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What is a behavioural excess? Give two sports examples that are not in this chapter.
Behaviour excesses are too much of a particular type of behaviour. Two examples would be a basketball player double dribbling too much, and a soccer player tripping too much.
From a behavioural perspective however, these terms are viewed as summary labels for behaviour, not as some “thing” within us that causes behaviour. A behavioural interpretation of attitude is at best a summary label for behaviours. It is not an explanation. For example if a student is labelled with the terms “bad attitude” this may be due to the student showing up late to practises, talking over the coach, or throwing the ball high over other players’ heads. But these actions may be due to other factors, not this “thing” inside us.
Many traditional psychologists use quite general terms, such as “intelligence”, “attitude”, “motivation”, and “personality,” as though they refer to causes of behaviour. Example would be Mary doing well in school because she has high intelligence.
Behavioural sport psychology involves the use of behaviour analysis principles and techniques to enhance the performance and satisfaction of athletes and others associated with sports.
According to many psychologists, what does the word “cognition” mean?
What assumptions does the author make concerning cognitions?
Cognitions are assumed to be covert behaviors, and it is assumed that the behavioral principles and techniques that apply to overt behaviors are also applicable to covert behaviours.
What three questions does social validity address?
(1) What do the athletes think about the goals of the intervention?
(2) What do they think about the procedures suggested by the consultant?
(3) What do they think about the results produced by those procedures?
Define unconditioned reflex. Give two examples of an unconditioned reflex.
An unconditioned reflex is a stimulus-response sequence in which a stimulus elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning. One example is sun hitting your eyes, and your pupils dilating, another is an object in an infants hand elicits grasping.
What are two other names for respondent conditioning?
State the procedures and result of respondent conditioning.
Procedure: pair neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus.
Result: neutral stimulus acquires ability to elicit response that was elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
In respondent conditioning, what does each of the following stand for: NS, US, UR, CS, and CR?
NS: neutral stimulus, US: unconditioned stimulus, UR: unconditioned response, CS: conditioned stimulus, CR: conditioned response
In a sentence each briefly state five variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex.
(1) The greater the number of pairings of a CS with a US, the greater the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until the maximum strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached.
(2) Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by just a second, rather than by a longer time, or rather than by following the US.
(3) A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with a given US, than if it is only occasionally paired with the US.
(4) When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
(5) Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense, rather than weak.
What is the name of the part of our nervous system that is influenced by respondent conditioning?
The autonomic nervous system.
Procedure: in a certain situation, a response is immediately followed by a reinforcer.
Result: the response is more likely to occur in similar situations.
Define conditioned reinforcer. Describe two sport examples of conditioned reinforcers that are not in chapter 3.
A conditioned reinforcer is a reinforcer that was not originally reinforcing but can acquire reinforcing value through appropriate pairings with other reinforcers. One example is praise, it is established as a CR from childhood as parents’ praise a child’s progress in certain areas. Another is money, as more is completed, more money is offered and therefore the relationship is strengthened. Trophy and time out.
Define the procedure and the result of operant extinction, and illustrate with a sport example that is not in chapter 3.
The operant extinction procedure is withholding of a reinforcer following a previously reinforced response. The result is that the response decreases in frequency when reinforcement for that response ceases. A hockey player is previously reinforced whenever he checked other players, but during practices the reinforcement stops, so the checking decreases in frequency.
What are two differences between the effects of continuous versus intermittent reinforcement?
(1) Individuals are likely to work much more consistently on certain intermittent schedule of reinforcement that on continuous reinforcement.
(2) A behaviour that has been reinforced intermittently is likely to take much longer to extinguish than a behaviour that has been reinforced continuously.
Define fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement, and give a sport example that is not in chapter 3.
Fixed-ratio schedule: reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of a certain response is emitted. An example is an athlete who does 10 crunches, then rewards him/herself with a drink of water.
Define or describe each of the following and give a sports example of each that is not in chapter 3. (a) Good stimulus control (b) SD (c) SE
(a) Good Stimulus Control refers to a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a particular response. An example is a handball in soccer has a high correlation with penalties.
