette that calls for polite avoidance of those issues.
Racial and ethnic exclusion occurs today at the community level, where it is
hidden behind participation fees and lack of access to transportation.
The elimination of racial exclusion tends to be slowest in sports that involve
extensive off-the-field social contact.
Racial segregation and exclusion are most likely to be eliminated in sports when
the entire team benefits from the success of individual team members.
The author points out that the sport participation of Asian Pacific Americans
differs depending on the histories of the groups with Asian ancestry.
The sport participation patterns of undocumented workers from Latin America are
largely unknown because reliable data are difficult to obtain.
Major League Baseball teams have signed many Central and Latin Americans to contracts because these players
constitute a large pool of relatively cheap and skilled labor.
Research on Major League Baseball indicates that Latino players
make up about 25% of all players on Major League teams.
Research shows that the Latinas who are most apt to play sports in the U.S. are
members of second- and third-generation families.
The sport participation patterns of Latinos and Latinas in North America are
diverse due to the many different histories and backgrounds of Latinos.
The NCAA allowed Florida State University to keep its mascots, Chief Osceola and his horse Seminole, because the university
has permission from tribal representatives to use their name and image.
In the box, “Identity Theft? Using Native American Names and Images in Sports,” it is noted that team
mascots like Chief Wahoo are a form of bigotry.
Sport participation among Native Americans is limited due to poverty, poor health, a lack of equipment and facilities, and the fear that playing mainstream sports will
cut them off from their cultural roots and identities.
Data show that sport participation rates in the U.S. are highest in
middle- and upper-middle-income white communities.
Teams such as the Indianapolis Clowns and the Harlem Globetrotters were able to make a living in the mid-20th century by playing sports in ways that
entertained white spectators by reaffirming their racial stereotypes.
Data on sport participation patterns among African Americans indicates that they
remain underrepresented in most pro and amateur sports.
When black women were in ads for the WNBA, the marketing people were so sensitive to issues of race that they presented the women in roles where they
were clearly nurturing and supportive.
Black female athletes sometimes learn to tone down their confidence and toughness so they
won’t be seen by whites as “angry black women.”
Educator and sociologist Richard Majors suggests that “cool pose” has become a patterned part of the lives of many black men in the United States. According to Majors,
cool pose emphasizes control, toughness, and detachment from others.
Black male athletes have become valuable entertainment commodities in sports emphasizing power and domination partly because
many whites are fascinated by the movements of black male bodies.
In the discussion of how racial ideology influences choices to play sports, it is noted that ideology influences
both blacks and whites.
Research suggests that racial ideology would most interfere with the establishment of academic identities among