Possible responses: Lip-tongue movement, facial expression, gestural cues, body language, linguistic cues, situational cues, auditory cues, lipreading
We move our articulators to produce __________, not __________
Acoustically distinct sounds
Visually contrastive movements
Approximately what percentage of speech sounds are visible on the lips?
The average rapidity of speech is...
Groups of speech sounds that appear identical
(eg. /f v/ /s z/)
Words that appear identical
(eg. ban, man)
Primary factors of speechreading
Secondary factors of speechreading
True or false: speechreading instruction has increased as hearing technology has advanced.
False, speechreading instruction has declined as technology decreases the need for speechreading
True or false: newer speechreading approaches are often eclectic in that they modify or combine earlier approaches.
True or false: what we hear affects what we see and vice versa.
Name 2 predictors of poor speechreading ability.
Possible responses: IQ, educational achievement, duration of hearing loss, lipreading practice, age of onset of loss, socioeconomic status
Name 2 predictors of good speechreading ability.
Possible responses: Female, young, neurophysiological measures, world knowledge, ability to capitalize on context cues, linguistic abilities
True or false: consonants are harder to "see" when they include lip closure or movement of the tongue to the front of the mouth.
False, they have better visibility
Name 3 factors that impact rapidity of speech
Emotion, fatigue, articulation style
True or false: stress and articulation do not usually impact speechreading.
False, they can impact the way a speech sound is visibly produced
Name 3 speechreading variables that would be classified as "talker" variables
Possible answers: facial expression, diction, body language, speech rate, signal intensity, familiarity, visible mouth movement, facial characteristics, speech prosody, accent, heavy facial hair, tendency to look away, shouting, mumbling, etc.
Name 3 speechreading variables that would be classified as "message" variables
Possible answers: length, syntactic complex, frequency of word use, homophenes, context, content, etc.
Name 3 speechreading variables that would be classified as "environment" variables
Possible answers: viewing angle, distance, lighting, room acoustics, distractions, number of potential senders, situational cues, etc.
Name 3 speechreading variables that would be classified as "receiver" variables
Possible answers: lipreading, residual hearing, amplification, stress profile, attentiveness, fatigue, motivation, language skills, vision, emotional state, experience, etc.
The ability to follow a shift in topics, read profiles, and read a variety or speakers are good or bad receiver variables?
Good, these promote speechreading success
The need for frequent repetition, exaggerated lip movements, slower speech, and simple language are good or bad receiver variables?
Bad, these indicate poor speechreading abilities
Who needs speechreading training?
Possible answers: children in TC programs, adults with recently acquired hearing loss, new hearing aid, cochlear implant, or ALD users
True or false: adult speechreaders should expect to read every word.
In this approach to speechreading, individuals perceive each of the basic parts before the whole can be identified.
Analytic approach. Focus on vowel and consonant recognition. Intent is to gradually increase reliance on auditory signal for discrimination.
In this approach to speechreading, individuals perceive the whole word movement which is paramount to perception of the basic parts
__________ is the basic unit of the analytic approach to speechreading.
__________ is the basic unit of the synthetic approach to speechreading.
In this approach to speechreading, individuals discriminate different visemes and mouth positions. Words are identified in an open set.
Analytic vowel speechreading.
In this approach, individuals discriminate sounds differing in place, but sharing manner or voicing. Words are identified in an open set.
Analytic consonant speechreading
In this approach, individuals follow simple directions from a closed set.
Synthetic consonant speechreading
True or false: when both auditory and visual information is available, individuals with hearing loss tend to do better on communication tasks.
A holistic approach to speechreading training takes into account...
Knowledge of the speechreading process, strategies for successful communication, confidence, tolerance for difficult communication, and motivation to improve
Of manner, place, and voicing, which characteristic is considered both visible and audible?
What are the four objectives of synthetic training?
1. Follow directions using closed set response
2. Identify sentence illustration from a set of four pictures
3. Listen plus lipread two related sentences, then paraphrase them
4. Speechread a paragraph-long narrative, then answer questions
Who is credited with developing the synthetic approach to speechreading?
In this method, a speechreader studies artic movements, uses eye training, and uses sentences and stories to train the mind to comprehend meaning
This method uses rapid syllable drill to teach speechreaders to identify position and movement of speech sounds produced
In this method, graded lessons focused on sentences are used as a basis of instruction
This method emphasizes syllable drills, rhythm practice, and kinesthetic awareness. There is a focus on imitating and perceiving movement.
Want to see the other 40 Flashcards in Speechreading?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!