1. How do many traditional psychologists use general terms such as intelligence, attitude, and personality? Illustrate with an example.
to give a general description of the causes of certain behaviours. (PAGE 2)
Example: “Jonny has excellent grades because of his good attitude”
2. What is a behavioral perspective of such traditional psychological terms as intelligence, attitude, and personality? Illustrate a behavioral interpretation of one of the terms with reference to an example.
From a behavioral perspective, these terms are views as summary labels for behavior,not an explanation for the behaviour (PAGE 2)
Example: kid who is always late and talks when the coach is talking, can be labeled with bad attitude, but it doesnt explain the cause of the behaviours.
3. A behavioral deficit is too little behavior of a particular type and is a main cause to why athletes seek help from a sport psychologist. 2 examples of behavioral deficits that are not listed in the text include:
A squash player who frequently practices their forehand shot while avoiding practicing their backhand shot.
A football quarterback who doesn’t practice throwing drills to receivers during a practice.
4. A behavioral excess is too much behavior of a particular type and is also a main cause to why athletes seek help from a sport psychologist. 2 examples of behavioral excess that are not listed in the text include:
A hockey player who continually checks an opponent into the boards after the whistle is blown.
A basketball player who pushes an opponent every time they score a basket.
5. What is behavioral sport psychology?
is a vein of psychology, which involves the use of behavior analysis principles and techniques to enhance the performance and satisfaction of athletes and others associated with sports. (Page 4)
6. According to many psychologists, what does the word cognition mean?
As used by psychologists, the word cognition means “belief”, “thought”, “expectancy”, and “attitude”
7. What assumptions does the author make concerning cognitions?
Cognitions are assumed to be covert behaviours, and it is assumed that the behavioural principles and techniques that apply to overt behaviours are also applicable to covert behaviours. (PAGE 6)
8. What three questions does social validity address?
What do the athletes (and perhaps the coach and parents) think about the goals of the intervention?
What do they think about the procedures suggested by the consultant?
What do they think about the results produced by those procedures?
9. Define unconditioned reflex. Give two examples of an unconditioned reflex:
is a stimulus-response sequence in which a stimulus elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning. example, you are cutting vegetables and accidentally cut your finger, which causes bleeding. The cut was a stimulus and the bleeding was a response. example would be if someone eats something hot or spicy, it causes him or her to have a runny nose. The hot or spicy food is a stimulus and the runny nose is the response. In both cases together the stimulus and response form an unconditioned reflex.
10. What are two other names for respondent conditioning?
Classical & Pavlovian conditioning
11. State the procedure and result of respondent conditioning.
Procedure: pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. Result: neutral stimulus acquires ability to elicit a response that was elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
2. In a sentence each, briefly state five variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex.
The greater the number of pairings of a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus, the greater the conditioned stimulus is to elicit the conditioned response, until maximum strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached
Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by just a second, rather than by a longer time, or rather than by following the US.
A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with a given US, that if it only occasionally is paired with the US.
When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense, rather than weak.
13. In respondent conditioning, what does each of the following stands for: NS, US, UR, CS, and CR?
NS – Neutral Stimulus
US – Unconditioned Stimulus
UR – Unconditioned Response
CS – Conditioned Stimulus
CR – Conditioned Response
14. What is the name of the part of our nervous system that is influenced by respondent conditioning?
the autonomic nervous system, which includes an individual’s heart rate, breathing, digestion, and glandular activity
15. Describe the procedure and result of positive reinforcement.
The procedure of positive reinforcement is the presentation of a reinforcer immediately after a behaviour; the effect or result is the behaviours being strengthened.
16. Define conditioned reinforcer. Describe two sport examples of conditioned reinforcers that are not in Chapter 3.
A stimulus that was not originally reinforcing can acquire reinforcing value through pairing with other reinforcers. Conditioned reinforcers (secondary or learned reinforcers) are stimuli that acquire reinforcing value. E.g. scoring a goal in hockey or winning a running race
7. Distinguish between a natural reinforcer and a deliberately-programmed reinforcer. Illustrate each with an example not in the chapter.
Natural reinforcer: reinforcers that immediately follow behaviour in the normal course of everyday life Ex: putting on sweater =warm
Deliberately-programmed reinforcers: When reinforcers are deliberately manipulated in oder to change behaviour Ex: get a sticker when equipment is put away quickly
18. Define the procedure and result of operant extinction. Give example.
procedure: withholding of a reinforcer following a previously reinforced response.
result: the response decreases in frequency when reinforcement for that response ceases.
Example – A hockey player calling for the puck, but he never gets the puck passed to him. This results in him never calling for the puck.
9. What are the 2 differences between the effects of continuous versus intermittent reinforcement?
Individuals are likely to work much more consistently on certain intermittent schedules of reinforcement than on continuous reinforcement.
A behavior that has been reinforced intermittently is likely to take much longer to extinguish than a behavior that has been reinforced continuously. If a behavior takes a long time to extinguish, we say that it is resistant to extinction.
20. Define fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. Give example.
type of intermittent reinforcement where the reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of certain responses are emitted.
Example – After a gymnast has done her rings routine 3 times in entirety, she gets free time on the trampoline.
21. Define each of the following and give an example for each that is not from the textbook
a) Good stimulus control: Also known as effective stimulus control, refers to a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a particular response.... when the stimulus occurs, the response is likely to follow. Good stimulus control develops as a result of a behavior having been reinforced in the presence of a particular stimulus. Ex. For a female volleyball player: After being told many times by the coach to SPIKE the volleyball with an open hand (like a "hi-five" with fingers spread wide) and to SERVE with a closed hand (like a "hi-five" with fingers together). The stimulus of the SERVING line exerts control over the behavior of closing hand. While the stimulus of attacking/spiking position exerts control over the behavior of opening hand. (PAGE 27)
b) Discriminative stimulus/SD: Refers to an event correlated with availability of a reinforcer for a particular operant behavior. A signal that a particular response will pay off. Ex. Using the example from 13a: the signal of the serving line was a discriminative stimulus, a cue that closing hand would result in a more consistent/successful serve. (PAGE 28)
c) Extinction stimulus/SE: An event correlated with extinction trials for a particular operant behavior. A signal that a particular behavior would not pay off. Ex. Again, using example from 13a. the stimulus of the serving line was an extinction stimulus for serving with an OPEN hand. (PAGE 28)
