Sociology Exam 2
- Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway
- Sociology 920
- Sociology Exam 2
Last Modified: 2011-07-12
2.) Normative - violation of a social norm
3.) Social constructionist - socially constructed (depends what environment you are in)
Ex. - murdering someone or killing them in a war.
Ex. 2 - baby out the window
2.) Social facts are real
3.) suicide is a problem of solidarity
b.) coercive over the individual=regardless of people's individual states, feelings, ideas, social facts direct behavior. marriage-social pressure, religion.
2.) anomic - results from lack of order and rules in society (anomie=normlessness) stock market crash, started great depression
3.) egoistic - results from isolation and excessive individuality (senior citizens by themselves)
4.) fatalistic - results from no hope or release from a routine situation, no change (amish)
- tracking --> shapes educational opportunities
- family background --> shape occupational opportunities, through educational
- networks --> shape occupational opportunities
- cultural capital
- connections (social networks - weakly tied)
Synchronic - studying something at a singe point in time.
- to learn about social mobility, it's important to do diachronic research because we can only determine whether people's social status changes if we consider it over time.
- Do you have more or less education than your parents? Do you expect to earn more or less than they do? What about our grandparents?
- There is a fair bit of movement, but generally much class stability
- over your lifetime, will your social status shift significantly up or down? Think about this in relation to the social or class status you've inherited from your parents intragenerational
- there is a lot of occupational mobility, for the educated
- income is distributed unevenly in the US (this is mostly b/c of the increase in the superrich)
- ranges in income distribution of income are increasing
- more people are in poverty than 20 years ago
- general level of well-being has increased, however.
- 3 things : education, occupation, income
- It refers to the value of the position in the job market a person holds
How is wealth different from income?
- wealth is the total value of everything an individual owns
- income is salary from jobs, usually measured annually
- there is greater inequality in wealth than in income
- social status comes from academic achievement and hard work
- it concentrates on individual effort as key to determining social status
- success should not depend on things unrelated to merit
- shows commitment to equal opportunity
- Weak ties are people you see more than once a year but less than once every 2 weeks.
- If you rely on strong ties to get you a job, you may not get one since you may have the same contacts
- Strong ties do not want to risk friendship over a job
- education is key
- social origins matter
- the connections between school and work should be much stronger and more direct
- He is opposed to education as a credentialing system
- argues instead that education should teach skills that lead directly to jobs, and help workers in jobs
- "School to Work" programs
- low-wage is demeaning and difficult
- doesn't pay enough to pay the bills
- he discovers that working hard does not always lead to success
- discrimination is an action
- prejudice is a thought/feeling or attitude
- US Supreme Court declared that a Louisiana law mandating separate but equal accommodations on intrastate railroads was constitutional
- this ruling provided the foundation for many other government actions designed to separate and segregate black and whites
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