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Political and economy systems, technology and cultural patterns
According to a sociological analysis, the natural environment is affected by
Pollution and trash
Rich countries like the US contribute more than their share of _______________ to the world
The environmental deficit
Humanity’s focus on short-term material affluence had led to serious, long-term environmental hard called
People are clever, so life will improve
According to the logic of growth approach…
Limits to growth theory
Humanity must constrain population growth and use of resources to avoid eventual environmental collapse
The texts notes that people in northern Africa and the middle east are predicted to run out of ____________ by the year 2035
_____________ can help slow the progress of global warming by removing carbon dioxide from the air
According to the ___________ analysis, problems of the natural environment result from inequality
The _____________ view claims that humanity will be able to solve environmental problems, just as we have devised “clean” technologies and alternative forms of energy
Our cultural tendency to purchase and display things not because we really need them, but simply as a way of indication our social position, is referred to as…
The world reached a population of 1 billion about the year…
In 2011 or early 2012, the human population of the planet will be…
Over the 20th century, global population…
In the US, there were 4.3 million live births in a population of 301 million. This yields a crude birth rate of…
The population of the world is growing at a rate of _________ million a year
As much from immigration as from natural increase
High-income nations like the US grow
Worldwide, what share of the global population increase is taking place in the low-income nations of the southern hemisphere?
Defined by famine and chaos because population would soon outpace food resources
Malthus predicted that the future of humanity would be
The birth rate drops into line with the death rate, and population growth slows down
During stage 3 (a mature industrial economy) of the demographic transition,
The region of the world that has the highest share and number of low-income nations is
T/F: Some relative poverty exists in the US but no absolute poverty
World system theory
According to which theory did colonialism create inequality and, to this day, a world capitalist system continues to enrich some nations at the expense of others?
T/F: In India, Thailand and some African countries, families marry off women against their will, with many ending up as slaves performing work for their husband’s families or forced into prostitution
Which theory is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between societies?
The US and Japan are within which category of the “capitalist world economy”?
T/F: A society with a steady two percent annual rate of population increase will double its population in 35 years.
T/F: Terrorism strikes at the weakness of modern society
Conventional war crimes
Which concept refers to the murder, rape, torture, deportation or other ill treatment of a population in any occupied territory?
T/F: Widespread military service instilled the values and habits necessary for the success of the industrialization of the US or the West
T/F: Ware is both biologically determined and culturally reproduced
Some scientists claim that exploding even a few nuclear bombs at one time would draw enough debris and dust into the atmosphere to block the sun’s rays from reaching the planet’s surface for months or even years, triggering a..
The military-industrial complex
What concept refers to a political alliance involving the federal government, the military, and the defense industries that dominate our nation’s politics?
In today’s all-volunteer military, the armed forces are made up mostly of…
T/F: The level of military participation in a society is correlated with the degree of equalitarianism in society
T/F: Within several decades, as many as 50 of the world’s nations may have at least some nuclear weapons
T/F: War has been a historically male act because women are much less likely to resolve problems with physical conflict.
The text notes that the US leaders justified the Korean War and the war in Vietnam as efforts to keep the world safe from communism, illustrating which factor identified as promoting war?
Involves unlawful – typically random acts of violence or the threat of violence – by an individual, group, or government to achieve a political goal.
The military’s success in creating a level playing field
The over participation of African Americans in the US military indicates
Forms of war do not reflect a society’s…
During WWII, both the Germans and the Allied forces repeatedly bombed each other’s cities in attacks that weakened the enemy’s ability and will to fight. These military activities illustrate…
T/F: Given the “western way of war,” there is no military solution to terrorism.
Since the late 1960s, high school student’s performance on the SATs has…
Schools with larger enrollments
The extent of school violence is higher in
A sociological perspective shows that dropping out of school is closely linked with
T/F: Most white, black, and Hispanic students attend public schools that enroll mostly students of their same race/ethnicity
The best predictor of college attendance is
T/F: Education refers to formal instruction by trained teachers, while schooling refers to the knowledge and skills one acquires
The majority of undergraduates on US college and university campuses are…
Students without disabilities learn to interact with people who differ from themselves
Supporters of mainstreaming argue that
On the basis of aptitude scores and previous academic grades, she assigns a student to a “vocational” program rather than a program that is designed for college prep. Margaret has just engaged in a policy called _______
Parents need their children to work to provide food and income
A major reason that schooling is limited in poor societies of the world is that…
The hidden curriculum
Rather than learning to think critically and creatively, especially about social justice, most students learn only to follow directions, to respect authority figures, and to fit into the system as it exists. This is part of what the social conflict theory calls…
T/F: In the US, less than 1/3 of the population aged 25 to 64 has a 4-year college or university degree
Can create a self-fulfilling prophecy
Symbolic interaction analysis of education shows us how tracking and other forms of labeling
More school choice
The conservative solution to many problems of schooling can be summed up as…
Which concept refers to a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage or adoption, which joins individuals into families?
