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Define the term motor learning and explain why learning must remain an inference based on performance
Motor learning should be understood as a set of internal processes, associated with practice or experience, leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled movement behavior.
Because motor learning is internal, taking place within the athlete’s central nervous system, we cannot observe learning directly. We can, however, monitor an athlete’s performance, which is observable behavior, and draw an inference about learning.
Briefly describe Fitts and Posner’s three phases of motor skill learning
-Cognitive phase (or beginning phase): athletes focus on gaining an understanding of how the skill is to be performed.
-Associate phase (or intermediate phase): focused on refinement; through practice, the learner moves from having a general idea of how to execute the movement to being able to perform the skill both accurately and consistently.
-Autonomous phase (or advance phase): emerges when the learner can perform the skill at a maximal level of proficiency. Performance is quite automatic, the learner seeming to require very little conscious thought or attention to the details of the movement.
How is proprioception, or “feel”, important in motor performance?
Movements become more automated and less attention is allocated to the physical execution of the skill and can now be devoted to other aspects of the environment, such as planning strategy. We come to expect our movements to feel a certain way, and we can use such sensory feedback to evaluate the correctness of our movements.
What are the effects of asking highly skilled performers to consciously attend to their movements?
It will seriously disrupt performance, especially in high-speed activities
Explain why the coach’s role as motivator is so important during the autonomous phase of learning
Because of the difficulty in improving performance as one approaches the highest level of skill, even though practice continues, athletes may lose motivation to strive for improvement.
How do mastery-oriented athletes differ from success seekers in their beliefs about the keys to success?
-Mastery-oriented athletes define success based on personal standards in areas such as effort, improvement, personal development, and task mastery.
-Success seekers feel talented and thus satisfied when they accomplish tasks that other athletes struggle with. They attribute success to ability and talent, which is confidence-building in times of success but undermines motivation in times of failure.
Andi is outcome oriented and wants to beat Sydney, whereas Sydney is mastery oriented. Sydney runs a personal best. Andi runs her slowest time of the season but beats Sydney. How successful does each athlete feel after the race?
-Andi most likely feels great; her sense of achievement is not based on personal standards, but on comparison to others, so her slowest time beating another athlete’s personal best is a huge motivator for her.
-Sydney also most likely feels great, since her motivation is personal; since she ran a personal best, she feels a sense of improvement and accomplishment.
What are the behavioral characteristics that reflect whether an athlete’s motivation is high or low?
High: When an athlete tries hard, seeks out challenge, persists in the face of adversity, and performs up to his ability level on a reasonably consistent basis.
Low: if an athlete holds back in training or a match and not give his best effort, prefers to play opponents or work on drills that are too easy or way beyond his capabilities, regularly experience performance impairment or fail to live up to his potential, and contemplate dropping out or quitting his sport
What is self-efficacy, and why is it supposed to affect motivation?
Self-efficacy is defined as a person’s judgment about her or his capability to successfully perform a particular task. Self-efficacy is positively related to positive motivational patterns. Athletes with high self-efficacy are more likely to try harder, choose challenging tasks, experience positive emotions, and be less anxious.
Antecedents of self-efficacy in a sport setting: Past performance
when learning a new aspect of technique or strategy or gaining experience in sport competitions, it is important for athletes to accumulate progressively more demanding accomplishments to build their sense of competence.
watching someone else successfully perform the activity, especially if this person is deemed to be similar to the athlete in question, can facilitate self-efficacy.
athletes appraise their physiological condition -- state of autonomic arousal, fear, pain, fatigue, and so on -- and make judgments as to their readiness to “rise to the occasion.”
from coaches, sport psychologists, and significant others; it can be in the form of feedback (“Here’s how to do this”, “You did this correctly”) or motivational statements (“Come on, you can do it!”)
emotional control techniques should be helpful in enhancing task-specific confidence among athletes who find themselves being debilitated by anger, frustration, and other negative mood states
if athletes go through the demands of a sport activity in their minds before performing, those demands might not seem so daunting or unfamiliar, and the athletes’ perceptions of their ability to meet those demands should be increased.
How do task-involved athletes judge their competence and perceive success in sport?
When task involved, an athlete’s main purposes are to gain skill or knowledge, to exhibit effort, to perform one’s best, and to experience personal improvement. This athlete is focused on what he or she is doing and is thinking primarily about how to accomplish the task. If such purposes are achieved, the individual feels competent and successful.
