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The Intercollegiate Football Association was formed to regulate:
A) playing and eligibility rules
B) gambling activities
Fund-raising as a marketing tool is usually used and appropriate for what types of events:
A) for-profit events
B) cause-related marketing events
C) charitable events
D) both B & C
A common tool used by events to reduce the potential for a lawsuit is:
A) employing volunteers as full-time employees
B) not allowing minors to participate in the event
C) using a waiver and release of liability form
D) holding parents responsible for their child's involvement in an event
When a manager is informed of the amount of cash needed to pay expenses at predetermined times throughout the accounting cycle, the organization is using the cash-flow budgeting method.
Arnold Palmer was instrumental in the founding of IMG in 1960.
Who was the first Commissioner hired in all of professional sports?
A) Albert Gates of the Professional Golf Association
B) Alvin “Pete” Rozelle of the National Football League
C) Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis of Major League Baseball
D) William Hulbert of the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs
What sporting event generates the largest television audience on a world scale?A) Summer Olympic Games
When an institution in involved in an investigation on possible rule violations, the Committee on Infractions, a committee of peers (representatives of member institutions), determines responsibility and assesses penalties.
How are non–sport-related corporations attempting to use sport to sell products internationally? Primarily, this is done through the sponsorship of international athletes and teams.
A) Through the sponsorship of international teams.
B) Through the sponsorship of international athletes and teams.
C) Through the development of subsidiaries to develop sport-related products and then creating co-branding opportunities with their non-sport-related products.
D) All of the above.
E) A & B above only.
The practice of charging spectators at golf events began at fundraisers by top male and female golfers to benefit the Red Cross during World War I.
CBS paid what staggering amount of money to televise March Madness?
A) One billion dollars
B) One hundred million dollars
C) 11 Billion dollars
D) None of the above
The NBA's television revenues for 2002 were
A) 1.8 billion dollars
B) 1.0 billion dollars
C) 930 million dollars
D) None of the above
CPM stands for:
A) Cost Per Thousand
B) Capitol Planning Money
C) Century Production Mandate
D) Current People Meter
What sport does the majority of the world think of when someone says football?
A) American football.
B) Australian rules football.
An internship is almost always required prior to being hired for an entry-level position in event management.
What is the only sports league to ban corporate ownership?
Albert Spalding was a professional baseball player who, upon his retirement, organized baseball tours throughout North America to promote the sport and create a larger market for his baseball products.
Who coined the phrase “the thrill of victory and the agony of defeat.”
A) Abraham Lincoln
B) Roone Arledge
C) Howard Cosell
D) Muhammad Ali
In the Olympic organizational structure what two entities report directly to the IOC?
A) National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and National Governing Bodies (NGBs)
B) International Federations (IFs) and National Olympic Committees (NOCs)
C) International Federations (Ifs) and National Governing Bodies (NGBs)
D) National Governing Bodies (NGBs) and Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs)
National Governing Bodies are:
A) The federations governing sports throughout the world.
B) The organizing committees for host cities.
C) The national Olympic organizing committees in each individual country.
D) The organizations governing a specific sport within each individual country.
Only large-scale sporting events need to develop a Web site for informational purposes. Small-scale sporting events do not need to worry about putting financial and human resources into the development and management of a Web site.
A sport agent is required to be a lawyer.
The People Meter monitors what station a television set is tuned to.
Many lawsuits concerning a sport agent's incompetence, fraud and breach of fiduciary duties involve financial planning and investing.
Which of the following is NOT one of the governing bodies of the IOC?
A) The Legislature
B) The Executive Board
C) The Session
D) The President
Which position/area of responsibility oversees adherence to NCAA and conference rules and regulations:
A) Senior women's administrator (SWA)
B) Compliance director
C) Faculty athletics representative (FAR)
D) Student-athlete services administrator
Whereas ESPN manages the Summer and Winter X Games in-house, the Gravity Games are outsourced and managed by an external sport event management/marketing firm, Octagon.
The NFL Trust is responsible for which of the following activities?
