- Sport Final
Last Modified: 2016-03-08
The author points out that sport cultures are
When sociologists say that sports are “contested activities,” they mean that
The author explains that a sociological approach to studying sports
Theories that explain what is known about the ways that people express their values, ideas, and beliefs are called
Which of the following is NOT an accurate description of games played by the ancient Greeks?
After a review of past studies guided by structural theories and a personal internalization model of socialization, the author makes conclusions about changing or ending sport participation. Which of the following is NOT one of the conclusions?
Most people in the sociology of sport today do not see sports as causes of specific socialization outcomes. Instead, they view sports as
Nancy Theberge’s study of an elite women’s ice hockey team in Canada found that locker room interaction among the players involved
According to an analysis of sports and society based on Gramsci’s ideas, sports are important social phenomena because they are
Research indicates that the talent development process for people who excel in a particular activity begins with
To teach children positional play before they are 12 years old, coaches must systematically condition them to be in certain places given certain game conditions. The author notes that this tactic
After reviewing research on academic cheating, the author points out that rates of cheating among athletes
Deviant overconformity is associated with some forms of violence in sports. The roots of this violence are grounded in
The commercialization of sports has
It is difficult to say that playing violent sports causes people to be violent off the field because
Which of the following is NOT among the author’s policy recommendations for controlling sport violence?
When Title IX became law in 1972
Despite the influence of Title IX, it has been difficult to achieve gender equity in schools where
Which of the following is NOT one of the problems associated with creating new sport programs for women as a gender equity strategy?
In Islamic countries, norms regulating the body are closely tied to
beliefs about the ways that certain physical actions displease Allah.
Being an effective change agent requires a vision of what sports and social life could and should be, a willingness to work hard, and
an ability to rally the resources needed to produce results
The author points out that celebrity athletes
have little real power as change agents in society
Athletes who endorse transformational changes that involve deep structural and ideological changes in society are
likely to lose popular support and media coverage.
Which of the following efforts would a pro basketball player be most likely to join?
a group advocating a program to eliminate poverty in a community
When highly visible and popular athletes become involved in efforts to change something related to sports, they usually have goals that are
When joining opposition groups to establish a vantage point for changing sports, a person is most likely to be successful when working to
create more diverse sport spaces at a local level.
When people use an inside vantage point for changing sports, the biggest problem is that by the time they have the power to exert influence, they will
have a vested interest in maintaining sports as they are.
Using structural theories as a guide for changing sports would lead to an emphasis on
regulating economic processes related to funding priorities.
Using interactionist theories as a guide for changing sports would lead to an emphasis on
developing alliances with people in sports.
Using cultural theories as a guide for changing sports would lead to an emphasis on
changing symbols, vocabularies, and ideologies.
Few people have radical goals for changing sports because people who support radical goals usually
focus on changing living conditions more than changing sports.
A radical goal for changing sports emphasizes
transforming current sports and creating new sport forms.
A reformist goal for changing sports emphasizes
improving sports by making them more fair and equitable.
When people have conservative goals for changing sports, they emphasize
the growth and efficiency of existing sport programs.
The major demographic change that will influence sports in the future is
increased social and cultural diversity.
Organization and rationalization have a tendency to undermine the
element of play in sports.
Telecommunications and the electronic media will influence the future because
people use media content to form standards for assessing their experiences.
The most important issue related to the use of technology in sports is
regulating the ways that technologies are incorporated into sports.
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in spectator sports?
turning stadiums into virtual sports arenas
The Miracle League is an example of what can happen when
people with disabilities become politically active.
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in sports for people with disabilities?
fewer programs for elite athletes with disabilities
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in youth sports?
growth of publicly funded, neighborhood programs
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in high school sports?
decreasing specialization in favor of overall development
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in intercollegiate sports?
growing faculty support for big-time college sports
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends in professional sports?
declining media coverage
The author uses adult kickball as an example of
a child’s game being turned into a power and performance sport.
The Gay Games are an example of
a group seeking an alternative to dominant sport forms.
Some participants in alternative sports resist attempts to make their sports more like mainstream power and performance sports because they don’t want to
see competition replace creativity and support for other participants.
Older people tend to prefer sports that stress
the cultivation of the body rather than driving it.