22. List 5 dimensions of behaviour that can be shaped. Give examples for each that is not found in the textbook.
1.) Form/topography (PAGE 32) *** This is an example of SHAPING in the dimension of FORM***
In teaching a young hockey player to stop violating the offside rule (the rule states that a player must not cross the offender's blue line before the puck does), a coach may begin by praising the child when she is in the offside position but does not touch the puck and then withhold praise when she does touch the puck in the offside position, which causes the referee to blow his whistle. As time goes on, the coach may progress and only praise when the player goes into an offside position and then realizes her violation and crosses back over without help. Lastly, the coach will finish forming the players behavior by only praising when the child stops herself from even going into an offside position altogether. THEREFORE THE FORM BEING SHAPED IS OFFSIDE BEHAVIOR.
2.)Frequency (PAGE 33) Ex. modifying the number of kilometers a soccer player runs a week in order to increase stamina
3.) Duration (PAGE 33) Ex. modifying the amount of time a football player studies their playbook in order to increase mental game.
4.) Intensity/Force (PAGE 33) Ex. modifying the force a boxer creates with his/her punch.
5.) Latency/reaction time (PAGE 33) Ex. modifying the reaction time between when the opponent spikes the ball and when the player dives to pass the ball up.
23. List the three steps typically followed in an application of shaping.
The 3 steps typically followed in an application of shaping are:
Identify the final desired behavior in terms of one or more of its dimensions. Example, Its form (such as the defenseman making body contact sufficiently to take the oncoming forward out of the play), frequency, duration, intensity or latency.
Identify a starting behavior that the individual currently emits and that approximates the target behavior (such as the defenseman moving the same direction as the forward).
Reinforce successive approximations from the starting behavior to the final desired behavior across trials (as indicated previously with the young defenseman).
24. List the three steps typically followed in the total task chaining strategy. Were these steps followed by Steve to improve his pre-putt routine (beginning of chapter 3). Defend your answer.
The 3 steps typically followed in the total task chaining strategy are:
List the sequence of responses (or components or stimulus-response links) in the order in which they should occurs in the chain.
Arrange practice opportunities in which the athlete is instructed to perform the entire sequence in the proper order on each occasion.
Provide corrective feedback and positive reinforcement as needed until the chain occurs correctly several times in succession.
Yes, these steps were used to improve Steve's pre-putt routine. First, Steve listed the sequence of responses:
While standing behind the ball, Steve would look at the spot that he was aiming at, take two practice strokes, and visualize the ball rolling in the hole.
He then moved beside the ball, placed his putter head behind the ball, and adjusted it so that it was aiming at the desired spot.
He next adjusted his feet so that they were parallel to the putting line, gripped the putter in the usual way, and said to himself, "Stroke it smooth".
Steve then looked at the ball, looked at the spot at which he was aiming, looked back at the ball, and then stroked the putt.
Steve then arranged practice opportunities. He first started with short putts with his routine, the putts from different lengths.
Finally, he provided corrective feedback and positive reinforcement by on each trial, a friend checked off the steps on a checklist as they were performed and computer a number of trials at the practice green where he consistently practiced the above routine.
25. Describe four categories of punishers. Give a sport example of each.
Physical punishment includes all punishers, contingent on behavior, that pain receptors or other sensory receptors, which typically evoke feelings of discomfort. Physical punishers are unconditioned punishers and are also referred to as aversive stimuli.
Reprimands are strong negative verbal stimuli contingent upon behavior. Reprimands are conditioned punishers
Timeout involves transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to a less reinforcing situation following a particular behavior. Timeout might also be thought of as a timeout from the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, and is a conditioned punisher.
Response cost involves the removal of a specified amount of reinforcer following a particular behavior, and is a conditioned punisher.
26. List two differences between operant behaviour and respondent behaviour (any two of the differences listed in table 3-2).
Results of conditioning - response is more likely to occur to the neutral stimulus, now called a conditioned stimulus
Results of extinction - The conditioned stimulus loses the ability to elicit the stimulus response.
27) What is the procedure for establishing an S
? for establishing a C
Stimulus Discrimination training refers to: (a) the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of an SD and extinguishing that response in the presence of an SE, and (b) the result that the response occurs to the SD, and not to the SE. When the latter occurs, the individual is showing stimulus discrimination. (not paying attention to what it required to be done)
28. Describe the procedure and result of both operant and respondent extinction.
Operant: Procedure: a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer Result: response is less likely to occur to the former discriminative stimulus Respondent: Procedure: the CS is no longer pair with the US; Result: the CS loses the ability to produce the CR
29. Define contingency-learned behaviour and give a sport example that is not in the chapter.
behavior that has been strengthened (or weakened) in settings by the direct effects of consequences in those settings. Example: A football player learns how much power to put into his throw when trying to pass the ball across the field to his fellow teammate. (Behavior is strengthened based on trial and error)
30. Define rule-governed behaviour and give a sport example that is not in the chapter.
Rule-governed behaviour - behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule. Example: Football players during practice are told that only those who successfully make 8 out of 10 of their passes get to play in the scrimmage at the end of practice.
31. Describe two typical differences between contingency-learned versus rule-governed learned.
Contingency Learned Behavior is typically strengthened gradually through trial and error, while the presentation of a rule frequently leads to immediate behavior change.
Contingency Learned Behavior involves immediate consequences, while Rule-Governed Behavior often involves delayed consequences.
32. What are the two reasons that the rule, “I’m going to eat healthier and lose some weight,” is so difficult to follow for many people?
The benefits from a single instance of exercise aren’t noticeable, the reinforcement is delayed.
Punishers for failing to follow a rule are small and only cumulatively significant. The immediate negative effects of excessive eating are too small to be noticeable.
33. What are four characteristics of rules that are often effective in controlling behaviour?
Rules should be within the understanding of the individual to whom they are applied.
