Sport Psych Exam
Last Modified: 2014-07-21
Example: “Jonny has excellent grades because of his good attitude”
Example: kid who is always late and talks when the coach is talking, can be labeled with bad attitude, but it doesnt explain the cause of the behaviours.
- A squash player who frequently practices their forehand shot while avoiding practicing their backhand shot.
- A football quarterback who doesn’t practice throwing drills to receivers during a practice.
- A hockey player who continually checks an opponent into the boards after the whistle is blown.
- A basketball player who pushes an opponent every time they score a basket.
- What do the athletes (and perhaps the coach and parents) think about the goals of the intervention?
- What do they think about the procedures suggested by the consultant?
- What do they think about the results produced by those procedures?
example, you are cutting vegetables and accidentally cut your finger, which causes bleeding. The cut was a stimulus and the bleeding was a response.
example would be if someone eats something hot or spicy, it causes him or her to have a runny nose. The hot or spicy food is a stimulus and the runny nose is the response. In both cases together the stimulus and response form an unconditioned reflex.
Result: neutral stimulus acquires ability to elicit a response that was elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
- 2. In a sentence each, briefly state five variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex.
- The greater the number of pairings of a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus, the greater the conditioned stimulus is to elicit the conditioned response, until maximum strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached
- Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by just a second, rather than by a longer time, or rather than by following the US.
- A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with a given US, that if it only occasionally is paired with the US.
- When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
- Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense, rather than weak.
- NS – Neutral Stimulus
- US – Unconditioned Stimulus
- UR – Unconditioned Response
- CS – Conditioned Stimulus
- CR – Conditioned Response
- 7. Distinguish between a natural reinforcer and a deliberately-programmed reinforcer. Illustrate each with an example not in the chapter.
Ex: putting on sweater =warm
Deliberately-programmed reinforcers: When reinforcers are deliberately manipulated in oder to change behaviour
Ex: get a sticker when equipment is put away quickly
result: the response decreases in frequency when reinforcement for that response ceases.
Example – A hockey player calling for the puck, but he never gets the puck passed to him. This results in him never calling for the puck.
- 9. What are the 2 differences between the effects of continuous versus intermittent reinforcement?
- Individuals are likely to work much more consistently on certain intermittent schedules of reinforcement than on continuous reinforcement.
- A behavior that has been reinforced intermittently is likely to take much longer to extinguish than a behavior that has been reinforced continuously. If a behavior takes a long time to extinguish, we say that it is resistant to extinction.
Example – After a gymnast has done her rings routine 3 times in entirety, she gets free time on the trampoline.
21. Define each of the following and give an example for each that is not from the textbook
Ex. For a female volleyball player: After being told many times by the coach to SPIKE the volleyball with an open hand (like a "hi-five" with fingers spread wide) and to SERVE with a closed hand (like a "hi-five" with fingers together). The stimulus of the SERVING line exerts control over the behavior of closing hand. While the stimulus of attacking/spiking position exerts control over the behavior of opening hand.
b) Discriminative stimulus/SD: Refers to an event correlated with availability of a reinforcer for a particular operant behavior. A signal that a particular response will pay off.
Ex. Using the example from 13a: the signal of the serving line was a discriminative stimulus, a cue that closing hand would result in a more consistent/successful serve.
c) Extinction stimulus/SE: An event correlated with extinction trials for a particular operant behavior. A signal that a particular behavior would not pay off.
Ex. Again, using example from 13a. the stimulus of the serving line was an extinction stimulus for serving with an OPEN hand.
*** This is an example of SHAPING in the dimension of FORM***
In teaching a young hockey player to stop violating the offside rule (the rule states that a player must not cross the offender's blue line before the puck does), a coach may begin by praising the child when she is in the offside position but does not touch the puck and then withhold praise when she does touch the puck in the offside position, which causes the referee to blow his whistle. As time goes on, the coach may progress and only praise when the player goes into an offside position and then realizes her violation and crosses back over without help. Lastly, the coach will finish forming the players behavior by only praising when the child stops herself from even going into an offside position altogether. THEREFORE THE FORM BEING SHAPED IS OFFSIDE BEHAVIOR.
