Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Giuseppe Terragni, Danteum, designed for Rome, 1938 (unbuilt): To celebrate Dante, glorify Imperial Rome and extol the virtues of a strong fascist state. Design was presented at the 1942 Exhibition in Rome. Allegory of the Divine Comedy. Sequence of monumental spaces that parallel the narrator's journey from the "dark wood" through hell, purgatory, and paradise. Focus on the text's form and rhyme structure, carefully proportioned spaces and unadorned surfaces typical of Italian Rationalism.
Ignazio Guidi and Cesare Valle, plans for Addis Ababa, Ethopia, 1936-38: Garden city, “a thick wood of tall eucalyptuses”, plan dictated by the courses of two streams which divided areas for natives and Italians. Proposed use of lightweight local materials and techniques in low buildings. A Torre Littoria Tower of Facism and a large bridge over the valley of the Gamele stream were to be built.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Skyscraper Proposal for the Friedrichstrasse, Berlin, 1921 (unbuilt): Unprecedented idea for a glass tower with steel supporting skeleton to leaving exterior as glass curtain. Prismatic shapes of three connecting towers determined by experimentations with light reflections on glass model. More expressionist than his later work.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, German Pavilion, Barcelona, Spain, 1928-1929: Barcelona International Exposition. Represents Germany’s “desire to be absolutely truthful,… spirit of a new era”. Made with marble, red onyx and travertine. Bare, no trade exhibits, just a single sculpture and “Barcelona Chair”. Blurred inside and outside, regular grid of cruciform chrome plated steel columns. Meant to “block” direct passage through the site, visitors were led in continuous turnabouts
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Tugendhat House, Brno, Czech Republic, 1928-1930: Reinforced concrete with iron framework which allowed interior spaces to be light and without load bearing walls. Early functionalism. No decorative items, but used richly patterned materials: onyx and tropical woods. Large glass windows, including a glass wall that could disappear into the floor through the use of a certain mechanism.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Farnsworth House, Plano, IL, 1945-51: one room weekend retreat made of a steel frame and clear floor to ceiling glass. Open to the surroundings to an extreme degree. House sits on elevated and cantilevered slabs above the flood plain. Two sets of wide steps lead from the ground to the terrace to the house. Open flexible space with minimal framework but with expressed structural columns. Reinforces connection to nature.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Crown Hall (Department of Architecture), Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, 1950-1956: Refinement of ideas proposed in the Farnsworth house on a large scale. Steel structure with floor to ceiling glass. Ceiling is hung on steel frames rather than supported by columns to create huge clear span space.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 860-880 Lakeshore Drive Apartments, Chicago, IL, 1948-1951: pair of glass and steel apartment towers. Lack of traditional ornamentation, while the structural system takes the place of ornament, I-beams exposed on the exterior as applied non-functional ornament.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, New York, NY, 1954-1958: corporate modernist skyscraper, with external expression of steel structure as a ornamental motif. Concrete hid the actual structure for fireproofing reasons so non-structural I-beams were applied to the exterior of the building. Large public plaza in front of the building, set the standard for many years and was encouraged in a city rezoning resolution.
Juan O’Gorman, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Studio-Houses, Mexico City, 1931-1932: Rationally conceived utilitarian houses and studios for the couple. Separate houses which were distinguished by strong primary colors. O’Gorman was influenced by Le Corbusier, some of the first examples of modern architecture in Mexico. Meant to be built as cheaply and easily as possible, comparable to worker’s housing. Not meant to be beautiful, only functional. Exposed mechanical.
Juan O’Gorman et al., Library, National University of Mexico, Mexico City, 1950–1953: Mural is more fully integrated into the architectural design. Mural made with many fragments of colored tile on a massive scale. Represents Mexican history along every exterior wall of the library. Although it has nearly all solid walls to house the murals, there is still a strong Corbusier influence, particularly in raising the structure up on pilotis.
Luis Barragán, Folke Egerstrom House and San Cristóbal Stables, Mexico City, 1968: House and stable built on three hectares. Famous for bright pink walls and fountain for horses in the stable.
Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer, Affonso Reidy et al., Le Corbusier as consultant, Ministry of Education and Health, Rio de Janeiro, 1937–1943: Beginning of Modernism in Brazil and beginning of Le Corbusier’s international fame. Eleven story slab on pilotis, structural use of brises-soleil. Area below the building was dotted with Modernist sculpture. Considering the most advanced architectural system in the world at the time of its conception.
Affonso Reidy, Modern Art Museum, Rio de Janeiro, 1953–1968: Modernist concrete, external pillar elements connected by longitudinal beams providing a gallery level free of internal columns or structural walls. Large outdoor terrace framed by entrance facades. Aluminum shutters on northern façade to control the low light entering the space.
Lina Bo Bardi, Glass House (Lina Bo Bardi and Pietro Maria Bardi House), São Paulo, 1949–1951: Meant as a house for her and her husband. Horizontal between two thin reinforced concrete slabs with slender pilotis. Open floorplan.
Oscar Niemeyer, Casino, Pampulha, 1942 (now Modern Art Museum):
Lucio Costa, Master Plan for Brasília, 1957 + Oscar Niemeyer, Esplanande of the Ministries, Brasília, 1958–1960: Ideal modern city in little inhabited area. Move capital from Rio to central position. Costa won competition. Niemeyer, President friends, given most of the public buildings. Ordered city, strong emphasis on transportation hub at center, highways w/ clover intersections, maintain speed. Wide lawns, public squares separating districts and buildings. Utopian project, neglects human scale, discreet events.
Le Corbusier (Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew, Pierre Jeanneret), Chandigarh master plan 1951-1965: First planned city in post-independence India, needed new capital after it was separated from Pakistan. Study to establish a city which maintains Indian cultural identity with housing which favors improving the quality of life of poorest population. Focus if on facilitating transportation on a large scale and faster pace without creating impediment and danger for pedestrians.
Le Corbusier, Contemporary City, 1922 (unbuilt) : Utopian city of three million. Large cruciform glass office towers with housing surrounding them. Wealthiest inhabitants live in the office towers, lower class workers in the surrounding housing complexes. Park-like green spaces. Transportation hub at the center of the city various types of transport, singular complex. Automobile glorified, designed as main transportation through the city while the pedestrian circulation is secondary.
Le Corbusier, La Ville Radieuse, 1930 (unbuilt) : Utopian plan for a well-0rdered city, linear and based roughly on the shape of a man’s body. Maintains the ideas from La Ville Contemporaine where there would be high-rise office blocks, efficient vehicular circulation and abundant green space. Not based on any particular site, an ideal model that could be applied anywhere. Much criticism about lack of human scale, the large spaces in between the buildings would be wastelands.
Moisei Ginsburg and Mikhail Barsch, Green City Proposal, 1930 (unbuilt): Utopian linear city plan that would be able to grow along the electrification of the countryside. People would have very small, portable houses raised on pilotis. Could combine easily. Move along rail and highway.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City, 1932 (unbuilt): Garden city where every family would have one acre. Suburbia. Nearly all transport done by car. Antithesis of the city. Much work would be done at home.
James Rossant and others, Dodoma 1976 (revised in 1988 by Cameron McNamara): New capital city of Tanzania. Series of connected communities with shopping districts at center, high-rises planned but never built. Ends up growing too much. Housing cells with communal open spaces.
International Planning Associates and Kenzo Tange, Abuja, 1976-78 : Monumental spine with the Three Arms Zone and the airport at both ends. All ethnic groups would come together in harmony. Only access is by air.
Le Corbusier, Plan Obus, Algiers, 1932-42: Superimposition onto existing city. 3 elements: business district, residential area, and road town with 14 levels of living underneath the raised highway. Infrastructural shell. Great disregard for the people already living there and Algerian customs. Curves derived from the form of Algerian girls?
Peter and Alison Smithson, Robin Hood Gardens housing complex, Poplar, East London, 1969-72: Intended as “streets in the sky” concept where social housing is arranged linearly along broad aerial walkways. Informed by and a reaction against Unite d’Habitation. Two long concrete Brutalist blocks, one seven stories, the other ten. Unpopular with residents and considered a failure by Peter Smithson.