Rules should describe probable and sizable outcomes, rather than improbable and small outcomes.
Complex rules should be broken into easy-to-follow steps.
Rules should be gradually faded out if you want other stimuli that are present to take control of the behavior.
Rules should clearly identify: a- the circumstances in which the behavior should occur, b- the specific behavior in which the individual is to engage, c- a deadline for performing the behavior d- the specific consequences for complying or not complying with the rules.
34. A mastery criterion is typically formulated so that what two assumptions are likely to be met?
Athlete learns the skill well enough that if asked to do it sometime later, the skill would be performed correctly
There is a high probability that the skill will be executed correctly during a competition
35. According to Hayes and colleagues, why is public goal setting likely to be more effective than private goal setting?
Public goals for a person are goals that at least one other person, and usually several more, are aware of. Setting a public goal provides a public standard against which performance can be evaluated, and that it implies social consequences for achieving or no achieving the goal(s).
36. From a behavioural perspective, what is the meaning of commitment in the context of goal setting? Give a sports example that illustrates all three components of commitment.
Commitment refers to the statement or actions by a person setting a goal that imply that the goal is important, that he/she will work towards it, and that he/she recognizes the benefits of doing so.
A runner who makes it public to peers/coaches that he intends to shave 1 minute off his best time for the mile run will imply that his goal is important
He does extra strength training exercises and drills, runs extra laps around the track everyday, and aims to shave at least a few seconds off his best time every week. These small steps will help him work towards his goal.
He reviews the benefits of achieving his goal such as increased fitness, greater endurance, and greater speed.
37. Describe the three main components of the motivation package that Connie applied to approve that practice performance of the speed skaters.
The three main components of the motivation package that Connie applied to improve the practice performance of the speed skaters are:
Goal-Setting – setting weekly goals for number of laps skated and drills completed and use their weekly goals to set written daily practice goals for each behavior.
Self-Monitoring – they recorded their daily performance in their logbooks and evaluated their performance at the end of each practice.
Performance Feedback – they met with Connie once per week to discuss their progress and receive feedback.
38. What is an ABC assessment?
** Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences Operant behavior is prompted by antecedents (SD or SE) and is strengthened or weakened by its consequences (reinforcers, or lack there of them during operant extinction, and punishers). Identifying the antecedents and consequences that influence a particular OPERANT behavior is sometimes referred to as an ABC (antecedent, behavior, consequence) assessment. If we want to know why a particular behavior is occurring or not occurring, we would examine the current antecedents and consequences for that behavior. To change behaviors, the feedback system can be rearranged so the contingencies experienced by SD for desirable practice behaviors rather than current unfocused practice behaviors. (PAGE 56)
39. In general, what is performance feedback?
In general, performance feedback is a consequence of an operant behavior that can influence: a) future instances of that behavior and/or b) future instances of an alternative behavior. (PAGE 56)
40. What is proprioceptive feedback? Describe an example that was not in this chapter that illustrates how proprioceptive feedback could enable an athlete to successfully repeat a previously learned athletic skill.
Proprioceptive feedback is the internal stimulation generated from movement. It is a type of performance feedback.
An example of proprioceptive feedback can be seen with a young hockey player learning to look at the target in which he is shooting at and not the puck. First the young athlete would learn to shoot by looking down and watching his stick hit the puck. Because of proprioceptive feedback and becoming aware of his/her body position and movements after learning this skill the athlete would be able to shoot the puck in the same motion as before, but this time looking at the target in which they are shooting.
41. What is external feedback? Describe a sport example that was not in this chapter.
External informational feedback is a judgment provided to an athlete about the quality of performance that the athlete has just displayed.
A downhill skier will have an idea if they've had a good race or not, but will not know exactly until they receive their time from the timekeeper at a race. This or the score given by a judge for an Olympic ski jumper are examples of external informational feedback.
42. What are two reasons that public posting of practice performance might be more effective as a motivator than the athlete’s private monitoring of performance?
Public postings of performance can be effective in stimulating peer interactions to reinforce increased output. It can also serve as an important reminder to coaches to provide praise for progress.
43. What is meant by “recruitment of positive feedback?” Illustrate with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
Recruitment of positive feedback: a strategy to improve performance that involves an individual emitting desirable behavior, and then telling someone about it in order to receive positive feedback. Ex. A basketball player spends hours working on his free throw and tells the press about so he’ll be known as a hard worker.
44. Define behavioural assessment:
Behavioral assessment is concerned with:
Identifying and describing the target behavior (the behavior to be changed)
Identifying possible causes of the behavior
Selecting an appropriate treatment strategy to modify the behavior
Evaluating treatment outcomes.
Additional information: Behavioral assessment emerged (as an alternative to traditional psychological tests) to help clients identify specific target behaviors that occur under specific circumstances; we can obtain specific assessment information and select effective treatments for the client.
45. Define “target behaviour.” What target behaviours for swimmers were selected by coach Kaldwell?
A Target Behavior is the behavior to be changed in a behavioral program.
The two target behaviors selected by the coach were:
Failing to execute a racing turn (the kids would swim, touch the bulkhead and swim back without doing a proper turn)
Stopping momentarily during a set (the kids would stop and touch down in
the middle of the set, adjust their goggles, check on their friends, etc). (PAGE 67 & 68)
46. What are the four possible causes of slumps identified by Taylor? Briefly describe a specific sport example of each.
Slumps may have a physical cause. Loss of visual acuity, for example, could certainly affect a batter’s ability to hit a ball.
Slumps may be the result of some slight change in the athlete’s technique. A golfer may be unaware of the fact that the way that she grips the golf club has changed subtly over time, and yet that change in grip could cause considerable change in the outcome of the golf shots.
Slumps might be caused by slight changes in the equipment used in a particular sport. Taylor described a case of an alpine ski racer who experienced a significant deterioration in performance during the latter half of the season. This cause was eventually determined to be worn ski boots that affected the way that the racer stood on his skis.