2.)Frequency (PAGE 33)
Ex. modifying the number of kilometers a soccer player runs a week in order to increase stamina
3.) Duration (PAGE 33)
Ex. modifying the amount of time a football player studies their playbook in order to increase mental game.
4.) Intensity/Force (PAGE 33)
Ex. modifying the force a boxer creates with his/her punch.
5.) Latency/reaction time (PAGE 33)
Ex. modifying the reaction time between when the opponent spikes the ball and when the player dives to pass the ball up.
- Identify the final desired behavior in terms of one or more of its dimensions. Example, Its form (such as the defenseman making body contact sufficiently to take the oncoming forward out of the play), frequency, duration, intensity or latency.
- Identify a starting behavior that the individual currently emits and that approximates the target behavior (such as the defenseman moving the same direction as the forward).
- Reinforce successive approximations from the starting behavior to the final desired behavior across trials (as indicated previously with the young defenseman).
- List the sequence of responses (or components or stimulus-response links) in the order in which they should occurs in the chain.
- Arrange practice opportunities in which the athlete is instructed to perform the entire sequence in the proper order on each occasion.
- Provide corrective feedback and positive reinforcement as needed until the chain occurs correctly several times in succession.
- Yes, these steps were used to improve Steve's pre-putt routine. First, Steve listed the sequence of responses:
- While standing behind the ball, Steve would look at the spot that he was aiming at, take two practice strokes, and visualize the ball rolling in the hole.
- He then moved beside the ball, placed his putter head behind the ball, and adjusted it so that it was aiming at the desired spot.
- He next adjusted his feet so that they were parallel to the putting line, gripped the putter in the usual way, and said to himself, "Stroke it smooth".
- Steve then looked at the ball, looked at the spot at which he was aiming, looked back at the ball, and then stroked the putt.
- Steve then arranged practice opportunities. He first started with short putts with his routine, the putts from different lengths.
- Finally, he provided corrective feedback and positive reinforcement by on each trial, a friend checked off the steps on a checklist as they were performed and computer a number of trials at the practice green where he consistently practiced the above routine.
- Physical punishment includes all punishers, contingent on behavior, that pain receptors or other sensory receptors, which typically evoke feelings of discomfort. Physical punishers are unconditioned punishers and are also referred to as aversive stimuli.
- Reprimands are strong negative verbal stimuli contingent upon behavior. Reprimands are conditioned punishers
- Timeout involves transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to a less reinforcing situation following a particular behavior. Timeout might also be thought of as a timeout from the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, and is a conditioned punisher.
- Response cost involves the removal of a specified amount of reinforcer following a particular behavior, and is a conditioned punisher.
Results of conditioning
- response is more likely to occur to the neutral stimulus, now called a conditioned stimulus
Results of extinction
- The conditioned stimulus loses the ability to elicit the stimulus response.
- 27) What is the procedure for establishing an S
- ? for establishing a C
Respondent: Procedure: the CS is no longer pair with the US; Result: the CS loses the ability to produce the CR
Example: A football player learns how much power to put into his throw when trying to pass the ball across the field to his fellow teammate. (Behavior is strengthened based on trial and error)
30. Define rule-governed behaviour and give a sport example that is not in the chapter.
Example: Football players during practice are told that only those who successfully make 8 out of 10 of their passes get to play in the scrimmage at the end of practice.
- Contingency Learned Behavior is typically strengthened gradually through trial and error, while the presentation of a rule frequently leads to immediate behavior change.
- Contingency Learned Behavior involves immediate consequences, while Rule-Governed Behavior often involves delayed consequences.
- 32. What are the two reasons that the rule, “I’m going to eat healthier and lose some weight,” is so difficult to follow for many people?
- The benefits from a single instance of exercise aren’t noticeable, the reinforcement is delayed.
- Punishers for failing to follow a rule are small and only cumulatively significant. The immediate negative effects of excessive eating are too small to be noticeable.
33. What are four characteristics of rules that are often effective in controlling behaviour?
- Rules should be within the understanding of the individual to whom they are applied.
- Rules should describe probable and sizable outcomes, rather than improbable and small outcomes.
- Complex rules should be broken into easy-to-follow steps.
- Rules should be gradually faded out if you want other stimuli that are present to take control of the behavior.
