Sociology 101 Final Exam Review Sheet CHAPTER 12 *How economy emerged as a social institution Economy: The social institution that organizes a society?s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Social Institution: A major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs. The Agricultural Revolution -5000 years ago -Made the economy a distinct social institution based on agricultural technology, specialized work, permanent settlements, and trade. The Industrial Revolution -Beginning around 1750 -Expanded the economy based on new sources of energy and specialized work in factories that turned raw materials into finished products. -Changed the economy in 5 fundamental ways: 1. New sources of energy. 2. Centralization of work in factories. 3. Manufacturing and mass production. 4. Specialization 5. Wage Labor Postindustrial Economy -Definition: A productive system based on service work and high technology. -Automated machinery reduced the role of human labor in factory production and expanded the ranks of clerical workers and managers. -Era marked by a shift from industrial work to service work. -3 Significant changes: 1. Tangible products to ideas. 2. Mechanical skills to literacy skills. 3. Factories to almost anywhere Sectors of the Economy Primary Sector: The part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment -Agriculture, Raising Animals, Fishing, Forestry, Mining -Largest in low-income nations Secondary Sector: The part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods. -Sector expands quickly as societies industrialize -Includes operations such as refining petroleum into gas and turning metals into tools and automobiles. -Significant share of workers employed in the secondary sector. Tertiary Sector: Part of the economy that involves services rather than goods. -Grows with industrialization -Accounts for: -46% of economic output in low-income countries -53% of middle-income countries -72% in high-income countries -About 80% of the U.S. labor force is in service work Global Economy: Economic activity that crosses national borders -The worlds poorest nation specialize in producing raw materials -Richest nations specialize in the production of services -Increasing number of products pass through more than one nation -National government no longer control the economic activity that takes place within their borders -Small number of businesses operating internationally now control a vast share of the worlds economic activity. -Globalization of the economy raises concerns about the rights and opportunities of workers -The world is divided in 194 politically distinct CAPITALISM VS. SOCIALISM: CAPITALISM: An economic system in which natural recourses and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned. Capitalism is based on 3 distinctive features: 1.) private ownership of property- In a capitalist economy individuals can own almost anything. The more capitalist an economy is, the more private ownership there is of wealth-producing properties (ex: Factories, real estate & natural recourses) 2.) Pursuit Of Personal Profit- A capitalist society seeks to create profit and wealth. Creates new jobs and opens businesses. 3.) competition and consumer choice- A purely capitalist economy is a free market system with no government interference ( AKA a Laissez-Faire Economy: French for ?leave it alone?) Adam Smith stated that a freely competitive economy. Adam smith stated that a freely competitive economy regulates itself by the ?invisible hand of the law of supply and demand?. SOCIALISM: Is an economic system in which natural recourses and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned. Capitalism is based on three distinctive features: 1.)Collective Ownership Of Property: A socialist economy limits rights to private property especially rights to those properties that generate income. Government controls housing and makes housing and other goods available to all, not just to the people with the most money. 2.)Pursuit of Collective Goals: The individualistic pursuit of profit goes against the collective orientation of socialism. What capitalism celebrates as the ?entrepreneurial spirit?, socialism condemns as greed; indivisibles are urged to work for the common good of all. 3.)Government Control Of The Economy: Socialism rejects capitalisms Laissez-Faire approach in favor of a centrally controlled or command economy operated by the government. Capitalism Socialism -Greater productivity -High overall standard of living -Less productivity -Lower Overall standard of living -Less income inequality -Freedom from basic want VOTING TRENDS: In the United States the political spectrum ranges from the extremely liberal on the left side of the spectrum, which consumes about1/4th of citizens and on the right side consumes those who are extremely conservative. About 40 percent of Americans claim to be politically moderate meaning they fall in the middle of the political spectrum. Liberals Support equal rights and opportunities for all people, Abortion as an individual choice, and they oppose the death penalty b/c it has been unfairly applied to minorities. African Americans tend to be more liberal. Women tend to