If an athlete in a slump comes to you for help, and if you can rule out physical, technique and equipment causes of the slump, then a sport specific behavioral checklist might be appropriate to determine if a slump is due to inadequate mental preparation. Having a death in the family causes upset and mental disturbances in an athlete, which can disturb ones, performances in any sport.
47. List six objective dimensions for describing behaviour:
1. Topography: differences in judgments of quality are based on topography, such as when a figure skating jump that is landed on one foot is considered better than when that jump is landed on two feet.
2. Frequency (or rate): Many general evaluations of whether or not an athlete is good or poor at something relate to how many times the athlete tends to emit some behavior in a given period of time. Someone who is considered a good offensive basketball player is someone who shows a high frequency of making baskets in a game. An athlete who is said to be a good “team player” is likely someone who shows high frequencies of doing whatever it is that the coach asks and displaying supportive behavior to teammates.
3. Duration: The longer an athlete can perform a technique, such as long distance runner, for example, is noted to be a better athlete than someone who cannot run as long as the longer duration runner.
4. Intensity (or force): The harder a volleyball player can spike a volleyball, the harder it is for the opponent players to return the ball, dealing with quick return of the ball on their court. Having a weaker spike allows the opponents to easily retrieve the ball as where the harder spike is noted as a better spike, therefore the athlete with the harder spike is considered better.
5. Stimulus control: being able to perform a block in volleyball, which will avoid the ball from potentially going over the net and hitting the court. Performing this block controls that the ball won’t end on the court or avoids having someone else dig up that ball, potentially leading to a point for the opposing team if that player does not dig up the ball in time. 6. Latency: A runner, who leaves the blocks very quickly after the firing of the starter’s pistol, might be considered to have a “good” start while a runner who shows a longer patency had a “poor” start.
48. What are two reasons for being specific in the identification of target behaviours?
- it helps to ensure the reliability of detecting improvements in the behaviour
- it increases the likelihood that your treatment program will be applied consistently
49. Briefly describe four strategies for monitoring target behaviours.
Direct observation of a single behaviour: directly monitored by an observer. Ex: swimming stroke errors, skating speed, performance of D-zone .
Behavioural checklists to record multiple behaviors: consultants or researchers have designed checklists that enable observers to easily monitor multiple behaviors of an individual. A checklist can have picture prompts. Ex: checklist for components of moves in ballet, task analysis for tackling in high school football, checklist of coaches behavior at a timeout
Athlete self monitoring: Examples include: monitoring laps swam during swimming practice, jumps and spins performed by figure skaters and good shots in golf.
Videotaping or target behaviours: can be used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of opponents. Also, provides a permanent record of the behavior for observational analysis. Examples: videotaping a defensive skill during practice, pass blocking in football, correct reads, drops, passing, positioning and angling in hockey power play
50. What is a baseline? Briefly describe the baseline conditions in Coach Keedwell’s program with swimmers.
the target behaviours’ level prior to the introduction of the intervention.
- The baseline conditions in Coach Keedwell’s program with swimmers were the total number of missed turns and unscheduled stops of the swimmers (approx. 140 per practice, approx. 23 times per swimmer).
51. List two practical limitations to conceptualizing motivation as an internal cause of behaviour.
The suggestion that the causes of behaviour lie within us might influence some coaches to blame athletes for inferior athletic performances rather than examining the principles and procedures for changing behaviour and the enormous amount of data demonstrating that application of those principles can effectively modify behaviour.
It may influence some athletes to blame themselves for inferior athletic performances rather than examining potential self-management strategies for improving their performances.
52. What is a general meaning of the verb “to motivate” as used in sports? What is an implication of this approach?
- means to influence individuals to behave in various ways.
- An implication of this perspective is that motivational strategies are to be found primarily in environmental contingencies concerning behavior, not within the individual.
53. Describe an example that is not in this chapter to illustrate how an athlete might use imagery to motivate practice performance.
A basketball player practicing free throws might use imagery to motivate his practice performance by imagining that his team was trailing by one point in the final seconds and his free throw determined the fate of the game. By using imagery, the athlete creates a pressure game in which imagery motivated him to approach his free throw practice with a maximum of concentration, and an increased desire to make every single throw.
54. Is deliberate use of reinforcement by coaches bribery? Defend your position.
Definition of bribery: A reward or gift offered to induce one to commit an immoral or illegal act.
The use of reinforcement by coaches is in no way bribery as the coaches deliberately use a reinforcement program to strengthen desirable rule-governed behavior, and not to commit an illegal or immoral act. For example, a coach of a youth ice hockey team offers the players the opportunity to earn an extra 15 minutes of scrimmage time at the end of practice if they each make five accurate passes during a passing drill. The reinforcer (extra scrimmage time) is promised for desirable behaviors (making 5 accurate passes each). (PAGE 91)
55. What does it mean to suggest that extrinsic reinforcement undermines intrinsic motivation? Illustrate with an example.
Some people suggest that the use of extrinsic reinforcers to strengthen a behavior will undermine the intrinsic motivation to perform that behavior. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are those in which there is no apparent reward except for the activity itself. Beginning in the 1970's, Deci and others conducted experiments that seemed to imply that the use of extrinsic (or deliberately managed reinforcers) to increase behavior may undermine intrinsic motivation to perform that behavior. An example would be that if parents give money to a child for reading, then the child would be less likely to "read for reading's sake". (PAGE 93)
56. What is a CMO? Illustrate with an example.
A Conditioned Motivating Operation is an MO that alters the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcers or punishers because of prior learning.
- example would be a golfer who used imagery to create a pressure game by imagining himself competing in the Masters, he was administering a CMO to himself. The pressure game increased the reinforcing value of making a putt as a conditioned reinforcer, and increased the likelihood of focusing appropriately to make the putt. In this example of CMO. An antecedent variable altered the reinforcing effectiveness of behavioral consequences, and increased behavior that led to those consequences.
57. How does a CMO differ from an SD? Illustrate an example not from text.
-in a CMO the reinforcer is made more important by increasing the value of it with imagination (administering a CMO on the situation). In the situation of an SD, it refers to an event correlated with the availability of a reinforcer for a particular operant behavior. A signal that a particular response will pay off. The reinforcer in this situation is set and will only be as effective as it is for the operant behavior.
