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Egalitarian societies. The emergence of religious behavior begins in the hunter-gatherer societies. Rituals probably evolved to appease the gods and a by-product of participating in rituals was bonding with the tribe
A Hadza Tribe system in which food was distributed and eaten immediately, rather than saved for later. Even if the food was caught in the middle of the night, people were woken to eat it. This was common of an egalitarian society. Stress was placed on present day activities.
Recorded from Mesopotamia times, a man (Babylonian King) who seeked immortality, but was denied by gods because they ordained that human life was only temporary; shows us that immortality was of interest at least 4000 years ago. This is understood not as a modern myth because the Gods said that there is no afterlife for humans, not what people want to hear.
- life force
- what sustains us
- difference between being alive and dead
- commonality between gods and each other
- invisible, can’t be depicted
- what makes someone different from others
- not physical (memories, preferences, intelligence, etc.)-wings
- once the ba and ka reunite with the body it becomes akh
- individual will inhabit the hereafter with the gods (no suffering, no death, permanent and pre-req is to have good conduct in the living world)
- Greek poet
- soul was your psyche
- breathed into your body at birth and leaves at your last breath
- Hades is a dull and drab place, shadows don’t talk, are stupid and may take the form of squeaking bats.
- goes to Hades, which is bad, no matter what you did when you were alive
- blessed land
- good crops, no suffering, no sorrow
- can only get into it with extremely good deeds (being killed in battle as a hero)
- the soul is its own identity and can leave the body and go to other people. Psyches are self-moving and can occupy the same place at the same time. The soul is perfect but that perfection is contaminated by having to be incased in the body.
A position which argues that the variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance, is physical, obeys the Laws of Physics
• Fire is the same thing as processes occurring in a candle•Mental events are the same thing as processes occurring in the brain
Second component of the soul acc. to Plato: governed by lower animalistic appetites- lower animalistic part of the soul
- Plato's view on the soul
- enables us to reason and think abstractly- pure reason
Spirit or will
gives person choice to pick between the rational and irrational element
- acted out by in Hindu religion
- it's part of the way to attain the ultimate reality
- heavy focus on sacrifices- requires a lot of family resources (sons being a pre-req). Need ritual knowledge (veda) and ritual action (Karma).
Belief in multiple gods (many types such as love, wind, war, ocean, etc. gods
Jewish god and he controls nature, hallmark of monotheism. Does not live in process of nature, he controls them. In charge.
Accepting the existence of the gods of defeated nations by allowing them to be worshipped
- allowing a group to keep a religion- allowing a nation that is controlled by another to worship their own god
Soul=divine creation, immortal.
Body and soul are separate entities
All souls pre-existed in other bodies
Soul is perfect, but contaminated by encasement in the physical body.
Postulated one-soul/multiple bodies idea; Mind/Body Dualism; soul divided into 2 elements—rational and irrational, and the spirit/will gives one the choice between these two.
Didn’t fit in with the one god, one body, one soul perspective
Student of Plato.
Disagreed with Plato’s idea of hostile body-soul relationship → the interdependence of the body and soul was necessary and good; the soul is what makes a body a body; soul doesn’t exist without a body but the body exists for the soul.
The soul is the formative principle of every living thing—souls and bodies rely on each other for existence; enables human and non-human organisms to respond to aspects of the environment that threaten survival; does this automatically.
Everything is ensouled—flowers, trees, animals, people, stories, etc. BUT human soul set apart: contains rational element that enables us to reason and think abstractly.
Nous: highest part of the rational soul; thinks in pictures, and when released it is timeless, divine, and immortal.
7th cent. BCE: Gave hope for existence of an afterlife with Description of the Isles of the Blest (explained above).
Believed good life in Isles of the Blest only available to heroes killed in wars of Thebes and Troy. Heroes earned immortality and were transported body and soul to the Isle.
People born into world of sin
Everyone already sinner at birth because of Adam’s original sin (baptism ritual: cleanse soul from inherited sin but does not guarantee salvation).
Only way to salvation is through Jesus Christ
There will be a day of final judgment
Consequence of not being redeemed is eternal damnation: mild: exclusion from being in presence of God; harsh: eternal damnation in fiery pits of hell.
Consequence of salvation is everlasting life in heaven: final destination for all those who accept Christ as savior is heaven
There is no God but God.
Everything in the universe brought to existence by God.
All things that come from God will return to God.
Only people that will be resurrected to heaven are those who believe in God, conduct their lives acc. to his words as taught by Mohammed from the Koran.
Mohammed was the final prophet: sent by God to remind people their purpose and what is expected from them; recorded in the Koran.