be more liberal then men. Conservatives: Support traditional gender roles, oppose gay marriage and other ?special programs? for minorities. Conservatives condemn abort as morally wrong and support the death penalty as a just response to most serious crimes. REPUBLICAN PARTY: Conservative on both social and economic issues. Favors big government when it is advancing their political aims. DEMOCRATIC PARTY: More liberal on both social and economic issues. Favors big government when it is advancing their political aims. Most African American and Women tend to be more liberal and democratic. -Women are slightly more likely to vote then men. -People with a bigger stake in society- Homeowners, parents w/ children at home and people with extensive schooling and good jobs?are more likely to vote. -People over age 65 are more likely to vote then citizens who are college age. -Non-Hispanic whites are more likely to vote then African Americans and Hispanics. -In 2008 voter participation rose to 63% which was the highest voter turn out since 63% Theoretical Perspectives of Power in Society The Pluralist Model: (The people group): An analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups. -Closely linked to structural-functional theory -No single organization can expect to achieve all of its goals -Organizations operate as veto groups, realizing some goals but mostly keeping opponents from achieving all of theirs. -Relies heavily on creating alliances and compromises among numerous interest groups so that policies gain wide support. The Power-Elite Model: (A few people rule): An analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich. -Term ?power elite) was coined by C. Wright Mills (Social Conflict theorist) -Claimed that members of the power elite are in charge of three major sectors of society (The economy, The government, and the military) -Made up of the ?Super Rich? -Say that United states is not a democracy because our economic and political systems give a few people so much power that the average person?s voice cannot be heard -Reject pluralist idea that various centers of power serve as check and balances on one another -Those at the top are powerful enough that they face no real opposition The Marxist Model: (The system is biased): An analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society?s economic system. -Rejects the idea that the United States is a political democracy -Sees bias rooted in the nation?s institutions, especially the economy. -Karl Marx believed that a society?s economic system shapes its political system, therefore power elites do not simply appear out of nowhere as they are creations of the capitalist economy. -The problem does not lie in the people who exercise great power or the people who don?t vote, the problem is the system itself or what Marxist call the ?Political economy of capitalism? Political Revolution: The overthrow of one political system in order to establish another. -Revolution goes beyond reform or change within a system and even beyond a coup d?état (?blow the state?) as when one leader topples another. -Revolution involves change in the type of system itself. Revolution: Radically transforms a political system Terrorism: Acts of violence or the threat of violence used as a political strategy by an individual or a group -World peace ultimately depends on resolving the tensions and conflicts that fuel militarism Military-Industrial Complex: The close association of the federal government, the military, and defense industries. CHAPTER 13 Trends Involving Family and Marriage: Family: Is a social institution found in all societies that unite people in cooperative groups to care for another including children. Family ties also reflect Kinship. According to the Census Bureau, there were 117.2 million U.S. households in 2009. Of these 78.9 million (67 percent) meet the Bureau?s definition of ?family?. The remaining living units contained single people or unrelated people living together. In 1950, 90 percent of all households were families. Kinship: A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage or adoption. Extended Family: A family composed of parents and children as well as other kin. Also known as a consanguine family. Nuclear Family: A family composed of 1 or 2 parents and their children; also known as a conjugal family. Marriage: A legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and child bearing. Endogamy: Marriage between people of the same social category. Exogamy: Marriage between people of different social categories. Monogamy: Marriage that unites 2 partners. Polygamy: Marriage unites a person with 2 or more spouses. Residential Patterns: Patrilocality- Family settles near ?place of father? father?s family. Matrilocality- Family settles near mother?s family ?place of mother? Neolocality- ?New place? A married couple/family lives apart from both sets of parents. *In the US men are typically the heads of the households and most US parents give their children the fathers last name. However, more egalitarian families are evolving, especially as the share of women in the labor force increases. Theoretical Analysis Of Family: Structural Functional Approach: Identifies major family functions: Socialization of the young, regulation of sexual activity, social placement and providing material and emotional support. (Macro-level) The family performs vital tasks including socializing the young and providing emotional and financial support for members. The family also helps regulate sexual activity. 