(b) Discriminative Stimulus (SD): if an event has been correlated with availability of reinforcement of a particular behaviour, then that event is called a discriminative stimulus. An example is playing in a home game, the crowd will cheer.
(c) Stimulus (SE): if an event has been correlated with extinction trials for a particular behaviour then that event is called an extinction stimulus. An example is playing an away game, goals will not be reinforced.
List five dimensions of behaviour that can be shaped. Illustrate each with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
(1) Form – Leading by example. A coach shows by example how to do a forehand stroke to his students in a tennis class.
(2) Frequency – The number of repetitions that a tennis player may do when practicing his forehand stroke.
(3) Duration - The amount of time spent by that player executing the perfect forehand stroke and maintaining that behaviour.
(4) Intensity – The amount of force that is put into that shot.
(5) Latency (reaction time) – The amount of time before the shot comes back and you react to hit the ball back to the other side of the court.
List three steps typically followed in an application of shaping.
(1) Identify the final desired behaviour in terms of one or more of its dimensions.
(2) Identify a starting behaviour that the individual currently emits and that approximates the target behaviour.
(3) Reinforce successive approximations from the starting behaviour to the final desired behaviour across trials.
(1) List the sequence of responses in the order in which they should occur in the chain.
(2) Arrange practice opportunities in which the athlete is instructed to perform the entire sequence in the proper order on each occasion.
(3) Provide corrective feedback and positive reinforcement as needed until the chain occurs correctly several times in succession.
Steve did follow these steps because he listed sequence in order and practiced, reinforcing short puts, then practiced his routine with different length putts.
(1) Physical punishment: includes all punishers, contingent on behaviour, that activate pain receptors or other sensory receptors, which typically evoke feelings of discomfort. Example: running laps when receiving a penalty.
(2) Reprimands: strong negative verbal stimuli contingent upon behaviour. Example: “run faster, idiot!”
(3) Timeout: transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to a less reinforcing situation following a particular behaviour. Example: benching player after bad behaviour.
(4) Response Cost: involves the immediate removal of a specific amount of reinforcer following a particular behaviour. Example: referee disallowing basket because player committed offensive charge during attempt.
List two differences between operant behaviour and respondent behaviour. (Table 3-2 for more)
-Referred to as Voluntary
-Automatic responses to prior stimuli
-Referred to as reflexive or involuntary
SD: in the presence of a stimulus, a response is followed by a reinforcer.
CS: pairing of a neutral stimulus with an eliciting stimulus prior to a response.
Procedure: a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
Result: response is less likely to occur to the former SD.
Procedure: the CS is no longer paired with the US.
Result: the CS loses the ability to elicit the CR.
Contingency-learned behaviour is behaviour that has been strengthened (or weakened) in settings by the direct effects of consequences in those settings. An example would be a volleyball coach teaching a team to do spikes. If they succeed, he takes them out for pizza.
Rule-governed behaviour is behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule. An example is a soccer player not grabbing the ball with his hands for fear of a penalty.
(1) Contingency learned behaviour is typically strengthened gradually through trial and error, while the presentation of a rule frequently leads to immediate behaviour change
(2) Contingency learned behaviour involves immediate consequences, while rule-governed behaviour often involves delayed consequences.
(1) The immediate, negative effects of a single instance of excessive eating are too small to be noticeable.
(2) Eating desserts is immediately reinforced by the good taste of food.
(1) Specific behaviour
(2) Sizeable consequences
(3) Probable consequences
(1) Once the athlete has achieved the mastery criterion, it is likely that he or she has learned the skill well enough so that, if asked to do it sometime later, the skill would be performed correctly.
(2) If the athlete has met a mastery criterion during practice, there is a high probability that the skill will be executed correctly during a competition.
Hayes and colleagues theorized that setting a public goal provides a public standard against which performance can be evaluated, and that implies social consequences for achieving or not achieving the goal.