Receive the same supportive and effective parenting as those raised in other families
Research shows that children raised by same-sex parents
The modern nuclear family structure emerged as a result in a significant change in …
When scientific discoveries and new technologies, like new methods of reproduction, develop faster than cultures can develop norms concerning their use, this is known as…
Structural functional approach
Which theoretical approach tends to view the family as the most important unit of social organization?
Four times higher
Compared to a century ago, the divorce rate is…
Women working for pay
In the US, most mothers are
T/F: Liberals tend to see the challenges of African American families as less “family problems” and more as “race prejudice problems” or “economic problems”
From which political viewpoint do people claim that divorce is needed because it allows women to free themselves from abusive relationships?
Has been going down since the late 1970s
In the United States, the divorce rate…
A blended family
Scott and Connie are married and have a 6 month old son. Also in the home is Scott’s son from a previous marriage and Connie’s daughter from a previous marriage. This household can correctly be described as
A nuclear family
Sandra lives with her two children. These three people represent
Bill and Susan are not married but have been living together for three years. Bill and Susan are
The temping of the workplace
The deindustrialization of the US, as well as the spread of low-skilled service work, has led to
It blurs the line between home and work
Telecommuting has what major disadvantage?
According to Karl Marx, the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness in the workplace is
T/F: Work involves not just income, but social identity
At the top of the primary labor market are…
What is not one of the three sectors of the economy?
Literary skills required to manipulate symbols
A century ago, workers needed to develop the industrial skills required for making things. Today, workers in the postindustrial economy must develop the…
Eliminates old jobs and creates new ones
The structural-functional approach highlights how technological change
The rationalization of society
Max Weber saw the Industrial Revolution as one expression of what larger historical process?
T/F: Social conflict analysis claims that the opportunities and advantages provided by work are far greater for some people than for others
The Industrial Revolution pushed worker into which sector of the economy?
The area of the world with the greatest health care crisis is:
T/F: American culture’s definition of masculinity places men at lower risk for accidents, violence and suicide
A market system
Societies with mostly capitalist economies distribute health care through
The infant-mortality rate
One general measure of a society’s health is the share of babies who die in their first year of life for each 1000 live births. What is this called?
A chronic disease
The three leading causes of death in the US are the result of
What is one leading cause of death today but was not in 1900?
T/F: Strong family ties among Asians and Hispanics result in lower rates of mental illness
Due to China’s traditional sexual norms
Why has China escaped the AIDS epidemic that has ravaged other Asian nations to the south?
T/F: For a structural functionalist what is considered an illness changes over time, as the redefinition of alcoholism from a personal moral failing to an illness
The Oglala Sioux Indians of South Dakota
Which category of people has an especially low life expectancy?
An assault on a person known by the offender to be gay motivated by an anti-gay bias
Which of the following would constitute a “hate crime”?
T/F: The United States has a high rate of criminal recidivism
Which theory states that crime and other deviance results not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions?
Believing that eating worms is “nuts” is an example of:
T/F: Crime against property account for over 2/3rds of all serious offences
Suppose that a SWAT team kills the members of a terrorist group who are holding innocent citizens hostage. These actions illustrate which type of violence?
Norms that are formally created through a society’s political system are referred to as…
T/F: In the case of murder, offenders and victims are generally of different races
Has the effect of desensitizing us to violence
The fact that there is much violence in the mass media
Values within our conscience
From the conservative view, the most effective social control in reference to crime is
What is a crime against persons?
How to dress properly, who is n acceptable sexual partner, and how to correctly footnote a college term paper are all examples of
By teaching everyone a lesson about what happens to those who break the law, punishment accomplishes the goal of
People of lower social position
Research analyzing the link between crime and social class shows that most arrests for street crime are of
Embezzlement is an example of which type of crime?
Radical left politics
If you believe that the criminal justice system operates to stabilize an unfair economic system in the UN, you are guided by what kind of politics?
All of the following (values, beliefs, material objects) make up society’s culture except
Whether or not people accept society’s goals and whether they have the opportunity to achieve them
Women of racial and ethnic minorities earn less tan white women, and they also earn less than men of racial and ethnic minorities. This pattern is the focus of…
As a spinoff of efforts to abolish slavery
In the United States, feminism began
Gender stereotypes divide humanity by constructing femininity and masculinity in…
Which of the concept refers to the personal traits and life chances that a society links to being female or male?