A) Ownership of all team logos and trademarks
B) Oversight and administration of the league's properties rights
C) Distribution of revenue for league properties rights to each club
D) All of the above
E) B & C above only
In 2005 how many international players declared themselves eligible for the NBA draft?
A more professional focus of running events started to take place during the late 1800s. The catalyst for such a professional focus emphasis occurred due to:
A) the multitude of events that were occurring
B) the number of career opportunities
C) television's impact on events
D) a desire to increase profits
A) another name for corporate ownership.
B) defined as ownership of more than one sport franchise.
C) ownership of a team whose logo includes a cross in it.
D) none of the above.
Broadcasters say that revenue sharing is advantageous to them because
A) it frees them from financial burdens
B) it forces teams and leagues to become active partners with a vested interest in marketing and promoting the game
C) it allows them to share the risk of the venture
D) all of the above
The Arena Football League and NBC Sports agreed to
A) Play football against each other for charity
B) Reinstate the XFL
C) Pool and share costs and profits from telecasts of games
D) None of the above
What was the prevailing reason for the push for reform in college football in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
A) the eligibility of players
B) the larger schools consistently winning against the smaller schools
C) the need to legislate the money being received by football college athletes
D) the number of injuries and deaths occurring
An athlete earning a multimillion-dollar salary should adopt a:
B) unsolicited prospectus
C) radical lifestyle change
D) all of the above
Market research is used by organizations to find out the impact of their sponsorship activities.
The most devastating problem that an athlete may have with his agent is probably:
A) Inability to reach the agent when an important situation arises
B) The agent signs the player to an endorsement contract for a product or service he does not use
C) Income mismanagement
D) The agent not being a lawyer
During this event management function, event staff members come into contact with participants for the first time.
B) volunteer management
C) tournament operations
A 22 rating for a television program means that it was viewed in how many homes in the Unites States?
A) 20 million
B) 23.474 million
D) 1, 067,000
What new professional league in the U.S. was developed after the 1994 World Cup and took advantage of a well-developed grassroots sports program?
A) Major League Soccer (MLS).
B) Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA).
C) Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA).
D) National Fastpitch (softball) (NFP).
The NFL's annual television revenues are over:
A) ten million dollars a year
B) one-hundred million dollars a years
C) one billion dollars a year
D) five hundred million dollars a year
What other channel can sport organizations and governing bodies use to access consumers other than traditional media broadcasting (TV and radio)?
A) broadcasting of games and highlights via popular video-sharing sites such as YouTube
B) social-networking sites such as FaceBook, MySpace, and Second Life.
C) show game and user-generated highlights on their own website such as The NBA Channel
D) all of the above
The World Cup(s) in what sport led to the creation of two new professional leagues?
Women's sports have benefited greatly from the multi-channel television environment.
Theproper steps involved in recruiting and selecting the right person for gettingthe job done include
B) advertising the position, reviewingcompleted applications, choosing qualified people for the interview process,checking references, and selecting the “best fit” person for the job.
Which ofthe following is NOT a practice that can raise the level of employeemotivation?
D) Select alternatives.
Sportorganizations, like all organizations, have two types of leaders
True orFalse? Sport managers must perform in a number of functional areas and executevarious activities in fulfilling the demands of their jobs.
True orFalse? The role of managers can be challenging as they try to assess the needsof their employees and utilize appropriate skills to meet the needs of theemployees, all the while also getting the job done.
Themanager determines what types of jobs need to be performed and who will beresponsible
for doingthese jobs during the _____ function.
True orFalse? Sport managers in today's sport organizations need to be aware ofever-changing management thoughts and ideas, to learn from theses theories, andto incorporate what works best within their organizations.
The _____movement is significant in that it changed management thinking to focus on thebehavior of people and the human components in the workplace rather than on thescientific approach to performing a task.
True orFalse? Participant decision making involves employees or members of theorganization in the actual decision making process.
Theposition description of the Assistant Athletic Director for Marketing mayinclude all of the following except
Customerretention activities demonstrating care and concern for the customer followinga purchase is considered by marketers as
Theearliest evolutionary change in sports broadcasting from factual reporting tosports entertainment was seen within
True orFalse? Sport marketers should be just as focused on innovations in the world oftraditional marketing as they are on trends within their particular sport.