From a behavioural perspective, commitment refers to statements or actions by a person setting a goal that imply that the goal is important, that he or she will work toward it, and that he or she recognizes the benefits of doing so.
(1) Person thinks that goal is important. Example: athlete knows that scoring points will help the team win.
(2) Person will work towards it. Example: athlete will practice skating and shooting.
(3) Person will recognize the benefit of doing the activity. Example: athlete will practice more often to improve skills.
(1) Goal setting: skaters were encouraged to set written weekly goals for number of laps skated and drills completed, and to use their weekly goals to set written daily practice goals for each behaviour.
(2) Self-monitoring: they recorded their daily performance in their logbooks, evaluated their performance at the end of each practice.
(3) Performance feedback: met with Connie once per week to discuss their progress and receive feedback.
ABC stands for antecedents, behaviour, and consequences. If we want to know why a particular behaviour is occurring or not occurring, we would examine the current antecedents and consequences for that behaviour.
In general, what is performance feedback?
Performance feedback is a consequence of an operant behaviour that can influence: (a) future instances of that behaviour; and/or (b) future instances of an alternative behaviour.
Proprioceptive feedback is the internal stimulation generated from movement. These are the internal sensations generated by the position and movement of the body in space, and by the position and movement of parts of the body with respect to other parts. An example is a baseball coach teaching a player how to swing a bat, including proper position and movement. Repeating this skill calls on memory of the body.
External informational feedback is a judgement provided to an athlete about the quality of performance that the athlete has just displayed. This type of feedback is often provided to athletes by coaches or judges or timers. An example would be timers for a 10-kilometre marathon.
(1) Public posting of performance can be effective in stimulating peer interactions to reinforce increased output.
(2) Public posting can also serve as an important reminder to coaches to provide praise for progress.
Behavioural assessment is concerned with identifying and describing a target behaviour, identifying possible causes of the behaviour, selecting an appropriate treatment strategy to modify the behaviour, and evaluating treatment outcome.
Target behaviours are the behaviours to be changed into the final desired behaviour in a behavioural program. The two target behaviours selected by Coach Keedwell were: (1) the total number of missed turns, and (2) unscheduled stops.
(1) Physical cause: less visual activity affects a tennis player’s ability to hit the ball.
(2) Result of some slight change in athlete’s technique: tennis player gripping the racket differently does not result in better serves.
(3) Slight change in the equipment used in sport: skateboarder who faces deterioration in performance in latter half of competition.
(4) Inadequate mental preparation: not concentrating on mental preparing before games.
The six objective dimensions are: topography, frequency, duration, intensity, stimulus control, and latency.
(1) Help to ensure the reliability of detecting improvements in the behaviour
(2) Increase the likelihood that the treatment program will be applied consistently.
Briefly describe four stages for monitoring target behaviours.
(1) Accurate records of a behaviour may help to identify the best treatment strategy.
(2) Accurate records of a behaviour provide a means for clearly determining whether your treatment program has produced, or is producing, the desired improvement.
(3) Recording and charting behaviour may lead to improvements apart from any further treatment program.
(4) Visual demonstrations of improvement through the use of checklists and graphs can provide a powerful incentive for athletes to continue to implement the treatment, and to maintain the progress they have gained.
A baseline is the target behaviour that is assessed in order to determine its level prior to the introduction of the intervention. Coach Keedwell’s baseline conditions were based on the number of missed turns and unscheduled stops of the swimmers.
(1) The suggestion that the causes of behaviour lie within us might influence some coaches to blame athletes for inferior athletic performance, rather than examining the principles and procedures for changing behaviour.
(2) It may influence some athletes to blame themselves for inferior athletic performances, rather than examining potential self-management strategies for improving their performance.
To motivate: generally means to influence individuals to behave in various ways. An implication of this perspective is that motivational strategies are to be found primarily in environmental contingencies concerning behaviour, not within the individuals.
A tennis player playing in a friendly match against a friend can imagine there are playing in the finals of the Wimbledon tournament. This allows for the player to play with higher concentration and desire to win each point.