- Rules should clearly identify: a- the circumstances in which the behavior should occur, b- the specific behavior in which the individual is to engage, c- a deadline for performing the behavior d- the specific consequences for complying or not complying with the rules.
34. A mastery criterion is typically formulated so that what two assumptions are likely to be met?
- Athlete learns the skill well enough that if asked to do it sometime later, the skill would be performed correctly
- There is a high probability that the skill will be executed correctly during a competition
- 35. According to Hayes and colleagues, why is public goal setting likely to be more effective than private goal setting?
- A runner who makes it public to peers/coaches that he intends to shave 1 minute off his best time for the mile run will imply that his goal is important
- He does extra strength training exercises and drills, runs extra laps around the track everyday, and aims to shave at least a few seconds off his best time every week. These small steps will help him work towards his goal.
- He reviews the benefits of achieving his goal such as increased fitness, greater endurance, and greater speed.
- Goal-Setting – setting weekly goals for number of laps skated and drills completed and use their weekly goals to set written daily practice goals for each behavior.
- Self-Monitoring – they recorded their daily performance in their logbooks and evaluated their performance at the end of each practice.
- Performance Feedback – they met with Connie once per week to discuss their progress and receive feedback.
- 38. What is an ABC assessment?
Operant behavior is prompted by antecedents (SD or SE) and is strengthened or weakened by its consequences (reinforcers, or lack there of them during operant extinction, and punishers). Identifying the antecedents and consequences that influence a particular OPERANT behavior is sometimes referred to as an ABC (antecedent, behavior, consequence) assessment. If we want to know why a particular behavior is occurring or not occurring, we would examine the current antecedents and consequences for that behavior. To change behaviors, the feedback system can be rearranged so the contingencies experienced by SD for desirable practice behaviors rather than current unfocused practice behaviors.
40. What is proprioceptive feedback? Describe an example that was not in this chapter that illustrates how proprioceptive feedback could enable an athlete to successfully repeat a previously learned athletic skill.
An example of proprioceptive feedback can be seen with a young hockey player learning to look at the target in which he is shooting at and not the puck. First the young athlete would learn to shoot by looking down and watching his stick hit the puck. Because of proprioceptive feedback and becoming aware of his/her body position and movements after learning this skill the athlete would be able to shoot the puck in the same motion as before, but this time looking at the target in which they are shooting.
A downhill skier will have an idea if they've had a good race or not, but will not know exactly until they receive their time from the timekeeper at a race. This or the score given by a judge for an Olympic ski jumper are examples of external informational feedback.
- Identifying and describing the target behavior (the behavior to be changed)
- Identifying possible causes of the behavior
- Selecting an appropriate treatment strategy to modify the behavior
- Evaluating treatment outcomes.
Behavioral assessment emerged (as an alternative to traditional psychological tests) to help clients identify specific target behaviors that occur under specific circumstances; we can obtain specific assessment information and select effective treatments for the client.
The two target behaviors selected by the coach were:
- Failing to execute a racing turn (the kids would swim, touch the bulkhead and swim back without doing a proper turn)
- Stopping momentarily during a set (the kids would stop and touch down in
(PAGE 67 & 68)
- Slumps may have a physical cause. Loss of visual acuity, for example, could certainly affect a batter’s ability to hit a ball.
- Slumps may be the result of some slight change in the athlete’s technique. A golfer may be unaware of the fact that the way that she grips the golf club has changed subtly over time, and yet that change in grip could cause considerable change in the outcome of the golf shots.
- Slumps might be caused by slight changes in the equipment used in a particular sport. Taylor described a case of an alpine ski racer who experienced a significant deterioration in performance during the latter half of the season. This cause was eventually determined to be worn ski boots that affected the way that the racer stood on his skis.
- If an athlete in a slump comes to you for help, and if you can rule out physical, technique and equipment causes of the slump, then a sport specific behavioral checklist might be appropriate to determine if a slump is due to inadequate mental preparation. Having a death in the family causes upset and mental disturbances in an athlete, which can disturb ones, performances in any sport.
2. Frequency (or rate): Many general evaluations of whether or not an athlete is good or poor at something relate to how many times the athlete tends to emit some behavior in a given period of time. Someone who is considered a good offensive basketball player is someone who shows a high frequency of making baskets in a game. An athlete who is said to be a good “team player” is likely someone who shows high frequencies of doing whatever it is that the coach asks and displaying supportive behavior to teammates.