1.)Socialization 2.)regulation of sexual activity - Incest Taboo: norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives. 3.)Social Placement 4.)Material and emotional security Social Conflict Approach: Considers family to be central to the human way of life however explains how family perpetuates social inequality. (Macro level) 1.) Property and inheritance: Fredrich Engle?s (1902) traced the origin of the family to men?s needs (especially in the higher classes) to identity heirs to that they could hand down the property to their sons. Families thus concentrate wealth and reproduce the class structure in each new generation. 2.) Patriarchy: Feminists link the family to patriarchy. To know whom their heirs are, men must control the sexuality of women. Families therefore transform women into sexual and economic property of men. Today women still bear most of the responsibility for children and housework. 3.) Race and Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic categories persist over generations only to the degree that people marry others like themselves. Endogamous marriage supports racial & ethnic inequality. Symbolic Interaction Approach: Ideally, family living offers an opportunity for intimacy- Meaning ?sharing fear?. Family members share many activities and establish trust, they build emotional bonds. Of course, the fact that parents act as authority figures limits their closeness with younger children. As young people approach adulthood do kinship ties open up to include sharing confidences with greater intimacy. (micro level) The Social-Exchange Approach: ( Micro-level) Describes courtships and marriage as forms of negotiation. Dating allows each person assess the advantages and disadvantages of a potential spouse. Sociological Perspective On Religion: Durkheim identified 3 major functions of religion that contribute to the operation of society. 1.) Social Cohesion? Religion unites people through shared symbolism, values and norms. Religious thought and ritual establish rules of fair play, organizing our social life. 2.) Social Control ? Society uses religious ideas to promote conformity. By defining ?god? as a ?judge? many religions encourage people to obey cultural norms. Religion can also be used to back up political systems. 3.) Providing meaning and purpose? Religious belief offers the comforting sense that our lives serve some greater purpose. Strengthened by such beliefs, people are less likely to despair Theoretical Analysis Of Religion: The Structural-Functional Approach: Suggests that religion unites people, promotes cohesion and gives meaning and purpose to life; through religion we celebrate the power of our society (Emile Durkheim). The Symbolic-Interaction Approach: Explains that we socially construct religious beliefs; we are especially likely to seek religious meaning when faced with life?s uncertainties and disruptions. (Peter Berger) The Social-Conflict Approach: Claims that religion justifies status quo. In this way, religion supports inequality discourages change toward a more just and equal society (Karl Marx). Education VS. Schooling: Education: Is the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, jobs, skills and cultural norms and values. Education takes many forms, from informal family dinners to universities education is everywhere. -Social institution -Society provides its members w/ knowledge -Basic Facts, Job Skills & Cultural Norms & Values Schooling: Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers. (Elementary School through College/grad/medical/law School) -Formal instruction; typically in high-income nations -Specially trained teachers Functions Of Schooling: 1.) Socialization: Technologically simple societies look to families to transmit a way of life from 1 generation to the next. As societies gain complex technology, they turn to trained teachers to pass on specialized knowledge that adults will need for their future jobs. 2.) Cultural Innovation: Faculty at colleges and universities invent culture as well as pass it along to students. Especially at colleges, scholars conduct research that leads to discoveries and changes our way of life. 3.) Social Integration: Schools mold a diverse population into 1 society sharing norms and values. This is 1 reason that states enacted mandatory education laws a century ago when immigration became very high. In light of ethnic diversity of many urban areas, schooling continues to serve the purpose of social integration. 4.) Social Placement: Schools identify talent and match instruction to ability. Schooling increases meritocracy by rewarding talent and hard work regardless of social background and provides a path to upward social mobility. 