58. In a sentence, summarize, form a behavioural perspective, four steps that a coach might follow to motivate athlete.
In order to motivate athletic performance in athletes, coaches are encouraged to arrange antecedents to prompt motivated behavior, manipulate MOs to maximize the effectiveness of reinforcers for motivated behavior, describe the environmental arrangements in appropriately stated rules prior to practices and competitions, and to provide reinforcers following motivated behavior.
59. How might stimulus generalization have been involved in the application with basketball players described at the beginning of this chapter?
- by using mental rehearse.
-The players would rehearse the task so many time that it would automatically come to mind when having to cut off a player.
60. In a sentence or two, describe what is meant by “mental rehearsal.”
-the process of imagining and feeling oneself performing an activity. If performed as recommended by experts on imagery training for athletes, mental rehearsal should include both respondent imagery (seeing) and operant imagery (feeling).
61. Distinguish between internal vs. external imagery.
As part of mental rehearsal, internal imagery refers to “feeling” oneself performing whereas external imagery refers to “watching” oneself performing.
62. Describe an example (that was not in this chapter) to illustrate how an athlete might use visualization at practices to promote generalization of a skill to competitions.
gymnast visualizes herself catching all her throws at practices. does same at competitions.
63. List three ways that athletes might use mental imagery and/or visualization to enhance competitive performance.
-Mental rehearsal of skills just before performing - imagery for emotional control -imagery to tune out distracters.
64 What is meant by the term "mood words"? Illustrate with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
-words that elicit emotional feelings, which have been associated with past successful performances. -Some examples for rugby are: crunch, create more force, drive, might, explode, rock-hard, solid. (PAGE 110)
65. Describe 3 functions which self-talk might serve for enhancing an athlete’s performance of a skill. Illustrate each with a sport example.
Can help the athlete to focus on what they should do “now”, and not what they shouldn’t be doing. Ex: “Transfer your weight and rip this shot into the net”
The athlete should use a few key words to prompt specific positions or movements in order to perform the skill properly. Ex: The above player who is just beginning to learn a wrist shot could go through the motions in segments of key words: “heal” - get the puck on heal of blade, “pull back” - pull the puck back and transfer weight to back foot, “transfer and follow” - transfer weight back forward at the same time as he “flicks” his bottom wrist and “aims” at the net.
An athlete can use self-talk just before executing a skill at practice and competitions, in order to help transfer that skill from practices to competitions. For example, when the above player is going into a game he can run through his key words for his wrist shot right before going on the ice and when he shoots the puck in the game if he can quickly talk himself through the motion the stimulus generalization from practice to game will help carry over the skill.
66. What is meant by the term "key word"? Describe a sport example that is not in this chapter.
Key words serve as discriminative stimuli to prompt particular body positions or focus of attention. Some examples for swimmers are: calm and composed, stretch every stroke, kick like a dolphin, etc. (PAGE 115)
67. List the three components of a strategy used with professional hockey players to help them stay focused when sitting on the bench in between shifts on the ice. Describe examples of self-talk for the last two components.
Relax, Regroup, Refocus (PAGE 118)
Examples for the last two components:
REGROUP - rehearse general self-talk to put the last shift behind them and get ready for the next shift
Ex. "That one's gone forever," "The rest of my game starts now," "Get ready for the next shift."
REFOCUS - review some key words to help them be properly focused for the next shift
Ex. "I'll jump on loose pucks," "I'll finish my checks," "I'll shoot quick."
68. In a sentence each, summarize three important characteristics of our emotions, and name the type of conditioning involved in each.
The reaction that an athlete feels inside during the experience of an emotion, influenced by respondent conditioning (ex. the "butterflies" an athlete feels just before the start of a competition)
The way that one learns to outwardly express an emotion, influenced by operant conditioning (ex. talking fast in an animated fashion when nervous)
How one becomes aware of and describes one's emotions, influenced by operant conditioning (ex. "I'm a little nervous," as opposed to "I'm really mad.")
69. Describe unconditioned reflexes (ie: the US and URs) that appear to characterize the emotions of fear, anger, and joy.
In studies of unconditioned emotional reflexes in newborn infants, Watson observed that the USs of a sudden loss of support, loud sounds, and a sudden push elicited the URs of a sudden catching of breath, a clutching or grasping response, crying that he labeled as fear. USs of hampering an infants movements elicited URs of crying and screaming which he called anger. Where as tickling lead to laughing which he called joy. Cross cultural evidence suggests that such unconditioned emotional reactions are universal for humans.
70. In the experiment with little Albert, what was the US? The UR? The CS? The CR?
Albert was first placed on a rug on the floor with several toys. A white rat was then placed just in front of Albert. While Albert was watching the rat, Watson snuck up behind him and banged a steel bar with a hammer. The loud noise startled little Albert, causing him to cry. In two separate sessions approximately one week apart, Albert experienced a total of seven pairings of the loud noise with the sight of the rat. Then, at the end of the second session when the white rat was reintroduced, Albert cried, trembled, and showed the facial expression characteristic of fear. Albert's fear also generalized to several other items including a rabbit, dog, sealskin coat, and a piece of cotton.
US- Natural fear response
UR- Afraid of loud noises
CS- The Rat
CR- Cry and crawl away
71. Using the model for respondent conditioning, diagram an example (that is not in this book) of respondent conditioning of an emotion in a sport context.
