There appears to have been a broad change in the cultural values Americans hold most dear. The general trend has been a shift in emphasis from ____ to ____.
When a family member takes care of elderly members--shopping and cooking for them, taking them to doctors, and perhaps providing some nursing care for them, we say they are performing:
A public good
If you were concerned with the way families discipline their children, handle their disagreements, or share their affection, you would be focusing on the:
Sociologists strive to be ___, or unaffected by their personal beliefs, when conducting research.
scientific, objective, neutral, unbiased. all of the above.
When a researcher studies a sample over a long period of time, take repeated measures of that sample, it is called:
A longitudinal study
A speculative statement about the relationship between two variables is called:
If a researcher moved in with a family to study them over a period of time, this would be typical of which type of study?
A sociological theory that views people as rational beings who decide whether or not to exchange goods or services by considering the costs they will incur, and the benefits they might receive if they choose an alternative course of action.
_____ individualism can best be described as a style of life that emphasizes the development of one's own feelings and emotional satisfaction.
The ___________ can be described as the tendency to obtain public goods by allowing others to do the work of providing them.
Cherlin found that people in general are concerned about family decline, but at the same time, they are in favor of more personal rewards and less on childrearing, etc. He called these confused feelings:
In general, Americans' attitudes toward unmarried people have shifted from _____ in the 1950's to ____ in the 2000's.
The central concept in feminist theory:
Gender, Biological basis for treating people differently
Leaders of the marriage movement today view ____ as the central purpose of marriage.
Legal definitions of "family" tend to be:
based on current opinion
According to the _____ perspective, personal identity and choices become more important and more often reflected upon:
Most people have used the ___ perspective in thinking about families throughout history.
When the author of your text surveyed his students, he found that in general:
They thought their family was o.k, but everybody else's family was in trouble
Asian families have always placed great emphasis on:
Respect (especially for fathers and the elderly), and responsibility toward family members
With a greater emphasis on love and companionship as a basis for marriage that occurred in the early 1900's, there also came:
A higher divorce rate
Informal marriages often occurred when:
When there was no clergy available to perform a ceremony
Families in the Plymouth colonies functioned as:
schools, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, all of the above
In this country, the post-WWII "baby boom":
was the only period in the last 150 years that the American birthrate rose substantially
The expectation that men would be "breadwinners" and women should be "homemakers," giving rise to the notion of gender-based "separate spheres" began when:
work began to move away from the home--in factories and work sites located in places of business
The serious study of the history of the family began with:
the publication of a book about the history of childhood, by Philippe Aries in 1960
People who view marriage as a socially constructed institution organized to maintain male dominance most likely subscribe to:
A sociological theory that focuses on people's interpretations of behavior.
The kinship tie that people more or less automatically obtain when they are born or married is called:
The family system in which descent is reckoned through both the mother's and the father's line is followed is called:
According to contemporary research, the breadwinner-homemaker family was:
Dominant only in the aftermath of the Depression and World War II in the 1950s
Contrary to what they are considered to be today, children in colonial America were considered to be:
Extended families (other relatives in the household besides husband, wife, and their children) were never predominant in the U.S. because:
life expectancy was short and made it improbable that grandparents lived with their children
Throughout most of their existence, human beings have been:
If descent is traced through the fathers bloodline, it is called:
Historians such as Philippe Aries and John Demos argue that the concept of childhood as a distinct stage of life was not recognized prior to the 1700's, primarily because:
So many infants and toddlers died
A means of production in which the family produces nearly everything it needs for survival:
In the U.S. today, families have become primarily ____, whereas they were primarily ____ in previous generations.
Throughout most of their existence, human beings have been:
Prior to 1900, in the U.S. the pursuit of personal pleasure and emotional satisfaction was not as prominent as it is today.
The main resource that many fathers had under the "familial" production mode was a skill or trade.
A form of polygamy in which a woman has more than one husband is referred to as:
A practice by which a man is allowed to have more than one wife is called
A form of polygamy in which a man is allowed to have more than one wife is referred to as:
The arrangement in which one and only one child remains in the parent's household even after marriage is called a/an:
What one factor, more than any others, led to societies with large families and kinship groups?
Socialization theory suggests that doing housework is part of women's "training" beginning with:
The toys they are given in childhood
The theory that gender identification and behavior are based in part on people's innate biological differences is known as the:
The biosocial approach
A relatively new stage of life that has been suggested by sociologists is:
Children who watch television extensively seem to have ____ stereotyped attitudes about gender than children who watch little television.
Early sociological writings on gender focused on ___, while later studies (1990's and 2000's) have focused on ___.
Television shows may influence gendered behavior of children in that
TV shows typically show men as more adventurous and women as more nurturing and romantic
Children self-sort themselves into same-sex play groups:
between the ages of 2 and 3
A consistent finding across all studies of the play behaviors of young girls and boys is that
boys, on average, show more aggressive behavior than girls
In free choice selections, boys typically choose toys that allow ___, while girls typically choose toys that allow or encourage ___.
Aggression; relationships or conformity
A consistent finding across all studies of the play behavior of young girls and boys is that:
Boys, on average, show more aggressive behavior than girls
Gender theorists maintain that economic inequalities between men and women benefit capitalists because:
The unpaid housewives allow families to subsist on the modest wages men earn
The play of boys and girls, even those who are older (5th grade and above), differes in that boys are more likely to play ___, while girls are more likely to play ____.
In large groups with a goal; in small groups without a goal
In sociological terms, gender is considered a ___ creation, whereas sex is considered a ___ creation.