According to structural functional analysis, society defines gender in terms of…
The English language tends to treat what is masculine as having more value than what is feminine
Gender is at work in the language we use because
Men and women typically hold different kinds of jobs
The major reason that men earn more on average than women is that…
T/F: In general, higher-income nations have greater gender equality compared to low-income nations.
Puts a human face on gender, showing gender at work in familiar dimensions of everyday life
Symbolic interaction analysis of gender
Radical left viewpoint
Which political viewpoint claims that there must be fundamental change in economic, political and family institutions in order to eliminate gender inequality?
T/F: Some sociologists argue that traditional marriage benefits men more than women because it puts women under the control of men.
T/F: Beauty is about good looks; it has little to do with gender stratification
T/F: Regardless of employment patterns, women do more housework than men do
T/F: In the US, more than half of married women with children under age six work for income
Christianity, Judaism and Islam
Statements in support of the traditional dominance of men over women can be found in the prayers and sacred texts for which religions?
Have older populations and weaker economies (like Michigan)
The gender gap in pay is higher in states that
Which political viewpoint expresses concern that change toward gender equality has weakened families?
T/F: Sexism is the belief that one sex is innately superior to another
Discrimination is a matter of attitudes; prejudice is a matter of action
The assertion that all Arabs are Muslim is an example of…
In reference to the total US population, the share of minorities is
The way our society is organized
Social conflict analysis argues that the unequal standing of various categories of people results from…
Prejudice against various minority categories
Early 20th century, Emory Bogardus developed the social distance scale to measure
The minority group with the lowest median family income is:
Today, most African American families are at which class level?
An ethnic category
The term “Arab” is
The texts points out that _____________ racism is at work in the operation of social institutions, including the economy, schools, hospitals, the military and the criminal justice system
Which of the following concepts refers to a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that a society defines as important?
Authoritarian personality theory
___________ posits that prejudice is strong in people who feel a lot of hostility, rigidly conform to conventional norms, and see the world in a stark contrasts such as “us” versus “them”
According to the most recent census, which of the following is this country’s largest racial or ethnic minority?
The minority group with the lowest number of college graduates is
Stratification produces categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities. These categories are termed
Just about everyone
In the US, social welfare programs benefit
Can be four times the national average
In the US, the infant mortality among the very poor
The region of the world that has the highest share and number of low-income nations is
Poverty involves not only a lack of money, it can also mean a lack of skills, values, attitudes, and schooling that increase a person’s chances of success, which together are called
Low-income nations form which part of the capitalist world economy?
Top 10 percent
Although there is no standard definition of what it means to be “rich,” the text describes “rich” families as having income of at least $150,000 a year. This level of income corresponds to what share of the US population?
In the US, a home that lacks a telephone or a television is unusual. Not being able to able to afford a TV in a wealth country illustrates
Since about 1980, income inequality among US families has
A society’s system of ranking categories of people in a hierarchy
Social stratification is defined as
A decrease in the number of people receiving welfare but little change in the number of poor people
Overall, the result of the 1996 federal welfare reform (Personal Responsibility & Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) has been…
World system theory
Which theory is a model of economic development that explains global inequality in terms of historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones?
Martin claims that while some “worthy” poor people should be helped, social welfare programs discourage people’s desire to work and may foster dependency. Martin speaks as a
The poverty gap
Sylvia earns $7.25 an hour, which is the current minimum wage. She works full time, year round, and years about $15,000 annually. This places her within…
34 poorest countries
The world’s three richest people, each with at least $35 billion in 2009, has the same wealth as all the people in the world’s
Personal problems, such as alcohol abuse and mental illness, among the homeless
In approaching the problem of homelessness, conservatives point to
T/F: While the percentage of Americans classified as poor has declined since the 1960s, the rate remains above 12% with the elderly making the largest segment of poor people
_____________ is defined as people + culture + social structure
T/F: Power is the ability to achieve one’s aims through the use of authority
T/F: Many social problems are related so that solving one problem may create a new problem
T/F: In The Promise, CW Mills asserts that the difference between troubles and issues is troubles are public, broader social problems and issues are private, individual matters.
The process though which the world is increasingly connected and interdependent is
Liberal on social issues
People of high social position tend to be
T/F: Policy is a matter of what works. Politics and cultural values have little to do with it
The social conflict approach
Which is the theoretical approach that focuses on how society is divided by inequality and conflict?
You would find the highest number of births per women in…
The process by which treating people poorly because of their race or gender became viewed as a social problem is the result of…
Symbolic Interaction approach
Which of the following theoretical approaches explores how people socially construct reality?
T/F: The sociological imagination is the ability to see the interconnections between the individual and the broader society.
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