A young gymnast is learning how to round off the balance beam. However, she has fallen off the beam doing this stunt three times in the last practice. Now preparing to perform a round off on the beam has become a CS that elicits fear and nervousness as a CR. (PAGE 123 & 124)
73. In a sentence each, briefly describe four strategies for changing the body’s reactions to stressful events.
a) Controlled breathing: centering – martial arts procedure that focuses on thought control, a particular way of breathing, and muscle relaxation. b) Maintain a sense of humour – joking around results in less tension c) Progressive muscle relaxation – alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while paying close attention to the sensations that are felt. d) Visualizing a relaxing scene – effective way in combating excessive nervousness. (PAGE 130-134)
Q. 12) Define or describe each of the following:
Deep Centre Breathing - martial arts procedure that focuses on thought control, a particular way of breathing, and muscle relaxation
Progressive Muscle Relaxation - alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while paying close attention to the sensations that are felt (PAGE 131)
75. Define “choking” as the term is used in sports. Describe an example that was not in this chapter.
A critical deterioration in the execution of habitual processes as a result of an elevation of anxiety levels under perceived pressure, leading to substandard performance. Basically “blowing it.” Example – A volleyball player is up to serve for the game winning point of the high school provincial finals. She puts her serve right into the net. (PAGE 134)
Q. 15) List the four steps that have characterized successful anger management programs used with athletes.
Identify Anger Causing Situations
Teach substitute behaviours to compete with anger
Practice substitute behaviour using imagery/simulations/role playing
Use coping skills in competitive situations, with monitoring/supportive contingencies.
76. Define task analysis.
breaking a skill into its component parts so that it can be taught effectively, and improvements can be accurately monitored.
77. Briefly describe two strategies for ensuring that young athletes understand what it is the coach wants them to do.
First, after explaining a drill to be performed, the coach should then check the athlete’s knowledge by asking specific questions to see if they understand. Second, the best approach is to show and tell simultaneously, especially with beginners. While demonstrating (modeling) the correct skill, the coach might describe the specific body movements and subtleties that the beginner would otherwise miss. (PAGE 149-150)
78. Describe two types of natural reinforcers. Give an example of each.
1. sensory feedback that is inherent in the performance of a task. This involves the visual, tactile and auditory sensations that come from performing a task well. For example, watching a baseball arch to the outfield after a solid hit, or seeing the basketball drop through the hoop and the sound of the swish of the net.
2. the "natural" reaction of others. For example, the roar of the crowd after a touchdown or the cheer of a teammate after a good play.
79. What are two reasons for encouraging coaches to capitalize on reinforcers?
The more beginners experience natural reinforcers of a skill, the greater the likelihood that they will practice that skill on their own.
To program generalization of a skill from practices to competitions, and for maintaining it in the long run
80. Using sport examples that are not in this chapter, distinguish between contingent and non-contingent reinforcement.
When a behavior must occur before a reinforcer will be presented, we say that the reinforcer is contingent upon that behavior. Example: In boxing, the coach tells the boxers that they can spar at the end of the class (an activity which the boxers love) if they can perform the drills without making an error.
On the other hand, if a reinforcer is presented at a particular time, irrespective of the preceding behavior, we say that the reinforcer is non-contingent. Example: In boxing, the coach tells the boxers that during the last 10 minutes of the class they can have a sparring match. (PAGE 155-156)
81. Distinguish between prescriptive praise and regular or non-prescriptive praise. Give an example of each that are not in this chapter.
A regular or non-prescriptive praise is a simple positive comment that shows that the athlete has done a good job. While a prescriptive praise is when the coach identifies the aspect of the athlete’s performance that was desirable or that indicated improvement. Prescriptive praise can be very useful when a coach wants to encourage an athlete to concentrate on a particular component of a skill.
- An example of a regular praise: “Good work Bill!” or “Very good!”
- An example of a prescriptive praise in basketball: “Good footwork on the cross there! You faked left and stepped right, very good!” (PAGE 155-156)
82. If a young athlete is making errors at a practice because of a lack of natural reinforcers for correct performance, what error correction strategy might be applied?
If a young athlete knows how to perform skills correctly, however they are making a lot of mistakes at practice, then there may be insufficient natural reinforcers to correct their performance. If this happens then the coach should assess whether or not reinforcers that are available are being used effectively. For example if reinforcers are contingent with desirable performance (rather than happening incontinently.) If the use of contingent reinforcers for performing without error leads to improved performance by the athlete after several practices, then slowly the athlete would be weaned from the extra reinforcers so that hopefully natural reinforcers for improved performance can take over.
83. When might it be necessary to use a multiple-component error correction program (such as that researched by Koop & Martin with swimmers) to decrease errors?
The multi-component package incorporates awareness training, instruction, self-talk, mastery criterion and immediate feedback. This may be needed when an athlete has been making errors for a long time and it can be very hard to get rid of the habit since the athlete may be resistant to the change. For example with swimmers, they swim so many laps that if they were making the same error every practice for a year that would be a huge amount and it may be difficult to take away the error. The multi-component package helped significantly.
84. From the material in this chapter, describe three reasons why beginners might make errors or mistakes when executing a previously learned skill.
Lack of focus- they do not attend to appropriate cues just before beginning a skill
Lack of reinforcement- correct performance is not being maintained by natural reinforcers
Persistent, well-learned errors- athletes may have gotten by with errors that are now causing them problems at high levels
85. The behavioral treatment involving the freeze technique appears to involve several behavioral principles including punishment, modeling, rule-governed control over behavior, and positive reinforcement. Speculate about how each of these principles may have been involved.
First, it uses punishment when the response of an athlete performing the skill incorrectly is punished by the coach yelling “freeze!”.
Second, it involves modeling because while the players remain frozen, the coach models the correct and incorrect components.
Third, it uses rule-governed behaviour because while explaining the coach might say something like “to do it correctly, your leg must be bent”, which is used as a partial rule in the future.
Fourth, it involves positive reinforcement because when the players complete the play, the coach praises them for successful completion.
86. In a sentence of two each, describe several possible causes of problem behaviours shown by young athletes at practice.
Possible causes of problem behaviours shown by young athletes at practice include a lack of understanding of what is expected of them at practice, some problem behaviours at practice may be followed by natural reinforcers while desirable alternative behaviours do not have immediate reinforcers and some problem behaviours occur due to the fact that the athlete lacks the skills to earn rewards for skilled athletic performance. Also, some problem behaviours are caused from the process of operant extinction and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions outside of the athletic environment may also be a cause of problem behaviours at practice. (PAGE 176-177)
87. Briefly describe four steps that a coach might take at the beginning of a season to minimize chances of problem behaviours occurring in the first place.
