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Spectral cues for auditory localization are provided by
The head position and the pinnae
Interaural level differences are a cue to auditory localization because the
head creates and acoustic shadow blocking the far ear's receptors
If there is an interaural time difference, we interpret the sound as coming from
The auditory cortex is similar to the visual cortex in that
both have a “core” processing area, and areas outside the core process more complex stimuli.
The masking effect shown by Egan and Hake demonstrated that
Spreads more to high frequencies than to lower.
Békésy discovered the traveling wave motion of the basilar membrane by
Stimulating the ears of human cadavers
The bending of the cilia of the ________ causes a release of small bursts of neurotransmitter.
Inner hair cells
The role of the middle ear is
Amplify the vibrations between the air in the outer ear and the liquid in the inner ear.
The correct order of the ossicles in the middle ear (from ear drum to oval window) is
Malleus, incus, stapes
The function of the auditory canal is to enhance the intensities of some frequency sounds by means of
Pitch is primarily determined by the ______ of the sound wave.
The phenomenon of “phantom limb” is difficult to explain using the _______ of pain.
JUST THE DIRECT PATHWAY MODEL
The duplex theory of texture perception refers to the importance of
Temporal and spatial cues
Which of the following body parts has the lowest two-point threshold?
Experience-dependent plasticity has been found to occur
The somatosensory, auditory, and visual systems
The area on the somatosensory cortex (S1) associated with the thumb is as large as the area for the forearm. This is an example of
Warren et al. presented listeners with tones that were either (1) interrupted with silent gaps; or (2) interrupted with silent gaps with noise. The results showed
The noise condition resulted in listeners hearing a continuous tone.
Auditory grouping can be accomplished by
frequency, location, amplitude
McAlpine’s research on gerbils provides evidence for
broadly tuned ITD neurons.
Difference in pressure between peaks and valleys of a sound wave measured in decibles.
Any sound that has a pattern of pressure change described by a sine wave (mathematical function)
The number of times per second the pressure change repeats. Measured in Hertz.
Sound quality determined by the attack and decay of the sound (causing a sound played backwards to change).
Pinnae, auditory canal, tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Cone-line ear structure aiding in sound localization
Resonance occurs in the 3 cm long structure that protects the eardrum at its end.
contains the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), the middle ear muscles and the oval window
The Inner Ear
Contains the liquid-filled cochlea, the big Kahuna.
Made up of Scalas tympani and vestibuli contains the organ of corti with its tiny cilias
A note doubles in frequency as it goes up an octave.
As tone height increases what else also increases?
Supports the organ of corti and vibrates to sound.
Extends over the cilia
Transduction occurs in the cochlea through the cilia moving in response to the direction of vibration from the organ of corti (auditory nerve fiber responds w/ electric signals)
Neural Signals of Frequency
Depends on place (which groups) and temporal (pattern rate) coding
Bekesy's place theory
Higher hairs on the organ of corti have higher firing rates and higher frequencies.
Tonotopic map theory
High frequencies cause firing in the base to increase lower frequencies stimulate the apex of the cochlea.
Mathematical theorem by which any sound can be divided into a set of sine waves (your cochlea does this on its own)
Evidence for place theory
1. Upward spread of masking shown in experiments
2. Tonotopic map in cochlea
3. Traveling wave structure basilar membrane
4.Frequency tuning curves
found in live cochleas
What is temporal coding?
the connection between the frequency of a sound stimulus and the timing of the auditory nerve fiber firing
Problem with temporal coding
High frequencies are too fast to correspond to nerve firing Volley theory proposes that neurons take turns firing for high freqeuncies
In temporal lobe mostly processes pitch belt and parabelt areas deal with complex sound there are pitch neurons and neuroplasticity for auditory system!
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