In applying the sociological perspective to the study of teenagers from wealthy families who are convicted of shoplifting, sociologists would be most likely to focus on the
impact of the larger culture and the social world on teenager's criminal behavior.
The sociologist who conducted extensive research on varying rates of suicide within a specific country and among different countries was
According to Karl Marx, the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is
The functionalist perspective
views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts.
Attending sociology class regularly will have the unintended benefit of increasing one's chances of making friends with other students. According to the functionalist perspective, this is a __________ function of attending class.
Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the reaction that a vacationer might have at encountering nudism at a beach on a Caribbean island?
symbolic interactionist perspective
Viewing society as being comprised of groups that engage in competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in
In the statement, "The more education people have, the more likely they are to vote," voting is the __________ variable.
The first step in the scientific research method is
selecting a topic.
A general type of research method that included one group that receives therapy or treatment and another that does not receive the treatment or therapy is referred to as a(n)
What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular people?
Religious beliefs would be an example of
Which sociological perspective is most likely to emphasize that every aspect of culture is intertwined with others and contributes to the culture as a whole?
Symbols include all of the following
While vacationing in Great Britain, you discover that the British drive on the wrong side of the road, speak with a funny accent, and eat weird foods. Your attitudes are an expression of
What is the difference between values and norms?
Values are abstract, general concepts, whereas norms are specific guidelines for behavior.
In a South Pacific society called the Dobu, individuals who succeeded in acts of thievery, adultery, or treachery were admired. This admiration would best be termed a
When Hector came home an hour after his curfew, his parents took away his car keys for one week. His parents' response was a type of
A counterculture is
a group that rejects the norms and values of the dominant group and seeks an alternative lifestyle.
When Napster first enabled users to exchange music files on the Internet, recording companies cried "foul" even though there were no laws to limit such exchanges. This gap between social norms and technology provides an illustration of
In the Nature vs. Nurture argument regarding socialization, the nurture component refers to __________.
the social environment
What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?
intimate physical contact
A phrase used by Cooley to emphasize that the self is a product of our social interactions with others is called:
the looking-glass self.
Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage.
A child is tempted to steal candy from a grocery store counter, but realizes that this action is viewed as "wrong" by adult society, including parents, teachers, and religious leaders. In Mead's terms, the child has become aware of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of
Preparation for many aspects of adult life begins during childhood and adolescence, and continues through our lives as we prepare for new responsibilities, through a process of
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Bill and Hillary. They plan to buy Bill a Tonka truck and Hillary a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of __________ by parents.
The fact that parents let their preschool boys roam farther from home than their preschool girls illustrates the idea that:
girls are socialized to be more dependent.
Traditionally, statuses men occupy (father, husband) are given greater prestige than those occupied by women (mother, wife). This awarding of privilege and prestige to one group while denying it to the other is called ________.
As a third grader, Henry is reading stories about the American Revolution and how the early Americans were willing to fight to gain their freedom. According to conflict theorists, Henry is learning not only to read, but is also being taught lessons in patriotism and democracy. These lessons would be referred to by conflict theorists as ________.
part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools
In Amsterdam a 21-year old prostitute is scantily clothed exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?
This is an example of social interaction.
The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, is referred to as ________.
A female, a midwife, a student and a gang member are all examples of
Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual's
Billy, a very bright youngster, is 14 years old and is a sophomore in college. This is an example of
Barack proposes marriage to Michelle and presents her with a diamond ring. The ring represents
a status symbol.
Being a son or daughter is your __________, but your parents' expectation that you show respect to them is your __________.
On his 25th wedding anniversary, Bob's boss insisted he spend the entire evening at the office finishing a crucial contract for the next morning. Bob was experiencing
According to Goffman, when you close your bedroom door to achieve some privacy you are engaging in
back stage behavior
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the ________.
A __________ is characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation.
A group of strangers waiting for a bus at the corner of Poplar and Main Streets is an example of a(n)
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and the Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.
Mark has been working at the Palisades Insurance Company for two years. During this time, he has attended all the company functions, joined one of the established churches in the community, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. His participation in these various groups and events is termed __________.
Upon graduating from a small Midwestern high school, Joe enrolls in a large, west coast university. He observes that his classmates use different slang terms and wear clothing that is quite different from that worn in his old high school. Joe begins to adopt the behavior patterns of his new college peers who are now his:
Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that:
because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that
a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
Joanne is a member of a group that is developing a questionnaire as a group project in her Introductory Sociology class. Whenever they meet, Joanne finds she is always trying to keep the group focused on putting the questionnaire together. Joanne would be considered the __________ leader of the group.
Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guide to adopt?
Janet communicates periodically with people on the Internet who are interested in sociology. According to your author, Janet belongs to a new type of group called a(n) __________.
Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of __________
the cultural relativity of deviance
"Law reflects the interests of the elites in a society. This explains why offenses commonly committed by the upper classes are treated more leniently than offenses typically committed by the lower classes." This argument is consistent with:
Deviance is useful because it helps define the limits of acceptable behavior. This statement represents the view of which theoretical perspective?
Use Robert Merton's structural strain theory to classify the deviance type illustrated by the recent wave of corporate financial scandal.