No, it is not. Bribery is defined as a reward or a gift offered to induce one to commit an immoral or illegal act. The promise of reinforcers is to increase the frequency of desirable behaviours.
The use of extrinsic or deliberately managed reinforcers to increase a behaviour may undermine intrinsic motivation to perform that behaviour. If parents give money to a child for reading, then the child will be less likely to “read for reading’s sake.”
A CMO is a conditioned motivating operation that alters the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcers or punishers because of prior learning. An example is a swimmer using imagery to imagine themselves competing in the Olympics. This would be administering a CMO because of the pressure that this imagery adds is a conditioned response to swim faster.
How does CMO differ from an SD? Illustrate with examples that are not in this chapter.
An SD is a cue that tells you what to do to get what you already want. Example: a coach telling an athlete to grab a drink of water is an SD. A CMO temporarily changes what you want, and tells you how to get it. A coach explaining a points system is a CMO, it increases the likelihood that the players would want to earn points, and it told them how to do so.
(1) Arrange antecedents to prompt motivated behaviour.
(2) Manipulate MOs to maximize the effectiveness of reinforcers for motivated behaviour.
(3) Describe the environmental arrangements and appropriately states rules prior to practices and competitions.
(4) Provide reinforcers following motivated behaviour.
The player’s performance increased due to visualization of playing defense, making free throws, or rebounding properly. This generalization can also be applied to when they physically perform these skills during practice and during games.
Mental rehearsal refers to the process of imagining and feeling oneself performing an activity.
Encouraging athletes to feel themselves performing is often referred to as internal imagery, while encouraging athletes to imagine that they are watching themselves performing is often referred to as external imagery.
Describe an example to illustrate how an athlete might use visualization at practices to promote generalization of a skill to competitions.
The more similar that the practice environment is to the competitive environment, the more likely it is that skilled athletic performances will generalize from practices to competitions. An example would be a diver imagining being at a competition with judges and having only one chance to execute perfectly.
(1) Imagery for emotional control.
(2) Mental rehearsal of a skill just before performing.
(3) Imagery to help tune out distracters.
(1) successful performances, then you might recommend mood words. Example: golfer thinking “smooth” to elicit feelings of a relaxed, easy swing.
(2) If your task is to help an athlete persist in the practice of a repetitive, previously learned skill, then you might focus on self-talk, which the athlete could use as a reinforcer following desirable actions. Example: golfer thinking “good work, keep it up” after successful shots.
(3) If you want to help an athlete improve the quality and consistency of skills at practices and competitions, then you might recommend technique words or key words that would serve as SDs to prompt particular body positions or focus of attention. Example: golfer thinking, “shoulder turn” to prompt turn on back swing.
Key words serve as stimuli to prompt particular body positions for motor skills. Example: basketball player thinking, “follow through” to ensure a proper jump shot form.
(1) Relax – they relaxed during the first 30 seconds or so after a shift.
(2) Regroup – they rehearsed general self-talk to put the last shift behind them and get ready for the next shift. “The rest of my game starts now.”
(3) Refocus – they reviewed some key words to help them be properly focused for the next shift. “I’ll jump on loose pucks.”
(1) The reaction that one feels inside during the experiencing of an emotion (butterflies), which is influenced by respondent conditioning.
(2) The way that one learns to outwardly express an emotion (talking fast when nervous), influenced by operant conditioning.
(3) How one becomes aware of and describes one’s emotions (“I’m a little nervous”), also influenced by operant conditioning.
Describe unconditioned reflexes (the USs and the URs) that appear to characterize the emotions of fear, anger, and joy.
· Fear: the US of a sudden loss of support, loud sounds, and a sudden push elicited the UR of a sudden catching of breath, a clutching or grasping response, and crying that he labelled as fear.
· Anger: the US of hampering an infant’s movements elicited the URs of crying, screaming, and body stiffening, that he labelled as anger.
· Joy: the US of tickling, gentle rocking, and patting elicited the URs of smiling, gurgling, and cooing, that he labelled as joy.
US = loud noise, UR = fear, CS = white rat, CR = fear.
