Which group of women is least likely to get an abortion?
A family consisting of a mother, father, and their biological children is known as a(n):
Who wrote The Feminine Mystique (1963)?
The Ozzie and Harriet Nelson type of family was in its prime during which time period?
during the post–World War II economic boom
Which of the following is NOT true about domestic violence?
The majority of people who are abused as children go on to have abusive relationships with their own children.
According to Ruth Schwartz Cowan’s 1983 research, time-saving devices like the vacuum cleaner and washing machine have actually increased the amount of time that women spend on housework. What explanation is given for her finding?
Standards of cleanliness have also risen, so even more cleaning is expected.
Formal or informal rules that require a person to marry outside of the group they belong to are called:
Black and poor women in the United States have come to rely on which of the following in order to manage child care and work responsibilities?
their extra-familial female networks
If Jerome is opposed to the idea of having a relationship with someone who lives in his dormitory, which he jokingly refers to as “dorm-cest,” he is practicing the rule known as:
In studies of housework tasks and gender, which sociologist found that “women do the housework” and men “help out”?
Aries wrote that children of preindustrial families were:
thought of as small adults who didn’t warrant any special treatment or nurturing.
Which of the following trends is NOT true in the western world today?
The number of people choosing to cohabitate is on the decline.
Most Latino families in the United States are shaped by which of the following?
a devout tradition of Catholicism
As discussed in Chapter 12, in which cultures would it be acceptable for a man to marry his 14-year-old cousin?
in Victorian England and in some modern-day Muslim tribes
Industrialization created new roles for both men and women. Which of the following would NOT be an example of how their roles changed during this time?
Women found themselves engaged in the day-to-day supervision of the family’s business.
Journalist Barbara Ehrenreich traveled around the country to study firsthand what it was like to “get by” working low-wage jobs. All of the following is true about her experiences EXCEPT:
She felt that if she had only worked harder, she would have been able to “get by.”
Sociologists generally concur that the impact of divorce on children:
varies widely, but high levels of parental conflict are bad regardless of marriage or divorce.
Which of the following is true regarding single-parent families in the United States and worldwide?
They are on the rise in the United States and worldwide.
In the 1950s, which of the following structural functionalists identified the traditional nuclear family model as a functional necessity in modern industrial society?
About how long do the majority of single mothers stay on the welfare rolls in the United States?
about 2 years
Some societies allow a person to have several spouses at the same time in an arrangement known as:
Which of the following statements is true concerning the domestic world of Ozzie and Harriet portrayed in the 1950s television program?
The program portrayed an idealized version of American family life in the 1950s.
The domestic duties that still fall disproportionately on working women’s shoulders are labeled by Hochschild (1989) as:
“the second shift.”
Legally recognized unions of gays and lesbian couples that are explicitly intended to offer similar state-mandated legal rights and benefits of marriage as are given to heterosexual couples are known as:
According to data in Chapter 12, U.S. women earn about how much for every dollar that U.S. men earn?
Sarah Fenstermaker Berk has characterized the American family by examining how women and men learn to take on distinct roles paralleling the divide between public and private spheres. She calls the family a:
According to your text, the most frequent form of domestic violence is:
sibling on sibling.
Which of the following is NOT a sociological criticism of the idea that IQ affects educational outcomes?
If there is a relationship between innate intelligence and educational performance, then there is no need to look at social factors.
If affirmative action programs were eliminated, which group would be most likely to see an increase in chances of admission to elite colleges and universities?
What might be a reason that upper-status students score higher on SATs?
Their parents are better able to obtain help for them, as in SAT prep courses and extra tutoring if they are doing poorly in school.
A prominent hypothesis about the effect of family size on children’s educational outcomes is the:
resource dilution model.
In 2008, approximately what percentage of American adults over age 25 had a college degree?
Boys are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and experience problems at school; boys are also more likely to ____________ than girls.
take math and science AP classes, and score higher
What was the name of the landmark court ruling that mandated desegregation of American schools?
Brown v. Board of Education
Which of the following illustrates the concept of cultural capital?
Joshua and Sam have both earned bachelor’s degrees from a local university and are now interviewing for the same job. When Joshua goes into the job interview, he is able to discuss art, architecture, and travel experiences he had while growing up. Sam has not had these same experiences and is not able to have the same kind of conversations with the interviewers.
Which of the following statements is true with regard to preferential admissions to colleges and universities?
In the past 15 years, admissions preference for athletes has risen steadily, surpassing that of minority students.
One of the major reasons Native Americans were placed in boarding schools for 60 years was:
to socialize them to become “civilized” Americans.