5.) Latent Functions: Schooling serves several less widely recognized functions. It provides childcare for the growing number of parents who work outside the home. Occupies thousands of young people in there 20?s who would otherwise be competing for limited opportunities in the job market. High schools, colleges, and universities also bring together people of marriageable age. School networks can be used as a valuable career recourse throughout life. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION: Structural-Functional Approach: Highlights major functions of schooling including socialization, cultural innovation, social integration and the placement of people in the social hierarchy. Social Conflict Approach Links schooling to the hierarchy involving class, race, gender. -Formal education serves as a means of generating conformity to produce obedient adult workers. -Standardized achievement tests have been criticized as culturally biased tools that may lead to labeling less privileged students as personally deficient, -Critics have challenged tracking as a program that gives privileged youngsters a richer education. -Great Majority of young people in the US attends state-funded public schools. Small proportion- the most ?well-off? attends private elite college prep schools. -due to the high cost of college only 69% of US students enroll in college directly after high school graduation. Symbolic Interaction Approach: Helps us understand that stereotypes can have important consequences for how people act. If students think they?re academically superior, they?re likely to perform better; Students who think they are inferior are more likely to perform LESS well. HEALTH: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. CURRENT TRENDS REGARDING HEALTH: ? Cigarette Smoking: Greatest preventable cause of death, tops the list of preventable health hazards in the US. Today an increased number of people consider smoking a mild form of social deviance and an increased number of states have banned smoking in public places. People smoke to cope with stress: Divorced and separate people are more likely to smoke as are unemployed people and those working in the armed forces. Men are more likely to smoke then women. ? Eating Disorders: An intense form of dieting or other unhealthy method of weight control driven by the desire to be very thin. Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by dieting to the point of starvation. Another eating disorder is Bulimia, which involves binge eating followed by induced vomiting to avoid weight gain. ? Obesity: Obesity in the population as a whole is rising rapidly reaching crisis proportions. 63 Percent of US adults are overweight. 1/6 young people in this country are already overweight with an increasing proportion. Social causes of Obesity include that we live in a society were people have more jobs sitting in front of a computer screen then being active. Children spend more time playing video games then outside. Also, diet and portions play a huge role in obesity. ? The Increase Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: 50+ types of STD?S can be transmitted through sexual activity. B/c our culture associates sex with sin some people regards STDs as a sin, an illness and marks of immorality. STD?s grabbed national attention during the sexual revolution. By the late 1980s , the rising danger of STDs, especially AIDS generated a sexual counterrevolution as people moved away from casual sex. SOCIOLOGICAL PRESPECTIVE ON HEALTH: Social Epidemiology: The study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society?s population. -Most significant predictor of a person?s health & life expectancy -U.S. medical system not designed to meet the needs of people who are poor Society Affects Peoples Health in 4 Ways: 1.)Cultural Patterns Define Health-Standards of health vary from culture to culture 2.)Cultural Standards Of Health Change Over Time 3.) A Society?s technology affect people?s Health- Poor nations infectious diseases are widespread because of malnutrition and poor sanitation. As industrialization raises living standards people become healthier. 4.) Social Inequality Affects Peoples Health CHAPTER 16 MODERN VS. TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES -The Fundamental difference between traditional and modern societies is the INDIVIDUAL. -The role of the individual in a modern society is stronger -The more modern a society is, the faster the rapid change of the society -Ideology of Independence Causes of Social Change *Culture: -Invention:(printing press) Produces new objects, ideas, and social patterns. - Discovery: Occurs when people take notice of existing elements around the world. Scientific (Earth is not flat) -Diffusion: Creates change as products, people and information spread from one society to another. Spread of culture, individuals from other cultures coming in contact with other culture and inspiring them. *Social Conflict: -Karl Marx claimed that class conflict between capitalists and workers pushes society toward a socialist system of production. -Social Conflict arising from class, race and gender inequality has resulted in social changes that have improved the lives of working people. - Inequality & Conflict: Basis of human rights or social class. *Ideas: -Max Weber traced the roots of most social