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_______ is a primary reason for the increase in multiple births during the last 25 years.
Increased use of fertility drugs
A child's sex is determined upon fertilization, when the female provides the X chromosome and the male provides _____.
either the X or Y chromosome
From the following choices, select the type of inheritance in which multiple gene pairs combine to produce a particular trait
How does your text classify a gene that may be passed on unknowingly from one generation to the next, revealing itself only when it is paired with another gene of the same type?
Harold has a disorder that occurs only in males and that is caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome that can produce underdeveloped genitals, extreme height, and enlarged breasts. What disorder does Harold have?
Which of the following choices describes how researchers can determine, with reasonable precision, the effects of the environment on traits, characteristics, and behavior?
by observing genetically similar nonhuman animals in different environments
For ethical reasons, researchers cannot take newborn identical twins and assign them to be raised in different environments. Which of the following choices explains what they do instead?
They study various combinations of identical and nonidentical twins - adopted and nonadopted twins and siblings, and parents and children.
Jim and John are fraternal twins. As they grow from infancy to adolescence, what do you predict will happen to their IQ scores?
They will become less similar.
Which of the following nature-nurture issues has generated the most research?
Bonnie and Bill Brown are dizygotic twins. Judy and Jon Jensen are siblings. Bill and Jon have each been diagnosed with schizophrenia. What are Bonnie's and Judy's chances of developing schizophrenia?
How do researchers interpret the results of their studies on schizophrenia?
Genetics alone does not influence the development of the disorder.
Where does fertilization take place?
in the fallopian tube
A developing embryo has three distinct layers that will form different sets of structures. The layer that forms skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, brain, and spinal cord is called the _____.
What happens during the germinal stage of development?
Cells divide and the organism attaches to the wall of the uterus.
The nervous system of Madeline's developing infant is becoming increasing sophisticated; neurons are becoming coated with myelin. What stage of development is occurring?
Researchers have most often associated infertility for women with _____.
Among the many legal and ethical questions surrounding new infertility treatments, what question have researchers discovered the answer to?
How do children conceived through emerging reproductive technologies fare?
Which of the following choices accurately summarizes the findings of a task force of the American Psychological Association that studied the after effects of abortion?
Following an abortion, most women experienced a combination of relief and guilt.
Although it is the job of the _______ to keep teratogens from reaching the fetus, every fetus is probably exposed to some teratogens.
The mortality rate of infants born to adolescent mothers is _______ that for mothers in their 20s.
The United Nations estimates that there are close to _______ people vulnerable to hunger in the world, and hunger on such a massive scale inevitably affects millions of children.
In the sixth week of pregnancy, Helena contracted a disease or illness that caused her baby to be born blind and with heart defects and brain damage. What did she most likely contract?
Based on their studies, researchers predict that children who were exposed to marijuana prenatally _____.
show learning and memory deficits at age 10
Which of the following choices explains what physicians currently recommend to pregnant women and to women who are trying to become pregnant?
to avoid drinking alcoholic beverages entirely
What can impair a father's sperm and lead to chromosomal damage, which may negatively affect the fetus at conception?
alcohol and drugs
A normal full-term neonate may have which of the following characteristics?
Its head is cone-shaped at the top.
_____ contractions are another term for "false labor."
If you were organizing the stages of labor from shortest stage to longest stage, how would you organize them?
third stage, second stage, first stage
During Jane's labor, the umbilical cord became wrapped around the fetus's neck and as a result, the fetus experienced _____.
Infant mortality has been declining in the United States. As of 2009, the country's infant mortality rate was _______ death(s) per 1,000 live births.
The factor most closely linked to infant mortality is _____.
Although approximately 50% of preterm and low-birthweight births are unexplained, which of the following factors is associated with premature deliveries?
carrying twins or other multiple fetuses
The _______ reflex, which involves turning the head toward a source of stimulation, guides the infant toward potential sources of food near his or her mouth.
Explain what your text means when it says that in a sense, humans are born too soon.
Human infants are unable to successfully care for themselves, whereas members of other species seem to arrive in the world much better equipped for their lives.
Almost half of newborns develop a yellowish tinge to their bodies and eyes because their livers are not working effectively right away. This condition is called _____.
In studying neonatal sensory capabilities, researchers have discovered that _____.
When baby Matthew first saw the toy fire truck, he exhibited intensified sucking on his pacifier. Gradually, his sucking rate slowed and he seemed bored. Matthew's eventual disinterest in the truck was probably a sign of _____.
When does true imitation begin in infants?
It has not been determined.
What is the basic unit of genetic information?
The male reproductive cell is called a(n)
The female reproductive cell is called the
The potential for the vast diversity of human beings primarily resides in the nature of the processes that underlie __________ cell division.
Name the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of each cell in the body and how it will function.
What is the name of the rod-shaped portions of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs?
Genes are arranged in specific locations and in a specific order along ____ chromosomes.