In 1992the San Jose Sharks utilized _____________ in heavily traveled areas to help gaininformation about fan reaction to proposed logo and uniform designs.
True orFalse? Unpredictability is a major disadvantage for sport marketers.
While ata sporting event it is common for a sponsor company to offer free merchandisein exchange for filling out personal information, such as name, address anddemographics, on a specialized index card. This is an example of
Nike'shuge success since 1972 has come primarily as a result of all of the followingexcept
C) league sponsorships
Thepurposes of sport marketing research include all of the following except
C) allowing fans direct input into teampersonnel decisions
RooneArledge's influence upon sports broadcasting included all of the followingexcept
) significant progressions in the waythat sport marketers research the demands of the fan
Which leaguehas the highest credit rating in sports?
All ofthe following are examples of “financial” mechanisms for altering competitivebalance EXCEPT
Leaguescan borrow less expensively than individual teams.
Ifbusinesses in the sports industry are to remain competitive, they must alwaysbe evaluating the quality of their capital assets.
Whichstatement concerning the tradeoff between financing through debt or equity istrue?
B) Generally, financing with debtcarries more risk than equity.
Whichleague has seen the most dramatic growth in TV revenues over the last 15 years?
Inspectator sports, stadium construction projects are often financed with _____.
True orFalse? MLB negotiated a provision into its 2002 collective bargaining agreementthat allowed teams to carry unlimited amounts of debt.
Which ofthe following are contributing factors to the competitive balance issue?
A) theconcept of uncertainty of outcome
B) thedisparity between the revenue potential of large- and small-market teams
C) both A & B
D)neither A nor B
The NFL'scurrent TV contract calls for the league to be paid more than _______ per year.
A validcontract contains which of the following elements
A) Offerand Acceptance.
E) All of the above.
Forpurposes of due process, college scholarships from state universities areconsidered property which cannot be taken away without providing the right tonotice and a hearing.
Femalecoaches whose salaries are not equal to those of their male counterparts havefiled ___________ lawsuits.
Waiversand releases of liability are contracts where parties agree to give up theirright to sue for all types of torts.
Aprincipal may never be held liable for torts committed by or contracts enteredinto by an agent.
Title IXof the Educational Amendments of 1972 bars discrimination in education againstwomen only.
Which ofthe following statements are true?
A) MajorLeague Baseball is the only professional sport league exempt from antitrustlaws.
B) Allprofessional sports leagues' national broadcasting agreements are exempt fromantitrust laws.
C)Professional sport leagues' collective bargaining agreements are exempt fromantitrust law under the labor exemption.
D) All of the above.
Tosuccessfully show a defendant was negligent, a plaintiff must prove
A) A dutyof care is owed to the plaintiff by the defendant.
B) Thedefendant breached the duty of care.
C) Thedefendant's actions were the actual and proximate cause of the plaintiff'sinjury.
D) Thereis evidence of monetary damages.
E) All of the above.
The U.S.Supreme Court case, PGA Tour Inc. v. Martin (2001) involved a challenge to PGATour rules under what statute?
C) Americans with DisabilitiesAct
An _____is a practical conflict involving more or less equally compelling values orsocial obligations.
Whensport managers are faced with ethical dilemmas, their decisions are easy, notdifficult, to make.
_____ isthe systematic study of values guiding our decision making.
Laws andmorality are the same.
Some_____ are universal and esteemed in all aspects of life.
One ofthe biggest distinctions between moral decision making and other ethicaldecisions is
B) the extensive ramification ofimmoral choices.
It isimportant to remember that ethical decisions and ethical dilemmas involvecomplicated problems and that often, reasonable people will disagree over whatis the “right decision.”
_____ issimilar to the regular decision-making process in business situations in thatthere is a given structure to follow when making an ethical decision.