Results from the Coleman Report were surprising because findings indicated that:
achievement differences between schools could be explained best by family background and peers with whom children attended school.
Studies show that ____________ school students score highest on achievement tests, followed by ____________ school students.
Catholic; secular private and public
Suzanne and Jessica are best friends. Both have been in the same classes throughout elementary school, and have performed similarly with respect to grades. Suzanne’s dad owns his own company, and her mom is a lawyer. Jessica’s dad is a plumber, and her mom works at Walmart. All other things being equal, which is a true statement?
Suzanne is more likely than Jessica to stay in school longer, score higher on cognitive tests, and be placed in college preparatory classes in high school.
According to your text, approximately what percentage of the nation’s population 16 years and older is functionally illiterate?
The SAT was developed in order to provide children from public schools with a chance to demonstrate their fitness for college and to show they were as able as students from private high schools. It is therefore ironic that:
researchers now question how meritocratic the SAT is, because the SAT may test knowledge that is biased against certain groups.
One of the major reasons that lower-status parents use more directives and teach their children to be more obedient than inquisitive is that:
they tend to have jobs that require them to be obedient and they want their children to learn this.
With regard to race and high school graduation rates, which of the following is correct?
In 2007, about 82% of blacks aged 25 and older had graduated from high school compared to about 86% of whites in the same age range.
Thomas transfers to a new school when his family moves to a new district, and he is placed in a classroom with students who have slightly higher average math grades than he does. Thomas is concerned that he will fall behind. Based on the research, what is the most likely outcome?
Thomas will succeed and make academic gains when he is in the classes with other high achievers.
William, a 17-year-old high school student, chooses products in the grocery store by looking at the pictures on the labels of the goods on the shelves because he cannot read many of the words. William would be considered:
Marilee Jones, former dean of admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), resigned from her position in April 2007 after it came to light that she had fabricated her academic record and claimed to have academic degrees she did not have. While this is an extreme case, it illustrates the overemphasis on qualifications such as college degrees in order to be hired for a job. This is known as:
Contrary to popular belief:
girls and boys score about the same in national math tests.
Which of the following is a factor affecting the strong academic performance of Asian Americans?
There is a high degree of social capital in Asian American communities, and the community reinforces norms regarding education and parenting.
Which of the following is NOT an element of socioeconomic status?
All of the following are among the best practices for effective teaching listed by Langlois and Zales EXCEPT:
adopting strategies to encourage students to share compliments and insults.
With regard to the effects of families on children’s educational outcomes, which of the following is true?
When a family goes from two to three children, middle children are significantly more affected by the loss of family resources.
Which term refers to the end result of negotiations among multiple players, enforcing rights, imposing sanctions, or encouraging business at a regional or worldwide level?
Which of the following does NOT define a corporation from a “psychotic” definition?
It engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud.
Barbara Risman equated gender inequality, in the form of marriage, to:
Which term refers to legally recognized persons who share many of the rights of an individual as well as act as legal entities by entering into contracts or owning property?
Because the monetary system is increasingly depersonalized, Simmel argues that it is now possible to:
have true friendships.
The Obama White House tends to differ from the previous one because:
it has turned to the traditional African American three-generation household.
Adam Smith showed how specialization and division of labor lead to greater productivity with the example of:
a pin factory.
FBI consultant Robert Hare claimed that in the pursuit of profits for shareholders, corporations exhibit many of the same traits as:
Georg Simmel saw the development of monetary payment systems as part of a historical evolution leading to:
depersonalization of exchange.
In the feudal system, how did serfs differ from slaves?
Serfs could own property.
What happened to many serfs as a result of the enclosure movement?
They were evicted.
Most economists, policy analysts, and well-informed Americans say that the single policy that caused the credit bubble and bust of the 2000s was the repeal of the:
Banking Act of 1933.
Payment per unit, or piecework payment, has more freedom than in-kind payment because:
the worker can do whatever he wants with the cash.
With regard to the family wage, women:
were seen to be working just for “extra money” so they was not paid the same as men.
Serfs were the lowest class in the feudal system and were bound to the land they worked, yet they were not slaves. How were they different?
They could own property.
The agricultural revolution was spurred on by new innovations such as:
Which theorist claimed that modern capitalism would not have arisen without the Protestant Reformation, which created the necessary social conditions for capitalism by creating theological insecurity and instilling a doctrine of predestination?
Which term describes the financial markets where anyone with the proper equipment can participate?
According to sociologists Jerry Jacobs and Kathleen Gerson, because workers want to advance in their careers, many avoid taking full advantage of:
family-friendly office policies.