Alison and Peter Smithson, UR grille, 1953: Concerned with problem of identity, proposes that a community should be built up from a hierarchy of associational elements and tries to express these various levels of association (house, street, district, city). These terms are to be taken as the idea rather than the reality and the aim is to find new equivalents for these forms. Rift on LC organizational structure for CIAM meetings.
Hassan Fathy, New Gourna housing, 1946-52: Integration of traditional earthen building techniques with a modern spatial scheme. Idea was to build with the materials that exist at the site. Constructed for very poor villagers who had recently been forced to relocate. It was intended as a model village for twenty thousand, only a segment of the plan was realized.
Aldo Van Eyck, Dogon huts + Piet Blom "Noah's ark", 1959-62: urban design scheme meant to house 1 million people by linking 60 municipalities into an interurban entity, then subdivided into seventy “villages”. Interlocking clusters with range of urban functions, four level road network. “City is House and House is City” “Cities like Villages”.
Aldo van Eyck, Orphanage, Amsterdam, 1957-62: intended as a house like a small city, “City is House and House is City”. Building constructed of two sizes of module with four columns and domed roof. Units of program are laid out on a grid, projecting off diagonally to give many exterior faces. Creates equal positive and negative space. Many in between spaces, no central point. Fluid connection.
Georges Candilis + Shadrach Woods, Nid d'Abeille housing, 1951-52: inspiration from Casablanca slums, rooted in the vernacular, not purely functionalist. Culturally specific living tissue that would evolve into a community over time. Meant to be for workers and migrants but ended up being too expensive for them. High walled exterior patios shield owners from outside views. Spaces above patios later walled in to create more interior space. For the colonized, not the colonizer.
Candilis, Josic, and Woods, Free University, Berlin-Dahlem, 1963-73: groundscraper, horizontal urban densification with continuous circulation. Stem and web, Modular grid, polycentric, Free-flow of ideas between disciplines; importance of the path of the individual; relationship between group and individual. No architectural expression of differentiated functions. Associations between different disciplines analogous to links between different internal mental faculties
Yona Friedman, Ville Spatiale, 1956- onward: Architecture should only provide a framework that inhabitants could build upon. Increasing leisure based on mechanical production. Mobile, temporary and lightweight structures. Spatial infrastructure, space-frame grid.
Clarence Stein and Henry Wright, Radburn, New Jersey, 1929: Suburban town built with communal green space, separation of vehicular and pedestrian circulation. Clusters of housing with backs facing the driveway while the front faces the lawns.
Oscar Stonorov and Alfred Kastner, Carl Mackley Houses, Philadelphia, 1934: successful five building housing complex. Covers city block with internal green space and swimming and wading pool. Four buildings are three stories with apartments and fifth was a community center.
Minoru Yamasaki, Pruitt-Igoe, St. Louis, Missouri, 1951–1954: Modernist scheme for housing very poor residents. Originally planned with multiple housing types, little funding the plan ended up with 11 identical buildings with no landscaping in-between and little money for basic upkeep because of low occupancy rates. Housing demand not as great when the project was completed as when it started. 91% full was height. Skip-stop elevators, open galleries, streets in the air. Small apartments.
Charles and Ray Eames, Eames House, Pacific Palisades, California, 1949: Case Study House No. 8, meant to serve as their home and studio, The house has little character itself but it meant as a backdrop for collected objects. Steel and glass panelized system, off the shelf parts only. Comfortable modernism.
Home Owners Loan Commission map of Brooklyn, 1938: discriminatory map of Brooklyn which determined who could get mortgages based on which neighborhood they lived in.
Victor Gruen, Southdale Shopping Center, Edina, MN, 1956: first modern shopping mall in the US, communal gathering space, modeled on the European arcades, meant to be at the center of a larger complex of housing and parks. Convenience and variety for consumers.
Levitt and Sons, Levittown, Hempstead, Long Island, 1947:
R. Buckminster Fuller, Dymaxion House, 1927-30: Useable on any site in any environment. Easy and ship and assemble. Design based on grain silo. Structure for roof is similar to a spokes of a bicycle wheel. Reduce water usage. Meant to use the excess factory capabilities post war to manufacture these houses out of aluminum.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!