A collective bargaining agreement is:
Liability all schools provide full time coaches
usesof independent to ensure competency in basic coaching and education skills
Privateyouth soccer club
FALSE,IT IS IN Athens Greece
JudgeKennesaw mountain Landis or Major League Baseball
Which of the following is not one of thephilosophy principles followed by Division I institutions:
maximizethe number and variety of athletic opportunities available to students
The NCAA National Office staff members pass thelegislative rules of the Association and then enforce these rules through theirenforcement and legislative services departments. True or False
Which group determines responsibility and assessespenalties for NCAA infractions?
Which percentage accurate portrays therepresentation of African Americans working as athletic directors and headcoaches?
The Black Coaches and Administrators Associationpublished a “hiring report card” to monitor football hiring practices at majorinstitutions. True or False
When asked what they looked for in the hiringprocess, athletic directors in a 1992 study said they placed more emphasis on:
The initial collegiate athletic contests were:
Which of the following best describes thedifference between a major and a secondary violation:
Faculty and college administrators got involved inthe governance of intercollegiate athletics in the 1880s in order to curb theuse of paid “professional” student-athletes. True or False
are the international governing bodies for oneor several sports throughout the world.
B) are nongovernmental organizations recognized bythe IOC to administer one or more sports at the world level and encompassingorganizations administering such sports at the national level.
C) must petition for formal recognition by the IOCand must apply the Olympic Movement Anti-Doping Code and conduct effectiveout-of-competition tests in accordance with the established rules.
D) all of the above. <---
What Summer Olympic Games marked the turning pointfor commercial involvement with the Olympic Games?
For a sport to be included on the Winter OlympicProgram it must be practiced by:
The World Cup(s) in what sport led to the creationof two new professional leagues?
The International Olympic Committee governs manyevents, including the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, Pan American Games,International Special Olympic Games, and the Gay Games. True or FAlse
In 2007, Super Bowl XLII was televised in 230nations and territories in 33 different languages. True or false
A misconception resulting from the influence ofcontemporary superpowers on spectator sports, and perpetuated by popular media,is that the term “globalization” is often equated to “Americanization.” True or False
Currently the IOC is made up of:
In the Olympic organizational structure NationalGoverning Bodies (NGBs) report directly toNational
National Olympic Committees (NOCs).
International Federations (IFs).
Which of the following is NOT one of the governingbodies of the IOC?The Legislature
The WNBA league and teams are primarily femaleoperated organizations.
According to the textbook, which of the followingis a true statement regarding diversity in professional sports?
In 2003, the NBA and MLB welcomed their firstminority owners.
In 2003, professional leagues experienced adecline in the hiring of women into management and coaching positions.
With the exception of Assistant Coaches, at theteam level women hold less than 50% of positions with the WNBA clubs.
Professional leagues have organized themselves ina manner consistent with a corporate model.
What is the current going rate for a franchise inthe NFL?
The National Hockey League has retained thegreatest number of family or individual owners due to its high degree ofrevenue sharing.
The practice of charging spectators at golf eventsbegan at fundraisers by top male and female golfers to benefit the Red Crossduring World War I.
What league operated for a number of years withouta permanent commissioner?
The single entity structure is a term used todescribe a manner in which a team may organize itself in order to maintainfiscal control.
Although the NFL bans public ownership, it hasmade an exception for what team?
When negotiating an endorsement contract the agentshould be certain to maintain the client's exclusive rights and control overhis or her:
In the four major sports leagues how many agentsare registered or certified with the respective players associations?
Free agency in Major League Baseball has existedsince 1986. true or false
Many lawsuits concerning a sport agent'sincompetence, fraud and breach of fiduciary duties involve financial planningand investing.
One of the first agents to represent individualathletes and a pioneer of the sport marketing industry is:
All of the following are objectives ofperson-centered branding EXCEPT:
capitalizingon an athlete's recent performance
Who was the “endorsement king of the pre- MichaelJordan era?”
A firm that represents individual athletes isintimately involved in all aspects of the sport. True or False
The most important part of the job of the______________ is to coordinate, schedule, and supervise the numerouschangeovers that take place within a facility as shows come in and out of thefacility.