Four steps that a coach might take at the beginning of a season to prevent problem behaviours from occurring in the first place include:
Indentifying reasonable rules concerning desirable and undesirable behaviors of athletes
Identifying consequences for rule violations
Obtaining a commitment from the athletes to follow the rules
Monitoring desirable and undesirable behaviors during the season and providing feedback
88. In several sentences, describe the three steps of the strategy followed by Coach Hume to decrease off-task behaviors of the figure skaters.
Coach Hume’s first step “was to identify specific desirable practice behaviors.” This included the jumps and spins that each individual athlete was expected to work on for 45 minutes. Her second step “was to devise a strategy for the skaters to self-monitor the occurrence of the desirable practice behaviors.” A chart was implemented in this case where athletes could record the quantity and quality of the elements requested. The third step “was to provide feedback to the skaters for improvement.” Summary bars were used at the end of each practice. Identification, treatment and feedback were Coach Hume’s three steps used to decrease off-task behaviors.
89. Define stimulus control. How was stimulus control involved in the program with figure skaters developed by Coach Hume?
Stimulus control refers to the degree of correlation between a stimulus and a behavior.
The chart acted as a stimulus control in the treatment program; it served as a reminder to the athletes to stay focused and provided immediate reinforcement by showing concrete evidence of the athlete’s accomplishments during practice.
90. Define rule-governed control over behavior. How was rule-governed control used by Coach Hume in the program with the figure skaters?
Rule-governed control is a behavior that is controlled by the statement of a rule (which is a statement that a specific behavior will pay off in a particular situation)
The rule developed in the program was “if the target behavior is met, positive reinforcement will be given.” Therefore when the skaters did not slack off, and performed the required elements, they received positive feedback from Coach Hume.
(PAGE 43 & 181)
91. Define positive reinforcement. How was positive reinforcement used by coach Hume in the program with figure skaters?
Positive reinforcement includes a procedure, the presentation of a reinforcer immediately after a behavior, and an effect or result, the behavior is strengthened.
Coach Hume used positive reinforcement in her program with the figure skaters by providing feedback to the skaters for improvement as well as using summary bars and charts so that the skaters could clearly see their progress. Being able to see their improvements by the charts and summary bars, as well as hearing feedback from their coach encouraged them to reproduce the desired behavior more often, thus acting as a positive reinforcer. (PAGE 20 & 182)
92. Briefly describe the educational sign prompting program applied by Yu and Martin to increase ball mark repairing by golfers. Does their program rely on natural reinforcers or deliberately managed reinforcers? Justify your choice.
Dickie Yu introduced an educational sign prompt near the entrance of the clubhouse that contained an explanation of, and photographs of, some unrepaired ball marks, a description of how to repair, and a request that golfers do repair theirs. The sign decreased ball marks by approx. 37%. This program relies on deliberately managed reinforcers because it is a reinforcer that has been arranged by someone else for the purpose of modifying behavior. Using the criteria and information given on the sign the golfers understand that by fixing their ball marks they will receive the reinforcement of a nicer course eventually, and also the reinforcement of seeing the results posted on the sign. If they choose to leave the ball marks they will be withholding themselves from those reinforcements, and also because it is a public sign they may also face the punishment of social consequences from other golfers who disapprove.
93. In two or three sentences, describe the behavioral model of self-management presented in this chapter
This is a two-step model of self-control, self-modification and self-adjustment. The first part of the model requires clear specification of the behavior(s) to be changed. The second part of the model requires that the individual apply behavioral techniques to manage the problem behavior(s). (PAGE 192)
94. List six steps that characterize many programs in self-management.
Set specific behavioral goals for quantity and quality
Increase commitment to change
Design monitoring data sheets for key behaviors
Manage antecedents to motivate desirable behaviors
Manage consequences to motivate desirable behaviors
Prevent relapse and make it last.
95. With behavioural self-management, what is meant by “commitment to change?”
This refers to the statement or actions by an athlete which imply that it is important to improve in a specific area, that he/she will work towards doing so and that he/she recognizes the benefits of doing so.
96. In a sentence or two each, describe three ways of manipulating consequences in self-control programs.
One strategy for manipulating consequences is to eliminate reinforcers that may be maintaining problem behavior that interferes with desired behavior. A second way of manipulating consequences is by self-recording and charting target behavior. A third way of manipulating consequences involves arranging for specific reinforcers to be earned by the athlete for showing improvement, or even just for sticking to the plan – reinforce desirable behaviors (PAGE 199)
97. Describe two possible causes of relapse in situations, and indicate how each might be handled.
One possible cause of relapse is a failure to anticipate setback situations – situations where one is at risk for returning to earlier unwanted behavior patterns. Some setback situations can simply be avoided until the individual is better able to cope with them. If an athlete can avoid setback situations until after some success with the self-management program has been achieved, then that athlete might be better able to cope with situations that provide strong cues for the problem behavior. Another possible cause of relapse is counterproductive self-talk. Recognizing counterproductive self-talk is an important first step in preventing relapse; such self-talk needs to be replaced by other self-talk and/or other behaviors. (PAGE 202)
98. Describe two possible causes of relapse in situations and indicate how each might be handled.
One cause of relapse in self-management programs is a failure to anticipate setback situations-situations where one is at risk for returning to earlier unwanted behavior patterns. Some setback situations can simply be avoided until the individual is better able to cope with them. Another cause of relapse is counterproductive self-talk. Recognizing such counterproductive self-talk is an important first step in preventing relapse. But self-talk needs to be replaced by other self-talk and/or other behaviors. (PAGE 202)
99. Describe a possible cause of relapse in consequences and indicate how it might be handled.
Many athletes begin self-management programs with a great deal of enthusiasm. But after awhile, the extra work from recording and graphing and rearranging the environment, along with the increase in practice activities that such self-management is likely to produce, can become quite burdensome. One way to prevent relapse is to link self-management program to everyday activities that are rewarding. An effective strategy to “make it last” is for the athlete to involve supportive others in the program, both in short term and in the long term. (PAGE 203)
100. What are simulations? Illustrate with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
Simulations refer to making stimuli in the practice environment as similar as possible to the stimuli that will be encountered in the competition.
