HISTAM 402 Thursday, January 22, 2009 STATE FORMATION IN ARCHAIC PERIOD CITIZENSHIP Polis ? originally meant fortified settlement Borrowed old term to apply to new way of life Poiltes ? members of a polis ?tes? is an occupational suffix Hopli?tes? ? it is their job to carry out the position of hoplite Poie?tes? ? it was their job to create poetry Defined not only your job, but who you were It was their job to make the polis fortified In Sparta there were ?now walls? b/c the soldiers were those walls Greece was a martial culture (fought all the time) Celebrated martial virtue above all other virtue (heroism) Military heroism was really the only way to gain citizenship CATEGORIES OF CITIZENSHIP Political Economical (Technology ? Age of Iron) Social (Social structure ? Hesiod doesn?t like this) Culture (Women in culture) STATE FORMATION OF SPARTA Sparta ? 900-750 Bce was similar to many Greek communities Eurodis Furrow (fertile, surrounded by mountains) Narrow aristocratic oligarchy ? many princes and aristocrats, dual-Kingship Artistic people ? pieces with high artistic quality This ends later on Population boom Conquered land of neighbors to make room, erased their polis, colonized the neighbors, especially to the South (this was unusual) Conquered Mycenaea and turned natives to helots (captured people) ? they weren?t quite slaves, but were owned by Spartan state Used helots as manpower (Helots outnumbered Spartans 7 to 1) Helots always identified as Mycenaeans, never lost this connection as polites They had certain rights, but weren?t close to being full citizens ? had to continue farming land, but didn?t own it any longer This all transformed Sparta to the classic conquering state we know today This took their focus from arts and culture to becoming a professional standing army ?Athenaios? ? an Athenian ?Spartiates? ? a Spartan (It is your JOB to be a Spartan) Sparta was a ?different? kind of polis ?Idiotes? ? Spartans who stay at home/don?t take part SPARTAN MILITARY Spartans focused on military duties Were given areas of land, had to contribute certain amounts of food to the common ?mess? to feed all (lost citizenship if didn?t do this) Had 2 kings ? had religious and military responsibilities ? develop policies, judiciary Usually in Greece, ?reductrum ad sacra? ? stripped of everything except for religious duties, but not Sparta Spartan Kings had religious rights, as well as control of military, developing foreign and domestic policies Was hereditary, came from 2 families Couldn?t test paternity, and a way to discredit a man was to claim he was a bastard child Men were often concerned that sons may not be theirs because women had much more freedom than in other Greek poleis Ephors ? served as checks on kings Didn?t have much power in the beginning, but grew Were chosen Came from families of not very high standing usually Kings had to work with them to create policy and accompanied the kings on campaign to watch them Had judicial powers with kings Apella ? voted on policy the ephors and kings came up with ? approved and voted by volume usually The Gerucia ? ?council of old people? Given strong judicial powers Spartans are known for being the only standing army in Greece Weren?t identified with agrarian activities Had time to constantly drill and prepare for warfare Prepared making formations quickly Were hesitant about going too far from home, although they were war-minded Helots couldn?t be left at home ? might rebel, and also couldn?t take enough supplies to go long distances Also hesitant to fight because very aware of dangers and hazards BASICS OF SPARTA Began as aristocratic oligarchy (ruled by the few) ? ends the same Includes ephors now More territory, more land and citizens Moved focus from arts to warfare Religion remained very important 6th Century ? height of Spartan population ? 8-10,000 people STATE FORMATION AT CORINTH Monarchy in the Dark Ages Early Archaic ? Bacchiad Oligarchy (aka aristocratic oligarchy) Large population boom Chose to colonize (much sea-travel) Used this to get rid of disgruntled aristocrats - send off to head colonization expeditions Established colonies in the west This doesn?t fix all land problems In 7th century oligarchy is overthrown Tyranny (King who has no constitutional background) NO negative associations with tyranny that we know of in that time like we know it today Kipsolis ? fixed land problems, drew on the strength of many unhappy citizens His son, Periander, lead colonizations to west Founded colonies that were lead by people selected by him They weren?t truly a part of the Corinthian polis, but had closer relationships than normal Kipsolid tyranny didn?t last very long Overthrown, moderate oligarchy established Certain families (5-10,000 adult males) were a part of this Basic progressions Kings ? aristocratic oligarchy ? tyranny ? broad oligarchy Didn?t have to become a military state to solve these land issues STATE FORMATION OF THEBES Boiotians - migrated SE-ward, probably pushed Agrarian people from the Balkans Pushed into central Greece? typical explanation Settled on Boiotian Plain, small villages One village ? Thebes Thebes Had been a palatial kingdom in Bronze Age Took over the site and established narrow oligarchies Boiotians remained closely connected, all struggled to become the capitol of Boiotian confederacy of poleis They all want to work together in their centralized government structure In beginning, Thebes was not especially important Thebes soon creates idea of quasi-capitol and fought to gain more control of the federation than other poleis in the federation STATE FORMATION OF ATHENS Narrow aristocratic oligarchy Population boom, but not a big colonizer (or sailors) Land was closely concentrated, citizens had trouble growing food This difficulty made a lot of them develop debt and go into slavery In early 6th century, Solon selected to solve the problems in Athens Cancelled all debt, redistributed land and settled boundary disputes between Athenians Membership in oligarchy determined by how much produce your land produced Each class was given certain duties Hoplites and other duties Solon?s policies don?t last very long ? tyranny His policies were too moderate to please anyone Progression: Tyranny ? oligarchy ? democracy
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