in every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the post-industrial society, what has been the most common basis for social stratification?
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as...
crime, debt, and war
what were the 3 major causes of slavery prior to the 17th century?
what is the basis of india's caste system?
in some societies, closely related members of the ruling class and those who are the wealthiest marry to preserve their power and wealth within the family. this is a practice known as...
he class system has fluid boundaries
what is the significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate?
the sociologist who believed social class is actually made up of 3 components, property, power, and prestige, was...
the ability to control others, even over their objections, is referred to as..
they would revolt against the bourgeoise and assume control
what did karl marx predict after workers were exploited year after year by the capitalist class?
world systems theory
the theory that explains how global stratification developed that includes core nations, periphery nations, semi-periphery nations, and external areas is...
based on the marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
both property owned and income made by the person less debts
when used by sociologists, the term wealth refers to...
what group of americans does the author characterize as being the fallout of the postindustrial economy?
changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up and down the ladder which causes one class to increase while the others decrease is called ______ mobility.
if 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and at the same time 100 middle class people experience downward mobility, sociologists would consider thiis to be an example of _____mobility
numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the US?
it multiplies the food budget by three
to determine the poverty line, the office of administration calculates a low-cost food budget for a family of specific size, then subjects that number to which modification?
there was a much publicized myth of the late 1800s that centered around the rags to riches exploits of fictional boy heroes. these myths were perpetuated by the author....
while the notion of gender refers to social characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ____ characteristics
what is the normal chromosome configuration for a male?
research appears to support the idea that men who have higher levels of testosterone tend to be more aggressive. what is an alternative explanation to the testosterone thesis to explain aggressive behavior in men?
the social class to which a man belongs
what conclusion did george murdock make following his study of 324 premodern societies?
every society associates certain activities with one sex or the other
what classification do sociologists apply to women that describes their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?
how have standardized test scores in science and math changed among males and females?
today there is hardly any difference in test scores based on sex
in his study of sex typing and work, what was one occupation considered men's work in all of the societies examined by george murdock?
What stage in history did Frederick Engels propose as being responsible for the development of patriarchy?
the development of private property
What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially in regard to justifying gender stratification?
The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch of the movement?
reforming all the institutions of society
Which wave of the women's movement focused on the problems of women in the Least Industrialized Nations?
The majority of students graduating with a degree in library science are women. Research has shown that this sex-typing of major is primarily due to ___.
Based on the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
among college graduates
What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation
Many students, when they graduate from college, will be able to earn an extra $1,356 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. How does the student accomplish this bonus?
be born a male
What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguishes it from another group?
The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Rwanda are all examples of ___.
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ___ reflects our cultural heritage.
What term did Louis Wirth use to define groups of people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?
In society, what is a group called with the greatest power, privileges, and social status?
the dominant group
Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?
the expansion of political boundaries and migration
Prejudice describes ___, while discrimination describes ___.
According to Adorno, a(n) ___ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.
The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed are called ___.
the reserve labor force
The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during WWII was an example of ___.
Slavery and apartheid are both examples of how a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?
When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s they were forced to learn the English language, dress like a white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ___.
Switzerland is made up of four separate ethnic groups which have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of ___.
What is the largest minority group in the United States today?
To which ethnic heritage do more Caucasians in America trace their roots than any other?
The sociologist who argued that social class has become the most significant factor in the lives of African Americans in today's U.S. society was ___.
william julius wilson
The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ___.
plessy v. ferguson
The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called ___.
jim crow law
The group often referred to as the invisible minority is ___.
Frank, Jim, Martha and Louise occupy the same apartment, share routine chores such as cooking, cleaning, and laundry, and each contribute a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs. Sociologists would describe this group as a ___.
Sociologically, what is the immediate family of husband, wife, and children, living apart from other kin, called?
the nucleur family
In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. Such an expected pattern of marital behavior is called ___.
In Bongo Bongo male members of the tribe may each legally have three wives. This is a family relationship defined as ___.
In America and many other parts of the world the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This is a marital practice called ___.
People being sexually attracted to another and idealizing each other is called ___.
Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ___.
the gendered division of labor
What purpose do antimiscegenation laws serve?
prohibit interracial marriage
Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, what is the likely change in the marital satisfaction that Maria and Brian feel towards one another?
it will decrease
Children between 24 and 29 who still live with their parents have been labeled ___ children.
A woman of which group is more likely to marry a man with less education than she?
Asian American families are more likely to adopt the practice of ___, which is the Confucian value meaning each member of a family owes respect to other family members.
The family formed when the husband and/or wife bring into the family a child from a previous relationship is called a ___ family.
How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?
both the bride and groom are older than at any other time
Edgar and Jayne are a couple in their 40s. They are busy raising a family of three children. They also spend considerable time each week at their parents' homes doing yard maintenance and running errands for their parents. Edgar and Jayne are members of the ___ generation.
When grandparents act as parents, rearing their children's children, sociologists call this _____.
What are the percentage odds that a couple married today will still be married a year from now?
Johnnie's parents were divorced three years ago. During the first year after the divorce, Johnnie's father visited him every week. Then Johnnie's father remarried and fathered another child. Now he rarely visits. This situation is an example of ___.
What do sociologists argue as being the factor most related to violence against women?
the sexist structure of society
According to the findings of Diana Russell, who are the most common incest offenders?
Want to see the other 73 Flashcards in Sociology Final?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!