The contingent presentation of a stimulus immediately following a response, which increases the future rate or probability of the response.
The contingent removal of an aversive stimulus immediately following a response. Negative reinforcement increases the future rate or probably of the response.
Procedures that test a hypothesis relation by manipulating the variables thought to occasion or maintain a behavior in order to verify a functional relation.
An instructional procedure that reinforces individual responses in sequence, forming a complex behavior.
Teaching new behaviors through differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a specified target behavior.
Demonstrating a desired behavior in order to prompt an imitative response.
Circumstances in an individual's life, ranging from cultural influences to an uncomfortable environment, that temporarily alters the power of reinforcers.
The gradual removal of prompts to allow the discriminative stimulus to occasion a response independently.
A stimulus that precedes a behavior. This stimulus may or may not serve as discriminative for a specific behavior.
An antecedent that occurs immediately before a behavior; it sets the occasion for a behavior.
The number of times a behavior occurs during an observational period.
Recording the amount of time between the initiation of a response and it's conclusion; an observational recording procedure.
An observation period is divided into equal intervals and the target behavior is observed at the end of each interval.
Record if the behavior occurs throughout the entire interval
Record if the behavior occurs at any time during the interval
Momentary Time Sampling
Record if the behavior occurs at the end of the interval.
Recording the amount of time that elapses between the introduction of a discriminative stimulus and the student performing the behavior
Recording a tally or frequency count of behavior as it occurs within an observation period.
A format for graphing single-subject data that allows for monitoring behavior change. The AB design has two phases: baseline (a) and treatment (b). This design cannot demonstrate a functional relation between dependent and independent variables because it does not include a replication of the effect of the independent variable. Single-subject experimental designs, which allows for determination of functional relations, are extensions of this foundational design.
The horizontal or x axis of a graph. The time dimension (sessions) is represented along the abscissa.
In education, the assessment of students' progress on a regular basis and the publication of this assessment, as well as goal, objective, and procedures, to parents, school administrators, and other parties with a right to the information.
The basic level of student response competence. It implies the student's ability to perform a newly learned response to some criterion of accuracy.
An object or event received in exchange for a specific number of tokens, points, etc.
Alternating Treatments Design
A single subject experimental design that allows comparison of the effectiveness of two or more treatments. It differs from other single subject designs in that treatments are alternated randomly rather than presented sequentially ( also known as multiple schedule design, multi-element baseline design, alternating conditions design).
Changing Condition Design (ABC)
A single- subject experimental design that involves successively changing the conditions for response performance in order to evaluate comparative effects. This design does not demonstrate a functional relation between variables.
Changing Criterion Design
A single subject experimental design that involves successively changing the criterion for reinforcement. Evaluates the effectiveness of an independent variable by demonstrating that a behavior can be incrementally increased or decreased toward a terminal performance goal.
Multiple Baseline Design
Treatment is replicated across (1) two or more students, (2) two or more behaviors, or (3) two or more setting. Functional relations may be demonstrated as changes in the dependent variables that occur with the systematic and sequenced introduction of the independent variable.
Reversal Design (ABAB)
Removes a treatment condition after intervention in order to verify the existence of a functional relationship.
Four phases: baseline, imposition of treatment, return to baseline, reimposition of treatment.
Components of a Behavioral Objective
A statement that communicates a proposed change in behavior. Identify the learner Identify the target behavior Identify the conditions of intervention Identify the criteria for acceptable performance.
Schedules in which reinforcement follows some, but not all, correct or appropriate responses or follows when a period of appropriate behavior has elapsed. These schedules include ratio, interval, and response-duration schedules.
Schedules for the delivery of reinforcers contingent on the occurrence of a behavior following a specified period or interval of time. In a fixed-interval schedule, the interval of time is standard. For example, F15 would reinforce the first occurrence of behavior following each 5-minute interval of the observation period. In a variable-interval schedule the interval of time varies. For example VI5 would reinforce the first response that occurs after intervals averaging 5 minutes.
FI= time is standard VI= time varies
Schedules for the delivery of reinforcers contingent on the number of correct responses.
FR= number of appropriate responses is constant VR= number of appropriate responses varies.
Schedules for the delivery of reinforcers contingent on how long a student engages in a continuous behavior
FRD= duration of the behavior required for reinforcement constant VRD= amount of time required for reinforcement varies.
Any high-probability activity may serve as a positive reinforce for any low-probability activity.
The tendency for behavior to persist following a change in environmental conditions
Student does not perform the desired behavior because they do not know how to do it
Students have the skills to perform the desired behaviors but choose not to do so for reasons such as anxiety, anger, frustration, etc
Functions of a Behavior
To gain attention To gain a tangible To gain sensory stimulation To escape from attention To escape from a task To escape from sensory stimulation
The physical characteristics of behavior.
Applied behavior analysis
Systematic application of behavioral principles to change socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree. research tools enable users of these principles to verify a
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