In one study of children, girls who showed higher levels of interest in strenuous physical activity had been:
Exposed prenatally to abnormally high levels of male sex hormones
The play of boys and girls, even those who are older (fifth grade and above), differs in that boys are more likely to play __________, while girls are more likely to play __________.
in large groups with a goal; in small groups without a goal
Some theorists believe that toys which boys typically prefer, such as blocks and tools, encourage _______, while the toys that girls prefer, such as dolls, encourage__________.
A concern about asking questions on "sensitive" issues such as sex is:
Will people really give honest answers?
To judge a human body, the eyes tend to glance most often at:
The waist and hips
According to the film, "The Science of Sex Appeal," the facial attributes that are judged to be most attractive tend to be:
In accordance with the "golden ratio"
According to the film "The Science of Sex Appeal," women tend to be "choosier" with their partners because:
They could end up pregnancy with a child to raise, whereas men don't risk this
In the United States a person's (or family's) power, prestige, and privilege are based for the most part on
income, occupation, and education
Working and middle class parents differ in their choice of important childrearing values primarily because of:
Different job experiences
In 2001, both parents were employed in ___ of all married-couple families with children under 18:
Sociologists call the tendency of people to marry others similar to themselves:
In 2007, among families with children under 18, approximately 25% of _______ families were below the poverty line.
Advocates for the poor believe the poverty line as it exists and is calculated today:
is too low
Studies in the United States suggest that husbands and wives may belong to different classes in ____________ of all two-parent, two-earner families
When asked on surveys (such as the General Social Survey) to which class they belong, most U.S. residents respond that they are either
working class or middle class
The risk of divorce has grown fastest for females who are
without high school diplomas
Single mothers head _______ of families that are living in poverty
Which of the following is not an important value for working class parents to teach their children?
Based on sociological studies, those kinship ties that engender the strongest feelings of obligation are:
Vertical kinship ties including parents to children to grandchildren
Women are more likely to do the "work of kinship" in:
All of the above; women are more likely than men to do the work of kinship, regardless of class
Which of the following has been used to show that marriage in the U.S. has declined in recent decades? (Be sure to read all answers before selecting one.)
Increase in the # of women who never marry, children born to unwed moms, & single parent households.
According to Census Bureau estimates, if immigration rates and birth rates remain at current levels, what percent of American children will be non-Hispanic whites by 2030?
Which of the following racial/ethnic groups has the highest fertility rate?
In the U.S. today, the higher a family's income, the greater the probability that the family is headed by:
A married couple
Most Native Americans live:
Somewhere other than on reservations
In the United States, racial boundaries, especially between blacks and whites, have ______ over the last several years.
become more fixed in American culture
Family households in the United States most likely to marry a spouse of a different race are from the __________ racial-ethnic group
Asian-Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites
What is the term used to describe longstanding cohabitational relationships often practiced among Puerto Rican and other Caribbean couples in which they consider themselves to be married, but have never actually had religious or civil marriage ceremonies?
Most Cuban Americans came to this country looking for:
higher paying jobs and freedom from political oppresion
The __________ family is thought to be superior in allowing people to be upwardly mobile, as is evidenced by the success of Cubans.
According to the author of the text, Andrew Cherlin, the reason marriage has declined among the African American population as a whole is:
there is no one answer
A large percentage (42%) of Hispanics living in the United States consider themselves to be neither black nor white racially. Which of the following statements best explains this fact?
Latin American cultures traditionally have recognized intermediate racial categories, whereas U.S. culture tends to categorize races as either one or the other
A recent trend in immigration to the United States by Latin American and Asian women has been termed the ______.
Which of the following groups is least likely to marry?
The number of middle-class black families in the United States has been increasing, but one critical aspect that distinguishes them from middle-class white families is their
assets such as savings, investments, and homes
What is meant by the term "mixed blessing of upward mobility?"
It means that as people move up the social ladder, they are often held back because now they feel obligated to help people who helped them get ahead, and this makes it hard to "stay ahead"
During the 1970's, there was a significant increase in the Native American population. What accounts for this increase in this population during this time period?
More people with Native American ancestry reported themselves as such to the U.S. Census, indicating an "ethnic renewal"
The Hispanic racial-ethnic group which is the most impoverished is:
We generally think of racial groups as people with:
a distinct ancestry, people who have a common set of physical features
The "new second generation" consists of:
Children who are either immigrants themselves or who were born to immigrants
The resources that a person has through his or her relationships with other people is called:
"Umbrella" categories such as "Hispanic" or "Asian American" are not really useful when discussing families because:
There is about as much variation within the groups represented by these terms as there is between these groups and other groups in the U.S.
Cherlin describes life in stepfamilies as a(n) ______ social institution
The finding that a teenage first marriage (and divorce later) also accounts for a later remarriage and another divorce would support which of the following theories or perspectives on remarriage?
In contrast to in previous eras, marriage today is held together mainly by
bonds of sentiment
In the earlier history of our country and for many years afterward, the prevailing view in the United States was that government should not intervene in family affairs; this changed dramatically after _____.
The Great Depression
Most government involvement in family support is based on a concern about
caretaking of dependents, especially children and the elderly
According to Cherlin, the debate over marriage promotion including all of the following except
keeping the family wage system working
In 2006, President Bush sign a Marriage Promotion bill to extend welfare reform legislation to include all the following except
child care funds for working married parents
PWORA is different than AFDC in the respect that
financial benefits limit, time limits, required work within 24 monthsafter they receive assistance. all of the above
The Social Security Act, which is becoming more and more uncertain, was initiated in the _____ and was originally intended to help _____.
1930s; widowed women with children
The program of financial assistance to low-income single-parent families that has become commonly known as “welfare” has been modified from
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) to Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)
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