a process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.
a process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding.
· Not all technologies and innovations can be successfully communicated.
· Diffusion of innovations is a special case of communication.
· Both the diffusion of technology and the information that goes with it are forms of social change.
is the process by which alteration occurs in the structure and function of the social system.
an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (e.g. a company, firm, organization, university, etc.)
the tool that embodies the technology as a material or physical object.
: the information base or the tool.· Benefits and/or consequences of technologies may not always be so apparent to the potential users.
one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being closely interrelated.
the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes.
degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of the potential adopters.
degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use.
degree to which an innovation may be experimented with prior to making an investment.
degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others.
is a socially determined place within the social hierarchy that is assigned to individuals and groups independent of their social actions.
is a socially determined place within the social hierarchy which individuals or groups gain through the socialization process.
the process through which an individual or group passes from first knowledge of an innovation, to the formation of an attitude toward the innovation, to a decision to adopt or reject, to implementation and use of the new idea, and to confirmation of this decision.
the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system.
a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal.
2. Early Adopters
3. Early Majority
4. Late Majority
the view that all things are composed of material (objective concrete matter) and thus all phenomena (including consciousness) are the result of material interactions.· Matter precedes thought ( I am therefore I think) · History can be explained by a series of material developments (technology plays a large role)
the Hegelian process of change in which a concept or its realization passes over into and is preserved and fulfilled by its opposite.
The idea that the roots of social change lie in the antagonistic elements inherent to all economic modes of production.· There is a tendency for wealth/resources to become more and more unevenly distributed over time. · The elite undermine labor to the point of economic system collapse. · A new economic system put into place.
are the abilities and needs that humans share with animals (i.e. our needs for food, water, and shelter)
those needs that are uniquely human which animals do not possess. Such needs arise as humans use the environment to create their reality.
powers that are uniquely human, specifically humans power to use the environment as a way to overcome it.
A state of balance between humans and their environment that is achieved when human beings are free to use their species powers to alter their environment in order to satisfy their species needs.
the actual social connections that are created through particular methods of production.
those who own only their labor and are limited in realizing their species being (masses).
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