Pleasure and participation sports will become more popular in the future because
there are growing concerns about improving health and fitness.
If power and performance sports continue to be popular, we can expect that
sports will reproduce ideas emphasizing male-female differences.
The media help to maintain the popularity of power and performance sports by associating them with
storylines that resonate with the experiences of consumers.
The popularity of power and performance sports is connected with gender relations because these sports
celebrate physical superiority and dominating others.
When people play pleasure and participation sports, they are likely to
focus on their connections with other participants.
Pleasure and participation sports generally emphasize
The sponsorship of power and performance sports is generally motivated by the idea that it is important to be associated with
athletes and teams who are currently winners.
Power and performance sports emphasize that people reach their potential when they
achieve machine-like efficiency.
At any point in time in a culture, dominant sport forms
represent the interests of people who have power in that culture.
When considering the future, it is useful to remember that
sports are social constructions.
In the introduction to the chapter, the author explains that the future of sports will
Robert Higgs argues that the combination of sports and Christian beliefs has led religion to become “muscularized” in a way that emphasizes
The combination of sports and Christianity has usually led to
a reaffirmation of the existing characteristics of dominant sports.
The policies of major Christian sport organizations in the United States are based on the assumption that the social and ethical problems in sports will continue to exist until
all people in sports accept Christ into their lives.
Which of the following is NOT one of the strategies Christian athletes use when they doubt the worth of their sport participation as an act of worship?
developing friendships with non-Christian athletes
When elite athletes experience a crisis of meaning in sports, research suggests that they
use sport participation as a means of promoting their religious beliefs.
Combining traditional Christian religious beliefs with the dominant forms of sports sometimes creates challenges for athletes because Christianity emphasizes
humility and service, whereas sports emphasize personal success.
In the box “Public Prayers at Sport Events,” it states that in 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that public prayers at sport events sponsored by public schools are
a violation of the U.S. Constitution.
Religion can become a means of social control in sports when
sport performances are connected with the moral worth of athletes.
Because sport participation is based on self-promotion, athletes may sometimes combine sport participation with religious beliefs to
give sport participation special spiritual meaning.
In sports that are associated with risky lifestyles, athletes sometimes use religion to
Magic is different than religion in that magic consists of
Some athletes have used religion to deal with the uncertainty they face during sport participation. When this is done, it becomes difficult to distinguish religion from
Those most likely to use the Olympics as sites for spreading religious beliefs are
The major religious sport organizations in the U.S. tend to
emphasize conservative, fundamentalist Christian orientations.
Christians and Christian organizations have used sports to
recruit new members to their organizations and belief systems.
Traditional games among Native Americans were often connected with
animistic beliefs linking the material and supernatural worlds.
Taoist, Confucian, and Buddhist ideas in China emphasize the importance of
Sumo wrestlers take great care to preserve the sacredness of the dohyo (wrestling ring). They do this because
it is a tradition that they do not questions as wrestlers.
Sumo, or traditional Japanese wrestling, has strong historical ties to
When Jews in the United States played and excelled in sports during the last century, their motivation often was to
The popularity of sports among men in Islamic nations is often tied to
Muslim women in sports are active subjects who introduce new ideas about what it means to be a Muslim woman. At the same time, these women
are objects used by people as they debate issues of morality and change.
In the box, “Allah’s Will,” the experiences of Hassiba Boulmerka illustrate that
the bodies of Muslim women are at the center of struggles over values.
The recent Olympic teams that have been least likely to have women athletes are from nations where
most people hold fundamentalist Muslim beliefs.
In India, the Hindus who are most likely to participate in sports are those with
a middle- or upper-caste heritage.
Buddhism and Hinduism don’t support competitive sports because they emphasize
transcending the self and the material world.
The self-proclaimed Christian athlete is unique because
no other religion has an equivalent religious identity.
Research indicates that gold medal winners in the history of the Olympics are most likely to come from backgrounds associated with
Traditional Protestant beliefs favor competitive sports over spontaneous play because sports are
Traditional Protestant religious beliefs emphasize a set of key virtues that
religious beliefs often influence opportunities for females to play sports.
A social constructionist approach to sports and religions is based primarily on
When social constructionists study sports and religions, they assume that meanings associated with each of these spheres of life
change over time and vary from one group to another.