US (tripping).....UR (fear)
After several pairings: CS (jumper running, about to take long jump) à CR (fear)
(1) Controlled breathing: centering. Deep centre breathing is a martial arts procedure that emphasizes thought control, a particular way of breathing and muscle relaxation.
(2) Maintain a sense of humour. Athletes who are loose usually perform better than athletes who are tense.
(3) Progressive muscle relaxation. Progressive muscle relaxation involves alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while attending closely to the sensations that are felt when the muscles are tensed versus when they are relaxed.
(4) Visualize a relaxing scene. Visualizing a relaxing scene can be an effective way to help an athlete to combat excessive nervousness.
Deep centre breathing: a martial arts procedure that emphasizes thought control, a particular way of breathing and muscle relaxation.
Progressive muscle relaxation: involves alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while attending closely to the sensations that are felt when the muscles are tensed versus when they are relaxed.
Choking: a critical deterioration in the execution of habitual processes as a result of an elevation of anxiety levels under perceived pressure, leading to substandard performance. An example is a quarterback saying, “Everybody is depending on me. If I blow it I’ll let the whole team down.” This self-talk might cause excessive nervousness, causing him to throw a bad pass and lose the game.
List the four steps that have characterized successful anger management programs used in athletes.
(1) Identify anger-causing situations.
(2) Teach substitute behaviours to compete with the anger.
(3) Practice the substitute behaviours using imagery and/or simulations and/or role-playing.
(4) Use the coping skills in competitive situations, with monitoring and/or supportive contingencies.
Task analysis refers to breaking a skill into its component parts so that it can be taught effectively, and improvements can be accurately monitored.
(1) Combine modelling with instructions. Show and tell simultaneously.
(2) Describe consequences of correct and incorrect performance.
(1) Sensory feedback: the visual, tactile, and auditory sensations that come from performing the task well. Example: the “feel” of contact when golfer hits good shot.
(2) Natural reaction of others. Example: cheer from teammates when goal scored.
(1) The more that beginners experience the natural reinforcers of performing a skill, the greater is the likelihood that they will practice that skill on their own (because the natural reinforcers would continue to occur).
(2) Capitalizing on natural reinforcers in the natural environment is an important tactic for programming generalization of a skill from practices to competitions, and for maintaining it in the long run.
Contingent behaviour is when a behaviour must occur before a reinforcer will be presented. An example is a figure skater being rewarded after executing a double axel properly. Noncontingent behaviour involves presenting the reward at a particular time, irrespective of the preceding behaviour. Giving players a juice break at the end of practice whether they performed well or not.
Perspective praise is when the coach identifies the aspect of the athlete’s performance that was desirable or that indicated improvement, as opposed to a simple positive feedback, non-prescriptive. An example would be a coach telling a swimmer “nice back stroke!” when targeting the backstroke.
A possible strategy for a coach in such a situation is to make available reinforcers contingent upon improved performance.
When a skill results in early success, all of the components of that skill are strengthened, including a flawed component that experts might consider as improper technique. The more an athlete practices with a defective component of a skill, and the more success that the athlete achieves in spite of the defective component, the more difficult it will be to eliminate the error later on. Decreasing such errors might best be accomplished through use of a multiple-component treatment strategy.
(1) Lack of concentration or lack of focus.
(2) Lack of reinforcement for correct performance.
(3) Persistent, well learned errors.
· Punishment – stoppage of motion and isolation of an individual’s error.
· Modeling – individual’s error is described and corrected by imitation of the correct positions or actions.
· Rule-governed control over behaviour – stoppage only occurs if there is an error.
· Positive reinforcement – condition response is encouraged from positive feedback from the coach.
In a sentence or two each, describe several possible causes of problem behaviours shown by young athletes at practices.
· Lack of understanding by young athletes as to what is expected of them at practices.
· Some problem behaviours may occur at practices because they are immediately followed by natural reinforcers (peer interaction), while the desirable alternative behaviours to not lead to immediate reinforcers.
· Athletes may show problem behaviours because they do not have the skills to earn rewards for skilled athletic performance.