Which of the following companies was among the first to adopt a corporate code of conduct regarding labor?
Which term refers to a single seller of a good or service in the market, resulting in zero competition?
Monetization refers to:
the establishment of a widely accepted currency for exchange.
Your grade level and amount of experience determine your:
civil service salary.
What is the name of the economic system that developed along with the agricultural revolution and Industrial Revolution in Europe?
A corporate strategy to reduce production cost is to lower labor costs. One publicly unfavorable way is to move all or part of the company’s operations overseas and use third-world labor to minimize cost. This is referred to as:
“Parceling-out of the soul” is Max Weber’s term for people who:
become alienated from a sense of right and wrong.
power relations among people or other social actors
the justifiable right to exercise power
authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader
authority based on appeals to past tradition
a system of authority based on legal, impersonal rules; the rules rule
the clear rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making
an ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing
a legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy
the process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks
the methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task
a society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability, and achievement
an experiment devised in 1961 by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
the ability to carry out one's own will despite resistance
the probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people
as defined by Weber, "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory."
the use of force to get others to do what you want
paradox of authority
although the state' authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority
international state system
a system in which each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states
a system in which the state is repsonsible for the well-being of its citizens
the rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state
the rights guaranteeing a citizen's personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely
the rights guaranteeing a citizen's ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office
the rights guaranteeing a citizen's protection by the state
a system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people; citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely, and participate as legal equals in social life
a form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual
the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence
collective action problem
the difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off
an organization that seeks to gain power in a government, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe (to the extent possible) to the organization's political ideals
an organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct election or appointment to office
activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action
Which of the following features was NOT part of the social context of early nineteenth-century America, a time when religious faiths were becoming networks for social change?
strong national institutions
Research has shown that religious attendance and affiliation are inversely correlated with alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Which of the following is a valid conclusion of this?
We cannot determine if religion causes healthy lifestyles or if some other factor predisposes healthy behavior and religion.
In what way are the conclusions of Weber and Marx similar?
To Weber, people in the modern world are trapped in the iron cage; to Marx, people in the modern world are alienated.
Which question is a sociologist of religion most likely to ask?
“How are religious beliefs patterned by social forces?”
In its level of religiosity, the United States is similar to:
some poor and low-income developing nations.
What percentage of Americans claim a religious affiliation?
To understand the role of religion in people’s lives and how individuals value and experience their faiths, which type of sociological approach should we adopt?
The sacred realm is:
special, reserved, set apart from everyday use, unknowable, and mystical.
Peter Berger wrote, in the 1960s, that the world was becoming more secular. Recently he wrote that:
he was wrong, and most of the world today is certainly religious.
Which of the following is NOT a central belief of evangelical Protestants?
Conversion is not required to be saved.
All religions began as:
Weber wondered how ____________ entered the modern world when the premodern worldview was governed by ____________.
Animism is ____________; examples of it are ____________.
the belief that spirits are present in the natural world; totemism and shamanism
Sacred things can include books, buildings, days, and places. From a sociological standpoint, the sacredness comes from:
the symbolic meaning created from the collective investment of community.
Weber likened the history of society to a train, and ideas to the switchmen of the tracks. What does this mean?
Ideas can be powerful forces to create change and alter the course of history when they are believed by enough people at the right time.
Weber’s idea that Protestantism was the most important driving force behind the spread of capitalism was contested by Daniel Chirot (1985), who said it wasn’t the development of Protestantism that influenced the spread of capitalism, but the major impetus was:
With regard to people changing their religious affiliation, which of the following is TRUE?
There is more growth among conservative Protestant denominations; moderate and liberal denominations have lost members.
What is pluralism?
the presence and coexistence of many different groups within one society
Approximately what percentage of people in the world identify themselves as Christian?
the transformation of a society away from religion and toward a separation of religious and social institutions such as politics, the economy, and the family.
According to Durkheim, religion is created by ____________, and religious expressions represent ____________.
social interaction; collective realities
Which of the following statements is NOT one that reflects Durkheim’s thoughts about religion?
Because of tension between different religious groups in pluralistic societies, religion undermines social unity.
Which of the following is NOT a way that sociologists study religion?
determining which religions possess and profess absolute truths
As people age they:
become more religious.
Ethicalism is ____________; examples of it are ____________.
the adherence to ethical principles in order to live a moral life; Taoism and Buddhism
College faculty members in the ____________ are much more likely to belong to churches and express religious commitment than are faculty in the ____________.
natural, physical, and engineering sciences; social sciences, law, and humanities
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