Those who say there are essential and unchanging differences between sport and religion believe that sport is essentially
self-promotional, whereas religion is service- and love-oriented.
When people define sport as a form of religion, they identify similarities between sport and religion. For example, they note that both
When people argue that sport is religion-like, which of the following is NOT one of the similarities they identify?
Both trace their origins to rituals practiced in the Garden of Eden.
Religions share certain characteristics with ideologies, but they differ in that ideologies focus mostly on
In sociological terms, religions are integrated and socially shared beliefs and rituals that people
NCAA data on black female athletes in college sports indicate that
over 70 percent of black women athletes are in basketball or track.
NCAA Division I data show that about 70 percent of black male athletes participate in
Title IX law remains controversial in intercollegiate sports because
it exposes the contradictions of big-time intercollegiate football.
Data on Division I colleges and universities show that women's sports receive
about one third of all money spent on athletic recruiting expenses.
In the discussion of athletes’ rights, it is noted that
athletes have no formal means to challenge violations of their rights.
Which of the following is NOT one of the recommendations to reform intercollegiate sports offered by The Drake Group?
drop sport teams that do not generate revenues
When an emphasis on varsity sports distorts the status system among students in a high school, there is likely to be
Participation rates in varsity high school sports since 1971 show that
girls’ participation has increased but remains lower than boys’ participation.
there is 1 athlete in adapted sports for every 5,000 athletes on varsity teams.
An overemphasis on “sports development” in high school often leads athletes to
specialize in one sport in a way that restricts overall development.
Research by William Bowen and his colleagues indicates that since the 1980s there has been growing tension between university policy decisions that favor college sports and
Recent research suggests that college sport programs have hidden costs that are not included in their financial records. One of the primary indirect costs is that
there is a growing divide between athletic and academic programs.
spending on college sports has increased much more than academic spending.
Recent research on NCAA schools has found that when Division I universities increase their spending on big-time sports,
the win-loss records of their football and basketball teams do not improve.
Recent data indicates that of the 1,900 college athletic programs in the United States,
there are less than 25 that regularly make more money than they spend.
Financial information on big-time intercollegiate sport programs shows that they
are run as businesses but pay no taxes even when they show a profit.
Relying on participation fees to support high school sports
discourages participation among students from low-income families.
The use of corporate sponsorships to support high school sports is risky because
sports could lose funding during economic recessions.
The growth of booster club support for high school teams has led to an increase in
sport participation opportunities at schools in low-income areas.
What percentage of high school budgets are used for varsity sport programs?
The professors who established The Drake Group argue that there will be no meaningful reforms in intercollegiate sports unless
college sports are monitored by an agency independent of the NCAA.
Data on academic support services for athletes suggests that
the services don’t always boost graduation rates for athletes.
Recently passed rules for defining academic progress and graduation rates for NCAA Division I teams shift more responsibility for academic reform to
Data on graduation rates among athletes at Division I universities indicates that
female athletes have higher graduation rates than male athletes.
NCAA data show that graduation rates for athletes are generally lowest among
black male athletes in revenue-producing sports.
Research indicates that "clustering" occurs when athletes in certain sports
are over-represented in specific courses and majors.
The educational mission of higher education is most likely to be achieved among athletes on a
Research done by Patti and Peter Adler indicated that the male athletes in a big-time intercollegiate basketball program
experienced academic detachment after one or two semesters.
Among male athletes in big-time college sport programs, there is a tendency for athletic identities to be given a higher priority than academic identities because of
the social support they receive for athletic participation.
Male athletes on intercollegiate teams are most likely to put their athletic and social lives ahead of academics when they
play on big-time, entertainment-oriented teams.
According to data on college sports,
NCAA Division III has more athletes than any other NCAA division.
When comparing big-time and lower-profile intercollegiate sport programs, it is seen that
very few athletes in lower-profile programs have athletic scholarships.
A study by Doug Foley found that high school sports presented students with a vocabulary that generally promoted values emphasizing
When journalist H.G. Bissinger studied the football team in a well-known Texas high school, he found that high school football was organized in ways that
reaffirmed traditional racial ideology among many whites.