· Problem behaviours may stem from the process of operant extinction.
· May stem from the dynamics of interpersonal interactions of the athletes away from the athletic environment.
(1) Identifies reasonable rules concerning desirable and undesirable behaviours of athletes.
(2) Identifies consequences for rule violations.
(3) Obtains a commitment from the athletes to follow the rules.
(4) Monitors desirable and undesirable behaviour during the season, and provides feedback.
In several sentences, describe the three steps of the strategy followed by Coach Hume to decrease off-talk practice behaviours of the figure skaters.
(1) 1st step: Identify specific desirable practice behaviours
a. These were itemized in a checklist of the jumps and spins (for figure skaters) that the athletes were expected to practice for 45 minutes a day
b. She also listed the specific combination of jumps and spins that constituted each skater’s individual program
(1) 2nd step: Involved devising a strategy for the skaters to self monitor the occurrence of desirable behaviours
a. The athletes would
i. Perform the first three jumps and then record them on the checklist given to each athlete
ii. Perform the jumps in sets of 3 and then proceed to record the results
iii. Continue to do this until done and then spend remainder of practice practicing the elements they had rated poorly
(1) 3rd step: Provide feedback to the skaters for improvement
a. At the end of each practice, summary bars were added to charts of off-task behaviour and elements attempted so that the skaters could clearly see their progress
b. Progress was then praised by Coach Hume
Stimulus Control refers to a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a particular response. The checklist chart for skills to practice had good correlation with the skaters performing them.
Define rule-governed control over behaviour. How was rule-governed control used by Coach Hume in the program with figure skaters?
Rule governed behaviour is behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule. Coach Hume used this when he identified desirable skills to practice within the 45 minute interval.
If, in a given situation, somebody does something that is followed immediately by a positive reinforcer, then that person is more likely to do the same thing again when he or she encounters a similar situation. At the end of each practice, summary bars were added to charts of off-task behaviour and elements attempted so that the skaters could clearly see their progress. Progress was praised by Coach Hume.
Briefly describe the educational sign prompting program applied by Yu and Martin to increase ball mark repairing by golfers. Does their program rely on natural reinforcers or deliberately managed reinforcers? Justify your choice.
When golfers hit the green, they make dents. The educational sign prompt near the entrance to the clubhouse contained an explanation of, and photographs of, some unrepaired ball marks, a description of how to repair ball marks as depicted in photographs, and a request for golfers to help repair ball marks. Decreased unrepaired ball marks by 37%. This is natural reinforcer, because no one is providing immediate reinforcement after they repair.
An effective behavioural model of self-management has two parts. The first part of the model requires clear specification of the behaviours to be changed. The second part of the model requires that the individual apply behavioural techniques to manage the problem behaviours. Stated differently, an individual must behave in some way that rearranges the environment to manage his or her own subsequent behaviour.
(1) Set specific behavioural goals for quantity and quality.
(2) Increase commitment to change.
(3) Design monitoring sheets for key behaviours.
(4) Manage antecedents to motivate quality practices.
(5) Manage consequences to motivate quality practices.
(6) Prevent relapse and make it last.
“Commitment to change” refers to statements or actions by an athlete which imply that it is important to improve in a specific area, that he/she will work toward doing so, and that he/she recognizes the benefits of doing so.
(1) Eliminate reinforcers for problem behaviour. Manipulating consequences to eliminate reinforcers that may be maintaining problem behaviour that interferes with desired practice behaviour.
(2) Self-record and chart improvements. Seeing a line on a graph that represents gradual improvement can serve as a prompt to think a variety of positive, self-confidence thoughts.
(3) Reinforce desirable practice behaviours. Arrange for specific reinforcers to be earned by the athlete for showing improvement, or even just for sticking to the practice plan.
(1) Failure to anticipate setback situations. Solution: avoid setback situations until after some success with the self-management program has been achieved, then that athlete might be better able to cope with situations that provide strong cues for the problem behaviour.
(2) Counterproductive self-talk. Solution: such self-talk needs to be replaced by other self-talk or other behaviours.
