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A concept that does not vary is known as a constant.
An operation is the process of linking abstract concepts to empirical indicants.
There can only be one correct definition of a concept.
An open-ended question is designed with explicit response choices.
When we operationalize, we identify specific observations that we will take to indicate a concept in empirical reality.
Open-ended questions are most frequently used for large surveys.
Qualitative research usually takes an inductive approach to the process of conceptualization.
Contrived observation is considered unethical and unreliable, and should not be used in social scientific research.
Government statistics generated by a central agency usually have higher quality than official data collected by local levels of government and compiled into a single report.
At the ratio level of measurement, addition and subtraction are possible.
Reliability is a prerequisite for measurement validity
Which of the following is NOT a problem with using available data?
D. Government agencies and NGOs rarely make data public
Which of the following is NOT true regarding closed-ended questions?
D. The range of responses cannot be anticipated.
C. Youth culture is poorly understood by researchers.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a concept?
In variables measured at the nominal level of measurement,
Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the nominal level of measurement?
A. Location in which respondent was born
Unobtrusive measures can provide a researcher with a wealth of content. Which of the following does NOT involve an unobtrusive measure?
A characteristic that doesn't change across cases is known as a/an:
What kind of validity is achieved if scores on measures related to one concept are not strongly associated with measures of different concepts?
Which of the following statistics is used commonly to measure inter-item reliability?
Inter-observer reliability occurs when:
Identify the ordinal measure:
When researchers measure an unchanging phenomenon at two different times, the degree to which the two measurements are related is called:
Questions are often the basis of which type(s) of research?
C. A previously validated measure of depression
Face validity refers to:
C. The apparent appropriateness of how a concept is measured
Which level of measurement is the most mathematically precise?
Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the interval level of measurement?
C. Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
E. All of the above are measured at the ordinal level
Using more than one measure of the same variable, such as using a survey and direct observation, is known as:
The process of specifying the operations that will indicate the value of cases on a variable is known as:
A. Idiosyncratic individual error
If responses are affected by factors that are not what the instrument is intended to measure, then what is the source of measurement error?
D. Systematic errors
Using 24 questions to represent multiple dimensions of the problems associated with alcohol abuse attempts to establish what type of validity?
A sample is always drawn from the target population.
The individual members of the population whose characteristics are to be measured are called the elements.
The larger the sampling error, the more representative the sample.
Sampling is unnecessary if all units in the population are identical.
In a representative sample, some characteristics are overrepresented or underrepresented when compared to the population.
Probability sampling methods have no systematic bias.
The fraction of the total population that a sample contains largely affects the sample's representativeness.
The validity of cross-population generalizations can be tested through sampling.
The U. S. Government uses tax dollars to conduct the Census.
Quota sampling requires that the researcher have some prior knowledge of characteristics in the population.
We can mathematically determine the likely degree of sampling error in an estimate based on a random sample, provided we have a reasonable response rate.
When sampling distributions take a normal shape, we can determine confidence intervals around the most common value.
The proportion of the whole population that the sample represents is more important than the size of the sample for determining the sample's representativeness.
The probability of selection is equal for each element in a simple random sample.
Replacement sampling replaces sample elements that have been chosen for the study with newer elements from the population.
Sample generalizability depends on the amount of sampling error in order to determine quality of the sample.
A list of 1000 students in alphabetical order has been provided to you, and you want a sample of 50. Using systematic random sampling techniques, what is the sampling interval?
The list from which elements of populations are selected for a sample is known as the:
The entire set of individuals or other entities to which study findings will be generalized is the:
A subset of the population used to study the population as a whole is known as a/an:
In Metropolitan Region Y, 75% of the population lives in suburban areas, while only 25% remain in the central city. We draw a sample of 50 city residents and 50 suburban residents. This sample is:
What new technique did the U. S. Census introduce in 2010 in an attempt to increase the response rate?
A survey that takes measurements from all elements of a population is also known as a:
In the population of New Town, 30 percent of the people work for Bigg Corporation, 30 percent work in the public sector (including education), and 40 percent are self-employed. In a survey of 100 residents of New Town, 40 people worked for Bigg Corporation, 40 percent worked in the public sector, and 20 people were self-employed. This sample was:
If one third of all elements in a population will be selected for a simple random sample, the probability of selection for each element in the population is:
Which of the following is FALSE about probability sampling methods?
When nothing but chance determines the elements selected for a sample, there is no:
Which of the following is NOT a procedure for simple random selection of elements?
Which of the following is FALSE regarding simple random sampling?
D. Simple random sampling must be done with replacement sampling.
A researcher gets a list of all 500 members of Social Club Z that she wants to include in her study. She only has the funding and time to survey 50 members. She takes her list of members, randomly selects a starting point, and then selects every tenth name from the list to be included in her sample. In this example, the sampling interval is:
Sampling bias known as periodicity occurs in which type of sampling design?
A researcher studying small town religiosity in the United States randomly selected ten states. From these states, he randomly selected one tenth of all counties. From these counties, he randomly selected one tenth of cities with populations smaller than 10,000. From these towns, he obtained lists of all houses of worship and randomly selected three. From these, he selected ten practitioners to be interviewed. In this example, which is NOT a cluster?
Which two sampling methods require that the researcher know something about the salient characteristics of the population (such as race, ethnicity, or gender) before selecting samples?
When a 1936 Literary Digest poll found overwhelming support for Alfred Landon's presidential bid over Franklin Delano Roosevelt, they made an erroneous prediction that Landon would defeat FDR. What are the probable sources for error in their poll that helps explain their mistake?