Rod-shaped chromosomes, portions of DNA, are organized in ____ pairs.
The ____ chromosomes in the new zygote contain the genetic blueprint that will guide cell activity for the rest of the individual's life.
The process of _______ accounts for the replication of most types of cells, so nearly all the cells of the body will contain the same 46 chromosomes as the zygote.
When gametes are formed in the human body, this is called
The ultimate outcome of meiosis, in combination with other processes, is tens of _______ of genetic combinations.
Twins who are genetically identical are called ________ twins.
Any differences in future development of monozygotic twins can be attributed only to _________ factors.
Twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time are called ________ twins.
Which of the following are NOT likely to have multiple births?
The 23rd pair of chromosomes in males contains the ___- shaped chromosome.
If the child has an XX pairing on the 23rd chromosome, the child will be
The fact that the ______determines the gender of the child is leading to the development of techniques that will allow parents to increase the chances of choosing the child's gender.
The one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present is called
A trait within an organism that is present but not expressed is called
An observable trait, the trait that is actually seen, is labeled
The underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism is called
When a child inherits similar genes for a given trait from his/her parents, the child is said to be ________ for that trait.
When a child receives different forms of a certain gene from his/her parents, he or she is said to be
What is the name of the inherited disorder in which a child is unable to make use of an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk and other foods and that has the potential to cause brain damage and mental retardation?
What type of gene is considered recessive and located only on the X chromosome?
What is the term applied to studying the effects of heredity on psychological characteristics and behavior?
What is the term for the inherited blood-clotting disorder that has been a problem throughout the royal families of Europe, such as the descendants of Queen Victoria?
Humans have about ______ genes.
Jose has an extra chromosome on the twenty-first pair of chromosomes. The disorder was once referred to as mongolism. This will cause him to have
Sue has a disorder that is produced by an injury to a gene on the X chromosome, producing mild to moderate mental retardation. She has
Fragile X syndrome.
Toni has a blood disorder that gets its name from the shape of the red blood cells. She would be diagnosed with what disorder?
Tera has a disorder that is untreatable and produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death. Her diagnosis would be
Akili has the disorder that results from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals, extreme height, and enlarged breasts. She has
Scientists have discovered that carrying the sickle-cell gene raises immunity to _______, which is a common disease in West Africa.
What is the profession that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders?
What is the process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother's womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed?
What is used to find genetic defects and involves taking samples of the hair-like material that surrounds the embryo?
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
What is the more invasive prenatal test that can be employed if blood tests and ultrasound have identified a potential problem or if there is a family history of inherited disorders?
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Name the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells that are drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus.
Which test procedure is recommended if either parent carries Tay-Sachs, spina bifida, sickle-cell, Down syndrome, muscular dystrophy, or Rh disease?
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual are called
What is the term for the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors, in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed?
An adult male typically produces several _____ sperm a day.
Researchers believe that some __________ of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, usually in the first several months of pregnancy.
15 to 20%
What is the term for a developing child from 8 weeks after conception until birth?
One of the highlights of the _______ stage is the development of the major organs and basic anatomy.
In which stage of development does the developing child undergo astoundingly rapid change, increasing in length some 20 times with dramatic changes in proportion?
By ____ months of age, the fetus swallows and urinates, arms and hands develop, and fingers develop nails.
Infertility is the inability to conceive after ________ months of trying to become pregnant.
About _______ babies born to mothers over 50 have ______.
Women who become pregnant during ________ are more likely to have premature deliveries.
If mothers who carry the AIDS virus are treated with antiviral drugs, such as AZT during pregnancy, less than _____ of infants are born with AIDS.
According to the text, the best option for women who experience depression during pregnancy may be to
seek out nondrug-based psychotherapeutic interventions.
What prescriptions, when taken by women before they are aware they are pregnant, can cause fetal damage?
What illegal substance used by pregnant women produces an intense restriction of the arteries, causing a significant reduction in the flow of blood and oxygen to the fetus, thereby increasing the risks of fetal death and a number of birth defects and disabilities?
The birth of a baby usually occurs _____ days after conception.
When the critical hormone ___________ is released in high enough concentration by the mother's pituitary gland, the mother's uterus begins periodic contractions.
Labor proceeds in ____ stages.
When the uterine contractions occur around every 8 to 10 minutes and last about 30 seconds, this is considered the ________ stage of labor.
During the final part of the first stage of labor, the contractions increase to their greatest intensity. This period is known as
At which stage of labor does the baby's head emerge?
When the baby is in the process of leaving the mother's body, this is considered the _____ stage of labor.
When the mother's cervix is fully dilated and her contractions increase to their greatest intensity, this is the ________ stage of labor.
The ________ stage of birth is the quickest and easiest, and it takes only a few minutes.
An incision that is sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass is called
A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns is called
A newborn baby scores under 4 on the Apgar scale. This means that the baby
needs immediate, life-saving intervention.
____________ is the close physical and emotional contact between parent and child.
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