(1) The response component of the self-management program is too vague. Solution: target behaviour must be phrased in a way so that it can be easily recognized when it occurs.
(2) Long-term goals have not been translated into specific short-term goals. Solution: provide specific progress checks along the way, daily or weekly short-term goals should be precisely stated, be realistic, and move the athlete in the direction of the long-term goal.
(1) Self-management programs can become burdensome. Solution: link to everyday activities that are rewarding.
Simulations are attempts to make stimuli in the practice environment as similar as possible to the stimuli that will be encountered in the competition. An example is a soccer scrimmage, split the team with different coloured jerseys and a referee to simulate competition.
(1) Physical environment
(2) Behaviour of the coach
(3) Behaviour of the other athletes
(4) Degree of anxiousness of the athlete
(5) Proprioceptive cues from muscles
(6) Athlete’s imagery as cues
(7) Athlete’s self-talk as cues.
One way of simulating the arousal that an athlete might feel in a pressure-packed competition is to create pressure situations at practices. An example is a golfer who places 4 $100 bills around various spots of a hole. He putts the ball from where the bill is, if he makes it, he keeps it.
One way of programming common stimuli is for the athlete to have a consistent pre-competition routine that can be rehearsed at practices and used at competitions.an example is a golfer who does pre-shot and pre-putt routines.
Appropriate use of imagery at practices and competitions just before performing a skill can also provide a common stimulus to promote generalization from practice to competition. A golfer that usually rushes his putts imagines the same shot at the country club on the weekend without a crowd.
Describe the generalization strategy referred to as “vary the training conditions”. Illustrate it with a sport example that is not in this chapter.
Varying the training conditions involves conducting practices under a wide variety of conditions. An example is a golfer practicing when it’s hot, cold, windy, calm, quiet, noisy, no one around, too many people around, etc.
The term “peak performance” has been used to refer to an outstanding athletic performance, when an athlete puts it all together.
Confidence is not some “thing” within us that causes outstanding athletic performance. Rather, confidence is a label summary that we use to describe athletes who have performed well in recent practices and/or competitions, and who show certain behaviour patterns that would be described as collectively illustrating the belief that they will perform well in an upcoming competition.
Outcome goals are goals for results. Two examples are a hockey player wanting to win a game, and a track runner wanting to do a sprint in 30 seconds.
Execution or progress goals are when athletes set aside outcome goals and focus realistically on taking it one step at a time, one play at a time, and on executing to the best of their ability. Two examples are a goalie hoping to save 90% of shots in the first period and a volleyball player making at least 2 spikes.
Describe the inverted-U relationship between arousal and performance.
Before a competition, an athlete should not be too laid back nor too pumped up or tense. Rather the athlete wants to feel both loose and energized at the same time.
Level / peak \
Of not enough too much
Overall level of arousal
An optimal level of arousal is the level of physiological arousal associated with peak performance. Differs form individual to individual and sport to sport.
If athletes need to energize during a competition: (1) energizing imagery, (2) energizing mood words, (3) physical actions, (4) energizing music.
Strategies for staying loose during a competition include: (1) deep-centre breathing, (2) muscle tensing and relaxing, (3) use of relaxing mood words, (4) use of humour.
A hockey goalie is playing against a team who scored many goals on him. He uses self-talk to regroup and refocus on here and now. “That game is history, forget about it.” “You’ve been practicing so much since that game, you’re better.”
In general, a competition plan refers to those things that an athlete can do, say, think about, concentrate on, and attend to on the day of, just before, and during the competition that will maximize the chances of the individual performing up to his/her potential.
It covers the period of time from the beginning of the competition, to the end. An example would be a gymnast competition that would include everything from the moment the music begins, to the end of the routine when the crowd cheers.
What is the general goal of a competition-focusing plan?
The goal of a competition-focusing plan is to ensure that once a competition begins, the athlete will experience the covert and overt behaviours associated with optimal performance.
The evaluation should assess: (1) athletic performance and (2) mental performance/readiness.
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