3. Duration: The longer an athlete can perform a technique, such as long distance runner, for example, is noted to be a better athlete than someone who cannot run as long as the longer duration runner.
4. Intensity (or force): The harder a volleyball player can spike a volleyball, the harder it is for the opponent players to return the ball, dealing with quick return of the ball on their court. Having a weaker spike allows the opponents to easily retrieve the ball as where the harder spike is noted as a better spike, therefore the athlete with the harder spike is considered better.
5. Stimulus control: being able to perform a block in volleyball, which will avoid the ball from potentially going over the net and hitting the court. Performing this block controls that the ball won’t end on the court or avoids having someone else dig up that ball, potentially leading to a point for the opposing team if that player does not dig up the ball in time.
6. Latency: A runner, who leaves the blocks very quickly after the firing of the starter’s pistol, might be considered to have a “good” start while a runner who shows a longer patency had a “poor” start.
- it increases the likelihood that your treatment program will be applied consistently
- 49. Briefly describe four strategies for monitoring target behaviours.
- Direct observation of a single behaviour: directly monitored by an observer. Ex: swimming stroke errors, skating speed, performance of D-zone .
- Behavioural checklists to record multiple behaviors: consultants or researchers have designed checklists that enable observers to easily monitor multiple behaviors of an individual. A checklist can have picture prompts. Ex: checklist for components of moves in ballet, task analysis for tackling in high school football, checklist of coaches behavior at a timeout
- Athlete self monitoring: Examples include: monitoring laps swam during swimming practice, jumps and spins performed by figure skaters and good shots in golf.
- Videotaping or target behaviours: can be used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of opponents. Also, provides a permanent record of the behavior for observational analysis. Examples: videotaping a defensive skill during practice, pass blocking in football, correct reads, drops, passing, positioning and angling in hockey power play
- The baseline conditions in Coach Keedwell’s program with swimmers were the total number of missed turns and unscheduled stops of the swimmers (approx. 140 per practice, approx. 23 times per swimmer).
- The suggestion that the causes of behaviour lie within us might influence some coaches to blame athletes for inferior athletic performances rather than examining the principles and procedures for changing behaviour and the enormous amount of data demonstrating that application of those principles can effectively modify behaviour.
- It may influence some athletes to blame themselves for inferior athletic performances rather than examining potential self-management strategies for improving their performances.
- An implication of this perspective is that motivational strategies are to be found primarily in environmental contingencies concerning behavior, not within the individual.
The use of reinforcement by coaches is in no way bribery as the coaches deliberately use a reinforcement program to strengthen desirable rule-governed behavior, and not to commit an illegal or immoral act. For example, a coach of a youth ice hockey team offers the players the opportunity to earn an extra 15 minutes of scrimmage time at the end of practice if they each make five accurate passes during a passing drill. The reinforcer (extra scrimmage time) is promised for desirable behaviors (making 5 accurate passes each).
- example would be a golfer who used imagery to create a pressure game by imagining himself competing in the Masters, he was administering a CMO to himself. The pressure game increased the reinforcing value of making a putt as a conditioned reinforcer, and increased the likelihood of focusing appropriately to make the putt. In this example of CMO. An antecedent variable altered the reinforcing effectiveness of behavioral consequences, and increased behavior that led to those consequences.
- 57. How does a CMO differ from an SD? Illustrate an example not from text.
59. How might stimulus generalization have been involved in the application with basketball players described at the beginning of this chapter?
-The players would rehearse the task so many time that it would automatically come to mind when having to cut off a player.
- imagery for emotional control
-imagery to tune out distracters.
64 What is meant by the term "mood words"? Illustrate with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
-Some examples for rugby are: crunch, create more force, drive, might, explode, rock-hard, solid.
- 65. Describe 3 functions which self-talk might serve for enhancing an athlete’s performance of a skill. Illustrate each with a sport example.