_________________ are public assembly facilitiesprimarily utilized for the presentation of live artistic entertainment.
All of the following are major advantages toprivate management of public assembly facilities except:
Increases in all of the following taxes woulddirectly affect the majority of the population of a community except:
The _____________ is responsible for landing andscheduling events for a facility.
concertsgiven by performers
Convention centers are considered very beneficialfor municipalities in an economic sense because of the considerable visitor spending. True or false
Over the past decade it has become increasinglycommon to see private management of public assembly facilities.
Market research is used by organizations to findout the impact of their sponsorship activities.
Vertical integration refers to the efforts of asport management/marketing agency to control all aspects of an event. This is atactic commonly employed by:
Corporate sponsorship involvement with sportingevents is an added bonus, as most events make a profit through ticket salesalone. True or False
Zero-base budgeting requires:
Ticket sales can be an effective way to generaterevenue at what type of events:
largerevents, such as the World Cup of Soccer
The nuts and bolts of an event are described asthe activities that take place within:
IMG was originally formed to:
locate endorsementopportunities for a professional golfer
A more professional focus of running eventsstarted to take place during the late 1800s. The catalyst for such aprofessional focus emphasis occurred due to:
The sale of licensed merchandise, items thatdisplay an event's name or logo, is beneficial for what type of event:
Sport managers traditionally get their start inthe industry in the ticket sales department. true or false
Sales in the sport industry have shifted from:
aproduct-oriented approach to a consumer-oriented approach
A relatively new phenomenon that has resulted in asignificant new revenue stream for sport organizations is:
When trying to reach only those people theorganization wants to reach, the sport organization should utilize thetelemarketing sales method.true or false
The sales method that usually costs more to usethan the others is:
Perhaps no avenue within the sport industry holdsmore job opportunities, particularly at the entry level than:
A more current term used for the sales method thattraditionally had been called “dialing for dollars” is:
Sales is a numbers game thus as a rule of thumb,ten phone calls to solicit a meeting are needed in order to generate one actualsales call. True or false
Successful salespeople are born that way, they cannot acquire the skills through training or experience.true or false
The process of providing continued satisfactionand reinforcement to individuals or organizations who are past or currentcustomers is a definition of:
Which type of sponsorship platform would be moreappropriate for larger, national companies with large financial resources?
Which type of sponsorship platform would be moreappropriate for local or regional companies or companies with smaller marketingbudgets?
Teams generally build their promotional calendarsto feature their most attractive giveaways or events on their least attractivedates (in terms of opponents and game times) in order to increase attendance.
Although government endorsement and publicacceptance of gambling have increased, sport organizations continue to shunaffiliations with legalized gambling establishments (LGEs).
The discipline of sport sponsorship has emerged asthe decision-making process has been transferred from the company's team of marketingprofessionals to the company's CEO.
A cereal company activates its NASCAR sponsorshipby offering consumers a free mini-car for consumers who purchase speciallymarked boxes. This is an example of what type of promotion:
Which of the following are typical of thecontractual commitments made by sport sponsors?
Corporate marketing executives have found thatlinking their messages to leisure pursuits conveys their messages immediately,credibly, and to a captive audience. true or false
Based on corporate sponsorship involvement, whichOlympic Games was able to turn a profit for the host city?
The administration of school and youth sports, inparticular the final authority in determining athletic eligibility, isprimarily performed by
Local andstate governing bodies/athletic associations
The National Alliance for Youth Sport (NAYS)offers courses in partnership with the NFHS intended to help coaches,administrators, officials, and parents develop expertise in training,conditioning, teaching sports skills, motivation, and risk management.
Although employed by the school or league, theperson filling this job is usually considered an independent contractor becausethe school or league exhibits no supervisory capacity over them
The Interscholastic Football Association wasformed in 1888 by
During and immediately following World War I,schools sports for males were promoted as a tool to
State athletic associations are
As financial circumstances for schools and leaguesbecome more strained, these job areas are being asked to perform morefundraising activities
Coaches are the principal supervisors of theathletic activities of their teams, and it is their responsibility to provideand ensure a reasonably safe environment for all participants.
Coaches are the principal supervisors of theathletic activities and it is their responsibility to provide and ensure areasonably safe environment for all participants. true or false
Knowledge of injury and physical training,equipment knowledge, and bus-driving skills are highly recommended for thisposition
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