How do ego-involved athletes judge their competence and perceive success in sport?
When ego involved, athletes are preoccupied with the adequacy of their ability and the demonstration of superior competence compared to others. High ability is demonstrated for the ego-involved athlete when his or her performance is perceived to exceed that of others or to be equivalent with less effort exerted. The athlete’s focus is on whether he or she is good enough (if confidence is low) and how to prove (rather than improve) his or her level of competence (if confidence is high).
What are the distinctions between and consequences of being more ego-approach or ego-avoidance goal-oriented? (1)
An athlete would be considered ego-approach oriented when he or she is preoccupied with demonstrating superior ability compared to others. In contrast, an athlete emphasizing an ego-avoidance goal would be most concerned about not revealing his or her inferiority. For this athlete, the most important thing is to avoid showing that he or she does not possess adequate levels of ability.
What are the distinctions between and consequences of being more ego-approach or ego-avoidance goal-oriented? (2)
An ego-avoidance perspective on sport achievement has been linked to greater fear of failure, stronger beliefs that sport ability is fixed or unchangeable, perceptions of an ego-involving climate, heightened anxiety, lower intrinsic motivation, and greater amotivation.
Illustrate how being primarily oriented to ego goals can set the stage for performance impairment and motivational difficulties. (1)
Although choosing to engage in less challenging tasks prevents the unhappy prospect of making errors and appearing to be less able, it simultaneously hinders an individual from developing a variety of sport skills to the maximum. Likewise, selecting tasks that are much too hard provides the athlete with a ready-made justification for the unsuccessful outcome as he or she is ready to state, “I failed, but so did everyone else.”
Illustrate how being primarily oriented to ego goals can set the stage for performance impairment and motivational difficulties. (2)
The expectation of looking incompetent can result in a lack of trying when failure is looming and when it looks like one will appear less able compared to others. For example, athletes who back off at the end of a race because the outcome is already determined (i.e., they won’t be the winner) and coast to the finish line or athletes who begin to engage in inappropriate achievement strategies or unsportsmanlike behavior when it looks like they will not be the best on that day are unlikely to ever reach their full potential.
Finally, if the expectation of demonstrating low ability becomes chronic, it may lead to regular and high levels of anxiety and, eventually, a devaluing of, and loss of interest in, the activity. If this chain of events occurs, it is likely that these athletes may find themselves in a state of amotivation. At the very least, if such high ego approach-oriented athletes stay in sport, we might expect them to become strongly ego avoidance goal-oriented over time.
Describe the process by which external rewards can influence the intrinsic motivation of athletes.
Extrinsic rewards can diminish intrinsic interest, but can also foster intrinsic motivation. Rewards are detrimental to intrinsic motivation when they take away from athletes’ sense of self-determination. However, when receiving the reward is contingent on personally controllable aspects of performance and an athlete obtains the reward, this should increase his or her perceived ability while not undermining self-determination. As a result, it should foster self-determination.
Identify and explain each of the elements of the BASIC3 model. Identify the uses of the model. (1)
-Behavior: overt, observable actions (persistence, training frequently, focus with attentiveness)
-Affect: emotion, demeanor or countenance (remaining positive, reacting to results)
-Somatic: physiological elements (hunger, heart rate, energy level, nutrition, sleep level, etc.)
-Interpersonal: social elements, interactions (includes past and future relationships)
-Beliefs: fundamental attribution, beliefs about oneself (know they can do it -- confidence = self-efficacy)
-Self talk: the expression of one’s beliefs to oneself (self-assuring -- “I can do it”)
-Imagery: sensory memory (imagining success)
Explain deliberate practice
The kind of practice that is designed to create expertise. It must be done on an individual basis.
Explain how deliberate practice is different from ordinary practice/training
Normal practice has the following elements:
Identify and describe each step in deliberate practice.
-It is done with regard to a particular sport or performance (domain), with each domain divided into components (pitching, shooting, etc.)
-Standards of performance must be set (95% free-throw shooting)
-The performance itself must occur and data must be collected from it
-If performance is below standard, then activities must be designed to correct/enhance it
-Setting mini goals helps create progress, then the performance takes place, then the performance is checked, then the process restarts
-Once the standard is achieved, you move on
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