- Can help the athlete to focus on what they should do “now”, and not what they shouldn’t be doing. Ex: “Transfer your weight and rip this shot into the net”
- The athlete should use a few key words to prompt specific positions or movements in order to perform the skill properly. Ex: The above player who is just beginning to learn a wrist shot could go through the motions in segments of key words: “heal” - get the puck on heal of blade, “pull back” - pull the puck back and transfer weight to back foot, “transfer and follow” - transfer weight back forward at the same time as he “flicks” his bottom wrist and “aims” at the net.
- An athlete can use self-talk just before executing a skill at practice and competitions, in order to help transfer that skill from practices to competitions. For example, when the above player is going into a game he can run through his key words for his wrist shot right before going on the ice and when he shoots the puck in the game if he can quickly talk himself through the motion the stimulus generalization from practice to game will help carry over the skill.
66. What is meant by the term "key word"? Describe a sport example that is not in this chapter.
Examples for the last two components:
REGROUP - rehearse general self-talk to put the last shift behind them and get ready for the next shift
Ex. "That one's gone forever," "The rest of my game starts now," "Get ready for the next shift."
REFOCUS - review some key words to help them be properly focused for the next shift
Ex. "I'll jump on loose pucks," "I'll finish my checks," "I'll shoot quick."
- The reaction that an athlete feels inside during the experience of an emotion, influenced by respondent conditioning (ex. the "butterflies" an athlete feels just before the start of a competition)
- The way that one learns to outwardly express an emotion, influenced by operant conditioning (ex. talking fast in an animated fashion when nervous)
- How one becomes aware of and describes one's emotions, influenced by operant conditioning (ex. "I'm a little nervous," as opposed to "I'm really mad.")
- 69. Describe unconditioned reflexes (ie: the US and URs) that appear to characterize the emotions of fear, anger, and joy.
70. In the experiment with little Albert, what was the US? The UR? The CS? The CR?
- US- Natural fear response
- UR- Afraid of loud noises
- CS- The Rat
- CR- Cry and crawl away
71. Using the model for respondent conditioning, diagram an example (that is not in this book) of respondent conditioning of an emotion in a sport context.
(PAGE 123 & 124)
b) Maintain a sense of humour – joking around results in less tension
c) Progressive muscle relaxation – alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while paying close attention to the sensations that are felt.
d) Visualizing a relaxing scene – effective way in combating excessive nervousness.
Progressive Muscle Relaxation - alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while paying close attention to the sensations that are felt
- Identify Anger Causing Situations
- Teach substitute behaviours to compete with anger
- Practice substitute behaviour using imagery/simulations/role playing
- Use coping skills in competitive situations, with monitoring/supportive contingencies.
2. the "natural" reaction of others. For example, the roar of the crowd after a touchdown or the cheer of a teammate after a good play.
- The more beginners experience natural reinforcers of a skill, the greater the likelihood that they will practice that skill on their own.
- To program generalization of a skill from practices to competitions, and for maintaining it in the long run
Example: In boxing, the coach tells the boxers that they can spar at the end of the class (an activity which the boxers love) if they can perform the drills without making an error.
On the other hand, if a reinforcer is presented at a particular time, irrespective of the preceding behavior, we say that the reinforcer is non-contingent.
Example: In boxing, the coach tells the boxers that during the last 10 minutes of the class they can have a sparring match.
- An example of a regular praise: “Good work Bill!” or “Very good!”
- An example of a prescriptive praise in basketball: “Good footwork on the cross there! You faked left and stepped right, very good!”
- Lack of focus- they do not attend to appropriate cues just before beginning a skill
- Lack of reinforcement- correct performance is not being maintained by natural reinforcers
- Persistent, well-learned errors- athletes may have gotten by with errors that are now causing them problems at high levels
- First, it uses punishment when the response of an athlete performing the skill incorrectly is punished by the coach yelling “freeze!”.
- Second, it involves modeling because while the players remain frozen, the coach models the correct and incorrect components.
- Third, it uses rule-governed behaviour because while explaining the coach might say something like “to do it correctly, your leg must be bent”, which is used as a partial rule in the future.
- Fourth, it involves positive reinforcement because when the players complete the play, the coach praises them for successful completion.
87. Briefly describe four steps that a coach might take at the beginning of a season to minimize chances of problem behaviours occurring in the first place.