In the box, “Status and Privilege in Student Culture,” it is explained that systematic and chronic bullying is most likely in schools where
In the box, “Status and Privilege in Student Culture,” it is explained that
most high schools have multiple popularity and status criteria.
Research shows that sport participation
usually must be combined with other things to increase a girl's popularity.
A study done in the late 1990s found that young women who played school sports had lower rates of sexual activity than other young women, while young men who played sports had higher rates of sexual activity than other young men. This illustrates that
social factors influence the meanings and consequences of playing sports.
Much of the difference between athletes & other students in high school is due to
selection-in and filtering-out processes.
Research shows that when high school athletes as a group are compared to other high school students, they tend to have
higher grades and more positive attitudes toward school.
The main point of the chapter is that
sports and politics cannot be kept separate.
Politics are part of sports and sport organizations. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of sports that involves political processes?
setting goals and motivating athletes and coaches
To make sense of complex new political realities around the world, we should
study changes on both the global and local levels.
The Nike transnational advocacy network was developed to
force Nike to change its exploitive labor practices in Southeast Asia.
The production of sport equipment and clothing is tied to global political processes. The companies producing these goods often
locate production facilities in nations where labor is cheap.
Which of the following issues is NOT related to athletes as global migrant workers?
the academic success of athletes’ children
The images and messages presented by the sponsors of major sport events tend to
influence what people think about.
As corporations sponsor more of the media coverage of international sports, sports events have become vehicles for presenting messages
Corporate sponsorships of sports are primarily motivated by corporate interest in
promoting a way of life based on consumption and consumerism.
Sports in recent years have become framed in new political terms. Which of the following best describes these terms?
Commercial interests have become increasingly important.
Changes in global politics since 1990 have made international sports
important stages for commercial displays by transnational corporations.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the author suggests that the Olympic motto, “Citius, Altius, Fortius,” should be replaced by a new motto that emphasizes
the interests of all humanity.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” it is noted that the major advantage for using multiple sites for each Olympic Games would be to
increase the value of stocks for major world-wide airlines.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the table showing total medal counts from 1896 to 2004 indicates that when the size of nations is taken into account,
the United States is not rated in the top 25.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the author endorses the elimination of national medal counts because such counts tend to
intensify nationalism and political differences between countries.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” which of the following is NOT a change recommended for reforming the Olympic Games?
eliminate the opening and closing ceremonies
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” Bruce Kidd, a former Olympian and now a physical educator, suggests that the Olympics be changed so that
the service of athletes is central in athlete selection and media coverage.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” the author explains that the Olympics are now designed primarily to
promote the commercial interests of corporate sponsors.
In the box, “Olympism and the Olympic Games,” it is noted that the current method of selling media broadcasting rights to the Olympic Games
Sports are likely to foster meaningful cultural exchanges between nations when
people share information equally and develop mutual understanding.
A problem associated with using sports to bridge diplomatic and cultural gaps between peoples of the world is that sports may
encourage developing nations to depend more on wealthy nations.
Nationalistic themes in media coverage of international sports are now accompanied and sometimes obscured by images and narratives that promote
social justice and human rights.
The history of sports, especially the Olympic Games, shows that the main purpose underlying participation in international sports by most nations has been to
pursue national political interests.
Data on connections between sports and international relations suggest that sports
are most often used as forms of public diplomacy.
Government officials are most likely to use sports as a diplomatic tool when
there is a need for public expressions of unity between different nations.
Government involvement in sports is usually connected with
power struggles between groups in a society or community.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for government intervention in sports?
When governments sponsor sports and political officials associate themselves with sports, their primary purpose is often to
increase their legitimacy in the eyes of citizens.
When Germany hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Hitler used the Olympic Games to
promote the Nazi ideology of “Nordic supremacy.”
When government involvement in sports is intended to promote identity& unity, it
usually benefits some people more than others.
Sports do bring people together and create “emotional unity,” but a sociological understanding of the significance of this unity requires that we ask questions about
the long-term political consequences of the unity.
Many governments pay cash rewards to athletes who win Olympic medals because
wins by athletes bring prestige and other benefits to the whole country.
The belief that participation in competitive sports lowers health care costs is
challenged by research on actual consequences of sport participation.
Research shows that if maintaining health and fitness is the goal, a nation should sponsor sports that are
noncompetitive and have aerobic benefits.