D. All of the above
Which of the following is NOT a means for generating a random sample?
A. Stopping the first people you meet on the street
Quota sampling is advisable when:
In purposive sampling, a researcher should continue to select interviewees until which of the following things have been achieved?
B. Completeness and saturation have been achieved.
A researcher has decided to do a study of people who hunt in a nearby national forest. He asks a friend, whom he knows to be a hunter, if he would consent to an interview. He interviews his friend, and then asks his friend if he could name other people who hunted in the forest. His friend provides him with five names. The researcher contacts those five people, interviews them, and asks each of those people for names of other hunters. This sampling technique is known as:
You have a population of 1000 students, of which 75% are male. You want to draw a sample of 100 students, of which 50 are male and 50 are female. What is the probability of selection for men?
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding sample quality?
C. Sample quality is determined by the selection method itself, not the actual sample obtained.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding normal curves?
Which of the following is NOT a convention for confidence intervals in the social sciences?
You have a population of 100, with 20% of them male and 80% female. The mean income for men is $100,000 and for women is $68,000. To estimate the mean income for the entire population, what is the weight you should use for the male population?
Cross-sectional research collects data at one point in time.
If a contextual effect exists, then causality cannot be established.
Time order cannot be established in cross-sectional research designs.
A trend study has a repeated cross-sectional design.
Quantitative research generally seeks to test idiographic causal explanations using either experimental or non-experimental designs.
Interviewing survivors of the 9-11 attacks is an example of a cohort study.
In some studies, the unit of analysis and the unit of observation are the same.
The unit of analysis is the level of social life from which data is collected.
If a study contains an ecological fallacy, it has drawn conclusions about individuals from group-level data.
If a study contains a reductionist fallacy, it has drawn conclusions about individuals based on group-level data.
A nomothetic causal explanation is deterministic.
A counterfactual situation is a hypothetical one, in which researchers must estimate what the situation would have been in the absence of variation in the independent variable.
Idiographic causal explanations seek to specify which conditions led to a particular outcome in a particular case or event.
Association in causal explanations requires that variables vary together.
Randomization is a technique used to ensure spuriousness in experimental designs.
Retrospective data tends to be reliable when measuring past psychological states and behaviors.
The goal of a trend study is to determine if a sample has changed over time.
A panel design is better than a repeated cross-sectional design for testing causal hypotheses.
In experimental designs, statistical control reduces the risk of spuriousness.
Research that collects data at more than one point in time is called:
Longitudinal research designs are generally superior to cross-sectional research designs because they more readily establish:
Which of the following is NOT a circumstance in which it is reasonable to draw conclusions about time order based on cross-sectional data?
In a nomothetic causal explanation, the focus is on which of the following as the cause?
D. Independent variable
Individual respondents in a repeated cross-sectional study:
Fixed sample panel studies are distinguished by which of the following designs:
Attrition in panel studies refers to which of the following?
A cohort has which of the following characteristics?
The narrative is a critical element in which of the following?
Most sociological and psychological studies use which unit of analysis?
Conclusions drawn about individuals based on family-level data (such as income. may or may not be correct, due to the possibility of an error known as a/an:
The belief that the variation in an independent variable will be followed by variation in the dependent variable, when all other things are equal, is known as:
While investigating why juveniles commit murder, a researcher extensively interviews one thirteen-year-old who was convicted of this crime. The researcher paid careful attention to the specific conditions of this juvenile offender that led to his crime, such as: his relationship with his parents, his peers, his previous delinquency, his psychological health, his biological health, his educational experiences, his contact with role models, his exposure to media, and his history of violent behavior. This study is a good example of what type of causal explanation?
In a true experiment, how is association established?
Researcher K is interested in the effects of gender on educational attainment, so she asked one member of 100 households to provide the gender and number of years of education completed for adults in the household. In K's study, the unit of analysis is:
After consulting factory records, Researcher P finds that factories with higher proportions of male workers are more likely to be union shops. P concludes that in future research on union activism, the focus should be on male individuals. What methodological error has P committed?
To say that variables have an association is to say that:
C. They empirically vary together
Researcher M found that when temperatures rise, so does the crime rate. Researcher M has satisfied which criterion for causality?
To establish time order, which of the following must come first?
By definition, a cross-sectional study:
In non-experimental research designs, which technique is usually used to establish non-spuriousness?
Which causal criteria is the most difficult to establish when using cross-sectional designs?
The process through which the independent variable creates changes in a dependent variable is known as a/an:
In cross-sectional research, which of the following is assumed to come before current attitudes?
What technique reduces the risk of spuriousness in non-experimental designs?
Historically, Southern cities have been more spatially integrated by race than have Northern cities. This is an example of:
Dr. Smith is exploring the effects of bullying on children's self-esteem. In order to conduct her research, she decides to interview children at a local high school about their experiences with bullies. What are the units of analysis for this study?
John found that freshman girls at a local high school were more likely than freshman boys to get detention. In his paper, he concludes that overall high school girls are more likely than boys to get in trouble. This is an example of:
Katherine is creating a mock research design that examines the effect of college on religiosity among students. She wishes to interview a random sample of incoming freshmen and do subsequent interviews with the same group at the end of each semester for four years. This is an example of:
The problem of panel members growing weary of repeated interviews, which could cause participants to drop out of the study or give thoughtless answers to standard questions, is called:
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