- Indentifying reasonable rules concerning desirable and undesirable behaviors of athletes
- Identifying consequences for rule violations
- Obtaining a commitment from the athletes to follow the rules
- Monitoring desirable and undesirable behaviors during the season and providing feedback
- The chart acted as a stimulus control in the treatment program; it served as a reminder to the athletes to stay focused and provided immediate reinforcement by showing concrete evidence of the athlete’s accomplishments during practice.
- The rule developed in the program was “if the target behavior is met, positive reinforcement will be given.” Therefore when the skaters did not slack off, and performed the required elements, they received positive feedback from Coach Hume.
91. Define positive reinforcement. How was positive reinforcement used by coach Hume in the program with figure skaters?
- Positive reinforcement includes a procedure, the presentation of a reinforcer immediately after a behavior, and an effect or result, the behavior is strengthened.
- Coach Hume used positive reinforcement in her program with the figure skaters by providing feedback to the skaters for improvement as well as using summary bars and charts so that the skaters could clearly see their progress. Being able to see their improvements by the charts and summary bars, as well as hearing feedback from their coach encouraged them to reproduce the desired behavior more often, thus acting as a positive reinforcer. (PAGE 20 & 182)
- 92. Briefly describe the educational sign prompting program applied by Yu and Martin to increase ball mark repairing by golfers. Does their program rely on natural reinforcers or deliberately managed reinforcers? Justify your choice.
- Set specific behavioral goals for quantity and quality
- Increase commitment to change
- Design monitoring data sheets for key behaviors
- Manage antecedents to motivate desirable behaviors
- Manage consequences to motivate desirable behaviors
- Prevent relapse and make it last.
- 95. With behavioural self-management, what is meant by “commitment to change?”
Another possible cause of relapse is counterproductive self-talk. Recognizing counterproductive self-talk is an important first step in preventing relapse; such self-talk needs to be replaced by other self-talk and/or other behaviors.
You may use any example not in book. For example a competitive fencer might watch a videotape of top fencers defensive moves in order to simulate the variety of defensive moves that a fencer may encounter during a tennis match.
- Cues from the physical environment
- Cues from the behavior of the coach
- Cues from the behavior of other athletes
- Cues from the level of automatic arousal or degree of anxiousness of the athlete
- Proprioceptive cues from the muscles of the athlete
- The athletes imagery as cues
- The athlete’s self-talk as cues.
- Hockey - Consider a hockey player who getting ready for the playoffs. He sets up some targets in the net, and tells his son that for every target he misses, he will give his son $1. For each target he hits, he will keep that dollar for himself. He does this every day for a week, shooting at 25 targets each day.
- To deliberately bring desired athletic behavior under the control of a few specific stimuli in practices, and to then take those stimuli to the competition. If athletic performance occurs to a specific stimulus in practice, and if that stimulus can be introduced into a competition, then the likelihood of stimulus generalization to the competitive environment is increased.
- A basketball player will practice his free throws in a very specific manner. He will go through his routine before each throw. He must also do this during a game, bringing the routine he uses at practice, into the game scenario. This stimulus will help him sink those important baskets.
Example: at practice a basketball player adds the word “breathe” just before taking a foul shot to remind him to relax his arms and not tense up while taking the shot. He will now
Example: If a figure skater practices under a variety of audience conditions, she practices performing in front of one person, to performing in front of many, she will be less susceptible to distracters during an actual competition.
108. What are outcome goals in the context of athletic competitions? Illustrate with two sports examples.
Two examples of this would include:
- In basketball, setting goals for rebounds, steals, and turnovers rather than winning or getting a certain amount of points.
- In football, for linemen they set goals for proper positioning for certain types of plays, and for tackling the ball carrier, rather than yards given up, sacks, or tackles.
110. Describe the inverted-U relationship between arousal and performance.
- 112. Suppose that an athlete’s level of arousal is far too low for a peak performance to occur. List four things that an athlete can do in increase his/her level of arousal.
- Energizing imagery
- Energizing mood woods
- Physical actions (giving high fives)
- Energizing music
- 113. Suppose an athlete’s level of arousal is too high for a peak-performance to occur. List four things that an athlete can do to decrease his/her level of arousal.
- Deep-centre breathing
- Muscle tensing and relaxing
- Relaxing mood woods
- Use of humour
117. What is the general goal of a competition focusing plan?
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