Do not share Christian belief that we are all born sinners- everyone is born pure.
God created each person with unlimited potential to be realized throughout one’s lifetime: our purpose is to realize our potential—ask God to give you direction and He will assist you in fulfilling your potential.
Soul exists independently after death of the body and on the Day of Resurrection body and soul are reassembled.
1st night in grave, dead visited by 2 angels who question about beliefs. Soul put in good or bad situations depending on answers. The “veil” (aka body) is removed, soul reveals true form and enters the interworld (soul takes shape to symbolize past deeds and misdeeds). Wicked, greedy, aggressive souls take form of animals with negative attributes (-->according to Ghazali).
Interworld: soul undergoes growth and transformation based on past actions in the ‘real’ temporary world (earth).
Day of Resurrection: form of soul on this day determines destiny, it is the final judgment: garden of paradise or fires of darkness.
Soul that realized its true nature resurrected, faces compassionate God; those who forget their purpose and ignored responsibilities face severe, wrathful God.
Combination of three religious traditions into an accepted system of salvation. No belief in any single god.
Main goal is to seek release from cycle of rebirth, and attain union with Ultimate Reality → final release of soul from continuous reincarnation in various physical bodies. This salvation is a long term process, requiring repeated re-births.
Three paths to Ultimate reality: People free to select path most suited to their religious needs, but, first two paths used mostly by elite social class of Hindu communities (rely on education, knowledge, wealth); third path employed by large lowest caste--used divine assistance to get closer to Ultimate Reality.
1- Path of Ritual Salvation (explained above);
2-Upanisadic Goal of Release from Rebirth (Path of Knowledge): distinguishes between permanent reality (cosmic/universal level= Brahman & personal level= self/atman) and transient world (thoughts and desires). Escape cycle of rebirth by relinquishing all desires & realizing that atman is identical to unchanging reality of Brahman (instead of part of the transient world). Reqs: son leaves family to study with Vedic teachers, becomes forest dweller, lets go of all connections with society and cuts off all family ties.
3 Path of Devotion: follower required to select and worship a single deity (not monotheistic because follower had many gods to choose from). Perform sacrifices and renunciations→ proper devotion → deity bestows good grace on follower → release from rebirth.
No concrete/commonly shared beliefs about afterlife, not dealt with in old testament
Initial belief: one dies, their “breath of life” aka spirit returns to God and the body returns to dust. The dead/shadows descend to Sheol (similar to Homer’s Hades) where most people rest with their own people. Except, the dust of wicked people does not rest with the majority.
Evolved afterlife belief from the Book of Daniel—many…will wake, some to everlasting life and some to everlasting abhorrenceàjust rewards and punishments will be distributed in the next life.
Revision: School of Shammai: day of judgment when righteous people will be separated from the wicked—righteous sent to Gan Eden (heaven), wicked to Gehinnom (hell), in-between group sent to Gehinnom for 12 months, then admitted to Gan Edenßnow, when good people die, they know they will be rewarded in the world to come.
Main point: What matters most is this life, the life currently being lived—many Jews still care about an afterlife but main priority and fulfillment of duties to God is to preserve Jewish tradition that is more important than fate in afterlife.
Buddha: “to be awake”—founded by Siddharta Gautama (the Buddha): studied the mind through meditation
4 noble truths: 1—everybody suffers; 2—there is a reason for that suffering; 3—you can learn to control/stop the suffering; 4—the 8 fold path: ways to approach life and not suffer: meditation, mindfulness, outlook, etc. Path is learnable through meditation and learning the mind.
2 main points of Buddhism: 1—everything is always changing; 2—only this moment exists: past is past and future doesn’t exist; Time and concentration can allow you release grip on the past & future, and relieve suffering.
Doesn’t believe in existence of the soul: the self doesn’t exist because everything is always changing—the self is always changing.
Reincarnation: life is continuous: before birth, elements of the self already exist. You die and no longer exist as your self, but other elements from your self will persist—ex: tree analogy.
Buddhism is more of a philosophy or type of psychology than a religion—it doesn’t worship any god or believe in an after; focuses on the study of the mind. (according to professor Shors).
In some Asian countries, Bhudda treated more so with respect closer to a religious level.
Initiation rites (cognitive dissonance)
- punished by the Catholic church for teaching heliocentrism.- the earth isn’t the center of the universe. It revolves around the sun.
- a lack of social norms
- It describes the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community
- created the scientific method
Way to assess surroundings through observation, measurement, and replicability.
refers to the spirit of the times
non-overlapping magisteria = the view advocated by Stephen Jay Gould that science and religion each have "a legitimate magisterium, or domain of teaching authority," and these two domains do not overlap.
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