You may use any example not in book. For example a competitive fencer might watch a videotape of top fencers defensive moves in order to simulate the variety of defensive moves that a fencer may encounter during a tennis match. (PAGE 205)
101. List seven categories of stimuli that are useful for analyzing competitive and practice environments.
Cues from the physical environment
Cues from the behavior of the coach
Cues from the behavior of other athletes
Cues from the level of automatic arousal or degree of anxiousness of the athlete
Proprioceptive cues from the muscles of the athlete
The athletes imagery as cues
The athlete’s self-talk as cues.
102. Pick a sport with which you are familiar. For that sport, describe a plausible “pressure game” that an athlete might play at practices in order to get used to performing under conditions of increased autonomic arousal.
Hockey - Consider a hockey player who getting ready for the playoffs. He sets up some targets in the net, and tells his son that for every target he misses, he will give his son $1. For each target he hits, he will keep that dollar for himself. He does this every day for a week, shooting at 25 targets each day.
(PAGE 206 & 210)
103. Describe the generalization strategy referred to as “programming a few common stimuli”. Illustrate it with a sport example that involves a pre-competition routine that is not in this chapter.
To deliberately bring desired athletic behavior under the control of a few specific stimuli in practices, and to then take those stimuli to the competition. If athletic performance occurs to a specific stimulus in practice, and if that stimulus can be introduced into a competition, then the likelihood of stimulus generalization to the competitive environment is increased.
A basketball player will practice his free throws in a very specific manner. He will go through his routine before each throw. He must also do this during a game, bringing the routine he uses at practice, into the game scenario. This stimulus will help him sink those important baskets.
104. Describe the generalization strategy referred to as “programming a few common stimuli.” Illustrate it with a sport example that involves imagery that is not in this chapter.
involves deliberately bringing desired athletic behaviors under the control of a few specific stimuli in practices, and to then take those stimuli to the competition. If athletic performance occurs to a specific stimulus in practice, and if that stimulus can be introduced into a competition, then the likelihood of stimulus generalization to the competitive environment is increased. An athlete’s self-talk can provide common stimuli between practices and competitions. Example: at practice a basketball player adds the word “breathe” just before taking a foul shot to remind him to relax his arms and not tense up while taking the shot. He will now (PAGE 211)
105. Describe the generalization strategy referred to as “vary the training conditions.” Illustrate it with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
involves conducting practices under a wide variety of conditions. The assumption is that if athletic skills are brought under the control of a greater variety of stimuli during training, then there is an increased probability of some of those stimuli being present during competition.
Example: If a figure skater practices under a variety of audience conditions, she practices performing in front of one person, to performing in front of many, she will be less susceptible to distracters during an actual competition. (PAGE 213)
106. In general, what is peak performance?
refer to an outstanding athletic performance, when an athlete puts it all together. (PAGE 215)
107. From a behavioral perspective, what is confidence and what is it not?
it is summary label that we use to describe athletes who have performed well in recent practices and/or competitions, and who show certain behavior patterns that would be described collectively as illustrating the belief that they will perform well in an upcoming competition. (PAGE 216)
108. What are outcome goals in the context of athletic competitions? Illustrate with two sports examples.
Outcome goals in the context of athletic competitions are goals, which are solely based on results. Two examples would include a hockey player wanting to have the most points for the season or a sprinter wanting to win the 100-meter dash. (PAGE 220)
109. What are execution or process goals in the context of athletic competitions? Illustrate with two sports examples.
Execution or process goals in the context of athletic competitions are goals which require confident athletes to set aside outcome goals in an important game to focus realistically on taking it one step at a time, one play at a time, and on executing to the best of their ability, and as a result of the goals being met, the outcome will take care of itself. Two examples of this would include:
In basketball, setting goals for rebounds, steals, and turnovers rather than winning or getting a certain amount of points.
In football, for linemen they set goals for proper positioning for certain types of plays, and for tackling the ball carrier, rather than yards given up, sacks, or tackles.
110. Describe the inverted-U relationship between arousal and performance.
The inverted U-relationship between physiological arousal and performance describes the ‘zone’ an athlete should be in before a performance/competition. The athlete should not be too laid back nor too pumped up or tense. Rather, the athlete wants to feel both loose and energized at just the right level. (PAGE 222)
111. To what does an optimal level of arousal refer?
An optimal level of arousal refers to the top of the bell curve in the inverted-U relationship between physiological arousal and athletic performance. It is the ‘zone’ where the athlete is loose, with lots of energy, quick reactions, great anticipations and where they are on top of their game. It is the level at which the athlete will perform their best. (PAGE 222)
112. Suppose that an athlete’s level of arousal is far too low for a peak performance to occur. List four things that an athlete can do in increase his/her level of arousal.
Energizing mood woods
Physical actions (giving high fives)
113. Suppose an athlete’s level of arousal is too high for a peak-performance to occur. List four things that an athlete can do to decrease his/her level of arousal.
Muscle tensing and relaxing
Relaxing mood woods
Use of humour
114. Using an example that is not in this chapter, illustrate a solution to the problem of an athlete who has difficulty concentrating during a competition because of worrying about past events.
- a volleyball player gets set up for a spike for the winning point and misses the shot and hits the volleyball into the net. When she thinks about having missed the winning point, then thinking about this past event will interfere with her current concentration.
115. In general, what is a competition plan?
In general, a competition plan refers to those things that an athlete can do, say, think about, concentrate on and attend to on the day of, just before and during the competition that will maximize the chances of the individual performing up to his/her potential. (PAGE 232)
116. What period of time is covered by a competition-focusing plan? Describe an example for a sport.
A competition-focusing plan covers the period of time from the beginning to the end of the competition. For a game like ice hockey, it would be the time from the point at which the puck is dropped at the beginning of the first period through the sound of the final buzzer at the end of the third period.
117. What is the general goal of a competition focusing plan?
The general goal of a competition focusing plan is to ensure that, once a competition begins , the athlete will experience the covert and overt behaviors that characterize optimal performance.
118. What are two aspects of an athlete’s performance should a post-competition evaluation assess?
- athletic performance -mental performance and readiness
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