all bodily movements that cause increases in physical exertion beyond that which occurs during normal activities of daily living.
a form of leisure physical activity that is undertaken in order to achieve a particular objective.
the field of study concerned with various mental processes people experience and use in all aspects of life.
devoted to the study of all aspects of sport, recreation, exercise/fitness, and rehabilitative behavior.
the relationship between psychological factors and the physical rehabilitation process.
concerned with psychological processes related to health and health care and is therefore not limited to the health behavior of exercise.
the interrelationships of behavioral, physical, and psychological factors in the understanding of healthful living and the treatment of illness, disease, and disability.
exercise psychology can help understand the...
antecedents (presursors) of exercise
beginning stage of an exercise regimen
maintaining an exercise regimen for a prolonged period of time following the initial adoption phase.
_____ effects are short and _____ effects are long.
The benefits of physical activity
-improved physiological health
-enhanced physical appearance
-improved psychological functioning
-improved social relations
negative views towards exercise
-convenience and availability
-lack of time
history of leisure time dates back to
3000 years ago (ancient greece flourished)
Fitness craze of when brought about exercise psychology as we know it today
1970's and 80's
What factors resulted in the academic pursuit of sport and exercise psychology?
-emphasis on the body and appearance
-heightened level of stress
-responsibility for well-being
How can we learn more about exercise psychology?
-Primary and secondary education
-Fitness and wellness
"me thinks that he moment my legs begin to move, my thoughts begin to follow" - Henry david thoreau
"by too much sitting still the body becomes unhealthy, and soon then mind" - Henry wadsworth Longfellow
____ have resulted in several initiatives aimed at addressing this trend
abysmal participation rates
what is physical activity epidemiology?
the need to understand participation rates and why people exercise in order to form effective interventions - something that falls under the domain of physical activity epidemiology
what are the 5 w's of epidemiology?
who exercises, where, when, and why they do so and what they do?
how is physical activity measured?
Guidelines for physical activity (ACSM Guidelines)
moderate or vigorous exercise for at least 30 min. 3-5 sets per stretch for each major muscle group
Adult patters of physical
-sedentary patterns identified in many industrialized nations, though the rates vary
-generally speaking, most people in industrializednations do not get the recommeneded levels of physical activity.
-is some evidence, though, that activity rates are increasing.
relationship between age and physical activity
-in general, people become less active as they age
-among youth, though, there are alarming rates of inactivity
-numbers do not necessarily improve over one's lifetime
-finally activity in childhood are not related to physical activity as an adult..
Relationship between gender and physical activity
-men historically more active than women, though gap has narrowed over time (shaped by cultural norms and expectations about gender and sport)
-Gender linear relationship between income and physical activity rates.
Relationship between race and physical activity.
trend toward lower physical activity rates among racial minorities
Relationship between income level and physical activity
general linear relationship between income and physical activity rate
Relationship between education level and physical activity.
large differences between differences in activity levels based on level of education. (also influenced by parents education level.)
relationship level between physical disabilities and physical activity
-persons with physical disabilities unlikely to get needed exercise
-not due to a lack of desire
-Important to address given the number of persons with disability.
(23% active 20 min 3 days/week)
Physically active people generally _____ their less active counterparts. (best illustrated by)
San Francisco Longshoreman study
harvard University Alumni Study
Simply a visual representation of a phenomenon or behavior.
-explanation of the model
-Provides indications fo what, why, where, when, and how phenomena occur
-Provide advantages relative to trial and error approaches
Rooted in notion of motivation
- The degree of determination, drive, or desire with which an individual approaches behavior
-can be intrinsic or extrinsic
Motivation predicted on the individuals expected behavioral outcome and on the value (or importance) the individual placed on that predicted outcome.
Social cognitive approach to exercise
behavior based on human cognition (expectations, intentions, beliefs, attitudes) and external stimuli (social pressures, experiences of others)
Self Efficacy is influenced by 4 factors
-Physiological and affective states
Measuring self efficacy
-examine the level and strength of the self efficacy
-paper and pencil questionnaire
From theory to application
use the predictors of self efficacy in practice
Potential limitations of Self-efficacy theory
predictive of novel behaviors; might not be applicable for understanding adherence to exercise
Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior
-Originally designed to understand voting behaviors
-intention seen as most proximal antecedent of actual behavior
-intentions predicted by attitudes and subjective norms
what did the TRA not take into account
some behaviors present significant challenges or barriers.
Perceived behavioral control
degree to which one has personal control over the behavior in question
Self determination theory.
people are assumed to possess three needs...
self determination specifies three forms of motivation capable of driving achievement behaviors...
Motivation can be...
global, contextual, or situational
Stimulus response theory
skinner (1953) suggested that while atnecedants (bell) can induce behavior, it is better to impact the consequences (sticker example)
there are 4 types of reinforcement
what are the relationships between the 4 types of stimulus-response theory
positive reinforcement >increase exercise
negative reinforcement>increase exercise
limitation of stimulus-response theory
-does not take into account cognition
-reinforcements can be overused
Integrative approaches: Transtheoretical model
-integrates elements from across different theories
what are the 5 stages that people progress through (transtheoretical model)
Movement through the different stages of transtheoretical model involve changing what?
how people think about exercise
how people think about themselves
aspects of the environment that influence behavior
Experiential processes (interventions)
-focused on increasing peoples awareness of, and changing their thought about, both themselves and their exercise behavior
-consists of behaviors that a person undertakes in order to change aspects of the environment that may affect PA.
Limitations of the transtheoretical model
good for disecting where people are, but not good at predicting if they will be able to move from one stage to another; also not predictive of backsliding; also people skip stages sometimes, and the theory does not account for that.
Social ecological models
takes into account that people live in larger systems, all of which influence behaviors and attitudes
The social ecological model limitations
very expensive and time consuming.
the real or imagined pressure to change one's behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs
social support is...
the perceived comfort, caring, assistance, and information that a person receives from others
social support is conceptualized in two ways
size of the social network
amount and type of support provided
what are the types of support that can be provided?
the extant research pertaining to social support and exercise
suggests that the type of support needed depends on what type of exercise and how long the person has been exercising.
Partner support - Positive effects
consistent, could be due to similar exercise habits, this is important for mothers with young children
there are potential downsides to family support
the physician-despite the importance people place on their physician's advice, activity counseling occurs during less than how much of the time
less than half
cohesion among the group members can significantly impact exercise outcomes, such as enjoyment and adherance
the composition of the group also impacts exercise outcomes
similarity to others
group member enthusiasm
Exercise group - co-exercisers
-when people believe that they are being watched they try harder
-society also influences exercise behaviors through norms and stereotypical beliefs
exercisers should be encouraged to consider theirs
social support needs and preferences
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