changes to ideas. -The fact that industrial capitalism developed first in areas of western Europe where the protestant work ethic was so strong demonstrates the power to bring about change. -Ideas (Ideology): ?The world is going to end? *Demographic Factors: Population patterns play a part of social change: -The aging of US society has resulted in changes to family life and the development of the consumer to products. Migration within and between societies promotes change. -The aging of U.S. society has resulted in changes to family life and the development of consumer products to meet the needs of the elderly. -Demographic Shifts: Comes from a result of other social changes, women today are not having as many children because they cost you so much money. *Disasters: Caused by unexpected social change. -Natural Disasters: (Hurricane, Tornado, etc.) -Technological Disasters (ex: Nuclear accident at the chemboyl plant) -International disaster (Darfur genocide) 1) Invention: Printing Press 2) Discovery: Scientific Discovery (Earth is not flat) 3) Diffusion: Spread of culture, individuals from other cultures coming in contact with other culture and inspiring them. 4) Inequality & Conflict: Basis of human rights or social class. 5) Ideas (Ideology): ?The world is going to end? 6) Demographic Shifts: Comes from a result of other social changes, women today are not having as many children because they cost you so much money. 7) Social Movements: An organized activity that encourages/discourages change. 8) Disaster: Natural Disasters (Hurricane, Tornado, etc.) (Technological) Types of Social Movements -Alternative Social Movements: Seek LIMITED change in SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS (Ex: Promise Keepers) -Redemptive Social Movements: Seek RADICAL change in SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS (Ex: Alcoholic?s Anonymous) -Reformative Social Movements: Seek LIMITED change in the WHOLE SOCIETY (EX: Environmental Movement) -Revolutionary Social Movements: Seek RADICAL change in WHOLE SOCIETY (EX: Communist Party-Joseph Stalin) Theoretical Explanations of Social Movements -Deprivation Theory -Arise among people who feel deprived from multiple reasons such as Income, safety, rights, etc. -Relative Deprivation: Perception of being deprived -Mass-Society Theory -Social movements attract socially isolated people and these people join to gain a sense of identity & purpose. -Both personal & political component of social movements -Resource Mobilization Theory -Social movements require resources to succeed aka Money, human labor, people and mass media. -Culture Theory -Builds upon resource mobilization theory -Adds that people must share common cultural symbols as well -Symbols that taps into shared cultural values -New Social Movements Theory -Points out the difference in social movements since industrialization -Information age allows for social movements to start globally as opposed to small & locally. -Political Economy Theory -Marxist Theory -Capitalism creates so much inequality that social movements will arise -Direct correlation to the economic system. -Social Action -Can be viewed as POSITIVE or NEGATIVE -Social action aimed at improving the lives of racial/ethnic minorities, women & homosexuals are often controversial. -Segments of the population resist/oppose such social action Modernity: Social patterns resulting from industrialization Modernization: The process of social change begun by industrialization Anomie: Durkheim?s term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals. Theoretical Analysis of Modernity Structural-Functional Theory: Modernity as Mass Society Mass Society: A society in which prosperity and bureaucracy have weakened traditional social ties. -According to Mass-Society Theory, Modernity increases the scale of life, enlarging the role of government and other formal organizations in carrying out tasks previously performed by families in local communities. -Cultural diversity and rapid social change make it difficult for people in modern societies to develop stable identities and to find mean in their lives. Social-Conflict Theory: Modernity as class Society Class Society: A capitalist society with pronounced social stratification -According to Class-Society Theory, Modernity involves the rise of capitalism into a global economic system resulting in persistent social inequality. -By concentrating wealth in the hands of a few modern capitalist societies generate widespread feelings of alienation and powerlessness. Tradition-Directedness: Rigid conformity to time-honored ways of living Other-Directedness: Openness to the latest trends and fashions, often expressed by imitating others. Post modernity: Social patterns characterized of postindustrial societies. Short Answer Essay *Be prepared to answer this question: What is/are the most pressing issue(s) in the world today? How does a sociological imagination and/or sociology as a science contribute to understanding the issue(s)? -Provide thoughtful answers & engage sociology in your responses Brittany Simon Microsoft Word - SOCIOLOGY 101 FINAL REVIEW STUDY GUIDE!!.docx
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