According to Sutherlands differential association theory, people become criminals when they:
are more strongly socialized to break the law than to obey it
A specific form of deviance that involves the violation of rules that have been written into law is called
A theorist who sees the law as an instrument of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in their privileged positions would be considered a(n) __________ theorist
Characteristics that discredit people are referred to as __________
In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as:
techniques of neutralization.
Josh needs to achieve a 4.0 grade point average to qualify for admission to graduate school. He fears that he will not pass the final exam in chemistry and has decided to sit next to Heather, the best student in the class, and copy her paper. According to Merton's theory and typologies, Max would be considered a(n) ________
Social __________ is the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
Ravi was born into a society with a caste system. How likely is it that he will change his caste?
not at all likely, because his caste status is assigned at birth
A form of stratification based on people's economic status, which is subject to change based on an individual's achieved status, is called:
a class system
Marx believed that an individual's social class placement was based solely on a person's:
relationship to the means of production.
According to Weber, social class is actually made up of three components; __________.
property, power, and prestige
Updating Weber, Gilbert and Kahl develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries. In addition to the criteria of wealth, power and prestige, they included __________ in their model.
The poverty line, the official measure of poverty in the United States, is calculated to include people whose incomes are:
three times a low-cost food budget.
The age group most likely to be poor in the U.S. today is:
children (under age 18)
Joanne and her two children are on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Joanne and her children will be in poverty for __________.
a year or less
Which of the following statements best reflects the reality of income inequality in the United States over the past 30 years?
Incomes of the poor have declined while the incomes of the rich have increased
Men's and women's unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of their gender is referred to as:
Which term refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females?
Sociologists classify women as a __________ because each society has set up barriers that prevent women from gaining equal access to power, property and prestige.
What is the form of social organization in which males dominate females?
In order to gain national attention to their cause, what course of action did members of the National Women's Party take in 1917?
They set up a picket line around the White House.
All except one of the following are true statements regarding women and men in higher education. Which statement is NOT true?
Women earn over half of all bachelor's degrees
Males outnumber females at the undergraduate level
Women are less likely than men to complete a doctorate degree
Women are less likely to be full professors than me
The majority of students graduating with a degree in library science are women. Research has shown that this sex-typing of majors is primarily due to __________.
Barbara has worked for 20 years in the public relations department of a large firm and has been vice-president for the past ten years. It is unlikely she will ever be promoted to the top executive position in her firm even though she has directed several successful projects and is quite capable. Her lack of promotion is an illustration of:
the "glass ceiling".
For any solution to be effective in reducing violence against women in the United States, what is the first hurdle that must be overcome?
Any connections between violence and masculinity must be broken
Women are under-represented in political office in the United States in part because holding office
is incompatible with their role as mothers.
The Amish of Pennsylvania, who dress plainly and shun automobiles and other machine-powered equipment on their farms or town streets, are a(n) _______ group.
A characteristic of a minority group, as the term is used by sociologists, is that it:
suffers disadvantages at the hands of another group
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe:
prejudice and discrimination
At one time, many Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet the height requirements. This was an example of:
According to Adorno, a(n) ___________ is a person who is highly prejudiced, insecure, a conformist, submissive to superiors, and has deep respect for authorities.
Conflict theorists believe the capitalist class exploits racial and ethnic strife to produce
a split labor market
When Bosnian Serbs practiced "ethnic cleansing" of the Muslim population during the 1990s they employed a combination of:
population transfer and genocide.
Vladimir, a Russian immigrant to the United States, insists that everyone call him "Joe" and refuses to speak Russian, even in casual conversation with Russian- speaking neighbors. This is an example of:
During the 1950s Gloria took a bus tour of the Southern states. Whenever the passengers stopped for meals or to stay overnight in a hotel, the white passengers ate at separate restaurants and slept at separate hotels than the African American passengers. This practice is an example of:
Slavery is a form of
In India, about 95 percent of the marriages are arranged by the parents; in the United States, most marriages are based on individual choice. These differences in marriage practices support the sociological principle that __________.
marriage practices vary widely, and match societal values
A man and his wife, their children, two Cocker Spaniels, four Siamese cats, eight parakeets, two ducks, a goat, and a dozen tropical fish live on a piece of wooded land in Vermont. They are an example of a/an:
After a family has their first child, they become:
a family of procreation
in the Himalayan Mountains of Nepal, certain upper-class families have a practice whereby several brothers simultaneously marry the same woman. The purpose is to keep land holdings from being divided up over generations, thereby maintaining the family status and income. This form of marriage would fit which category below?
Marrying within one's own racial or ethnic group is a form of racial/ethnic:
Donna, a 33-year-old divorcee with two sons, and Mark, a 40-year-old divorcee with two daughters, become engaged and live together. Although they are strongly committed to one another, they decide not to get married. This would be an example of:
One of the most significant trends in U.S. marriages is that the average first-time bride and groom is __________ than at any time in U.S. history
Of the following racial groups, which one is most likely to have a family headed by a married couple?
The majority of states
do not allow same-sex marriages.
Which ethnic group has the highest divorce rate?
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