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What is a family?
Two or more persons who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption
What is a blended family?
Family unit that includes at least one step-parent
What is a nuclear family?
Family unit that includes a husband, a wife, and kids
What is an extended family?
Family unit that includes grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
What are the functions of the nuclear family?
- To sexually reproduce
- To socialize children
- To provide affection and companionship
What is marriage?
The legal recognized and/or socially approved arrangement between two individuals
What is cohabitation?
When two unmarried adults live together in a sexual relationship without being legally married
What is a domestic partnership?
When gay and lesbian couples who live together consider themselves a family
What are the reasons for postponing marriage?
- Economic uncertainty
- Women's increased participation in the labor force
- Sex revolution of the 1970's made sexual relationships
- Rise in the divorce rate
What are the reasons for remaining single?
- Freedom from commitment to one person
- More career opportunity
- Single life full of excitement
What are the reasons for single-parent households?
- Births out of wedlock
- Death of spouse
Are men or women more of the single parents?
Women, about 88%
What are the negative effects of single parent households?
- Higher levels of poor academic performance
- More likely to drop out of school
- More likely to use drugs and alcohol
- Higher rates of teenage pregnancy
What are the positive effects of single parent households?
- Less pressure to conform to socialized gender roles
- Show signs of maturity and self-sufficiency earleir
What nation contains the highest birth rates?
About how many children are born each year to unmarried, teenage moms?
Where do the greatest number of teenagers giving birth occur?
The South and rural areas
What race do the majority of births occur among?
What is the most common form of child abuse?
What kind of child abuse is often unreported?
What is the cycle of child abuse?
Children who's parents were abused are more likely to be victims of abuse
Are women or men more likely to be victims of spousal abuse?
What is the belief of non-intervention?
A reluctance on the part of outsiders to interfere in family matters of any kind
True or false: Spousal abuse is one of the most common forms of violence in the U.S.
What is adoption?
The legal process through which the rights and duties of parenting are transferred from a child's biological and/or legal parents to new legal parents
True or false: Most states in the U.S. allow gays or lesbian couples to adopt
True or false: About half of all marriages end in divorce
Are men or women more likely to remarry sooner?
What are the causes of divorce?
- Getting married during teenage years
- Getting married after only a short involvement
- Having relatives and friends disapprove of the marriage
- Both partners having less than a high school education
- Having parents who were divorced or involved in unhappy marriages
What are two main things in society that affect people's health?
- Society's technology
- Social inequality
What are the results of health in low-income countries?
- Relatively short life expectancy
- Most die before reaching their teens
- Poor sanitation is a killer
What are the results of health in high-income countries?
- Death rates from infectious diseases have fallen sharply
- Chronic illnesses now cause most deaths, usually in old age
What is social epidemiology?
The study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population
What are the factors of social epidemiology?
- Social class
What are the results of health due to age and gender?
- Death is now rare among young people
- Women fare better than men
- Our cultural conception of masculinity pressures men
What are the results of death due to social class and race?
- Higher income and wealth provides better nutrition and health care
- Infant mortality is twice as high for disadvantaged children
- The poorest U.S. children are vulnerable to disease
What are eating disorders?
An intense form of dieting or other unhealthy methods of weight control driven by the desire to be very thin
What is socialized medicine?
A medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians
True or false: STD's are regarded as marks of immorality
What are examples of STD's?
- Genital herpes
True or false: Smoking is the most preventable health hazard
Approximately how many people die per year as a direct result of smoking?
What are the social causes of obesity?
- Lack of physical activity
- Poor diet
True or false: The odds of being overweight go up among people with lower incomes
What are health maintenance organizations?
Organizations that provide comprehensive medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee
What is the direct fee system?
Medical care system in which patients pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals
What is the private insurance system?
Few programs pay all costs
What is the public insurance system?
- Medicare for those over 65
- Medicaid for impoverished and veterans
What are the results of Hispanics and health?
- Have lower death rates for heart disease and cancer
- Higher mortality rates for tuberculosis, liver disease, homicide, and diabetes
- A prevalence of obesity
- Adult mortality rates are highest for Puerto Ricans
What are the results of African Americans and health?
- Affected by HIV/AIDS
- High blood pressure/hyper tension
- Cancer (More likely to develop and die from cancer)
What are the results of Native Americans and health?
- Three times more likely to develop diabetes than whites
- More likely to contact diabetes than any other group
- Suicide, drug abuse, alcoholism, mental issues
- Cervical cancer
What are the results of Asians and health?
- Little is known about the health issues
- "Westernized lifestyle"
- Higher levels of sodium in diet
- High levels of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes
What are the results of Whites and health?
- Mental and psychological issues
- Higher rates of alcoholism (Men)
- Breast cancer
What is a sick role?
Patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill, doctors expect patients to cooperate
What is the conflict perspective of health?
- Access to medical care
- The effects of the profit motive
- The politics of medicine
What is the symbolic interaction?
Meaning of health, how health and stress are socially constructed, how people define a condition might actually affect how they feel
What is meritocracy?
Provides all individuals with opportunities for personal fulfillment and upward mobility
What are manifest functions?
Intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution (Socialization, social placement)
What are latent functions?
Hidden, unintended consequences of activities in an organization or institution (Social networks)
What is academic tracking?
The systematic placement of students in appropriate courses according to ability level
What is ability grouping?
Elementary schools *
What is the hidden curriculum?
Educational credentials enable schools to act as screening devices for society
What is sponsored mobility?
Individuals from an early age are chosen and consequently trained for elite status and positions
What is contest mobility?
Elite status is the prize and is obtained through means of acquiring upper levels of education and receiving the consequent returns
What is cultural capital?
Experiences and opportunities that enhance students' ability to learn (Exposure to cultural events, traveling abroad)
What is social capital?
Having access to benefits from formal and informal social networks (AG, SAT Prep, what teachers to take and not take)
What is financial capital?
Schools/school district funding resources disparity (technology, qualified/credential teachers)
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